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Full text of "Ayeen Akbery; or, The Institutes of the Emperor Akber"

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AYE EN AKBERY; 

OR, THE 

INSTITUTES 

OF 

THE EMPEROR AKBER. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL PERSIAN 
By FRANCIS GLAD W IN. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

Printed by O. Avld, Greville Street, 

FOR J. SEWELL; VIRNOR AND HOOD; J. CUTHELL ; J. WALKER; 
LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; OTRIDGE AND SON; 
R. LEA } R. FAULDER ; AND J. SCATCHERD. 

1800. 









J M 






TO 

THE HON. WARREN HASTINGS, ESQ. 

GOVERNOR GENERAL, 
Ufc &c 

THIS WORK 

(tranflatcd under his Patronage) 
IS MOST HUMBLY DEDICATED 
BY HIS MOST OBLIGED 
AND DEVOTED HUMBLE SERVANT, 

THE TRANSLATOR, 
Calcutta, Sep, i/I, 1783. 



THE 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



THE Emperor Jilaleddcen Mahommed 
Akbcr, to whole regulations for the go- 
vernment of Hindofian and patronage ot 
the author, the world is indebted for the 
following Work, was the fixth in defcent 
from Timur, known in Europe by the 
name of Tamerlane. He was born in 
Amerkote in A. D. 1542; was proclaimed 
Emperor in 1556, being then thirteen folar 
years and four months old ; and he died in 
Agra in 1605, aged fixty-three years and 
one day, having reigned forty-nine years 
eight months and one day. His body lies 
interred in a magnificent maufoleum in the 
cemetery of Sccundra, near that city. 



a 4 



He 



Y1U TRANSLATORS PREFACE. 

He was univcrfally efteemed a great and 
a good prince ; and was very fuccefsful, 
having in his reign made fcveral conquefts, 
and reduced to obedience almott all Hin- 
doftan, which had revolted under his father 
and predecellbr Hemaioon. 

It is needlefs for me here to enter into a 
detail of the excellencies of Akber's govern- 
ment, as his political talents and unremitting 
attention to the happinefs of his fubjecls will 
belt appear from the regulations he eftab- 
lifhed in every department of the empire. 
]Nor mould it be conlidered as a weak part 
of his character, that he wimed to be re- 
garded as one who was under the influence 
of divine inspiration* lince it is not un- 
reafonable to fuppofe that his motives for 
endeavouring to inculcate this notion were 
purely political. 

His liiltory has been written with great 
elegance and precision by his vizier Abul- 
fazel, down to the forty-feventh year of the 
reign ; at which period that great man was 
murdered by fomc banditti, on his return 
from the Deccan, whither he had been de- 
puted 



TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. IX 

puted by the Emperor upon fome weighty 
bufinefs. Abulfazel's hiftory was published 
under the title of Akbernameh, to which 
the Aye en Akbery is a kind of fupplc- 
ment, although in itfelf a complete work. 

Mahommed Sherecf Motamed Khan, the 
author of the Ekbalnameh Jehangeery, 
who wrote only fifteen years after the death 
of Akber, gives in his preface the follow- 
ing character of Abulfazel's hiilory : " To 
" the learned it is well known that Alamy 
" Sheikh Abulfazel, by the command cf the 
" Emperor Jilaleddeen Mahommed Akber, 
" wrote the hiftory of that monarch, from 
" the commencement of his reign till the 
" time of his own death, and which he 
" entitled Akbernameh. It is compofed 
" of three volumes. The firft volume 
" conliits of a fummary account of the 
" Emperor's anceliors. The fecond volume 
" comp riles the occurrences of Akber's 
" reign, from his acceilion to the throne 
" down to the forty-feventh year. And 
" this volume is divided into two parts: 
" the nrit part contains the iirft thirty 
" years ; and ihc fecond part begins with 

the 



X TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

" the thirty-firft year, and concludes with 
u the forty ieventh, the time of the au- 
'- thor's death The third volume is the 
11 Emperor's institutes (or the Aye en 
" Akbery). The whole of the firft to- 
" lume, and the firft part of the fecond 
<f volume, are written in modern language : 
" but, in the fecond part of the fecond vo- 
" lume, and throughout the whole of the 
" third volume, he endeavoured to write in 
" the ftile of the earlieft Perfian authors 
" after Mahommed ; which is not only harm 
" and unpleafing to the ear, but cannot 
i€ be read or comprehended by the gene- 
" rality of readers without great difficulty." 

I have made this quotation, not with a 
view of arrogating to myfelf a fuperiority 
of knowledge in oriental literature, being 
perfectly fenfible of my own infufficiency, 
but merely to bring proof of the difficulties 
I have had to encounter in tranllating an 
author who in this part of his work is un- 
commonly obfeure, from having adopted a 
flyle that was almoft obfolete two centuries 
ago. And I trull I mail hereby fecure 
myfelf the candour and indulgence of all 

thofe 



translator's preface. xi 

thofe who are capable of forming a juft 
criticifm on my arduous undertaking. 

I have rather avoided rendering this Tranf- 
lation ftridly literal, that I might not difguft 
the reader ; but, at the fame time, I have 
endeavoured, to the bell of my abilities, to 
make the author fpeak in fuch a manner as 
I conceive he would have done had he 
written in Englifh ; never taking the liberty 
to obtrude any exprefiion that is not to be 
found in the original, nor omitting any thing 
that can be deemed in the imalleft degree 
effential to the grand defign of the work. 
In the original, every regulation is intro- 
duced by a prolufion of fulfome and la- 
boured prailes of Akber, which to an Eng- 
lifh reader would be infufFerable ; and there- 
fore I have generally fupprcfl'ed them. I 
have alio entirely omitted Fizee's poem 
of about 6~oo couplets, in particular com- 
mendation of every perlbn who at that time 
held even the fmalleft office at court ; as, 
from the insignificancy of the fubjecl, it 
would have made but a poor figure in 
Englifh profe. 



In 



XII TRANSLATORS PREFACE. 

In a work which is intended merely for 
Engliih readers, I have not thought it right 
to pay any regard to the mode in which 
D'Herbelot and other European foreigners 
have written oriental names; but have en- 
deavoured to fpell them in fuch a manner 
as may lead an Englifhman, as nearly as pof- 
fible, to pronounce them as they are fpoken 
in Hindoftan. It is only neceflary to remark 
here, that the letter a is always to be pro- 
nounced broad, as in the words Pally Hall, 
&c. The other vowels and the diphthongs 
need no illuftration. 

To every one who wifhes to be pofleiTed of 
an authentic account of the conftitution of 
the empire of Hindoftan, and of its immenfe 
refources and expenditures, under the reign 
of one of its moll powerful monarchs, the 
following volumes cannot fail of being ac- 
ceptable ; and even thofe who read merely 
for general amufement or inftrudion, will, 
it is hoped, find ample fatisfadlion in pe- 
rufing the geographical and hiitorical parts 
of the work. 



The 



TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. XUl 

The Governor- General honoured the Work 
fo far as to prefent to the Board the Pro- 
pofals for publifhing it, with the Translator's 
requeft, that they would afford it their pa- 
tronage by fubfcribing for the number of 
copies which the Court of Directors have 
always taken of every publication tending 
to promote oriental literature. And at the 
fame time the Governor-General wrote the 
following 

Minute of the Honourable the Governor- 
General, on the intended Publication of 
a Translation of Ayeen Akbery, by Mr. 

Francis Gladwin. 

Fort-William ConfuJtation, id June y 17&3. 

The Governor-General ventures to recommend 
Mr. Glad win' j Work to the patronage of the 
Board, as being, hi his judgment, mojl worthy 
of fuch encouragement, and of the acceptance of 
the refpeclable 1 ay for whofe ufe it is primarily 
intended. 

Though every branch of Indian literature will 
prove a valuable acqui/ition to the flock of Euro- 
pean knowledge, this work will be found peculiarly 
fo, as it comprehends the original conjlitutiou of 

the 



XIV TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

the Mogul empire, defcrlbed tinder the immediate 
infipecliou of its founder ; and will fcrve to afjifl 
the judgment of the Court of Directors on many 
points cf importance, to the fiirfl interefils of the 
Company. It will fhew where the meafures of 
their a dmimfit ration approach to the fir ft principles , 
which perhaps will be found fiuperior to any that 
have been built on their ruins, and certainly mofil 
cafiy, as the mofil familiar to the minds ofi the peo- 
ple, and when any deviation from them may be 
likely to counteract or to afpmilate with them. 

The Governor- General thinks it proper to add, 
that having feen and approved a fipecimen of the 
Tranjlation above a twelvemonth ago, he advified 
Mr. Gladwin to profiaite it ; and he therefore 
thinks it incumbent on him to afford this ajjijlance 
to the publication, and the more efipecially as he 
has Jince fieen the Tranjlation in its progrefis, and 
much approves ofi it. 

Ofi the fuccefis with which it has been executed, 

the Members of the Board will be able to judge 

for themf elves from a few fibeets which have been 

already printed^ and which he has obtained from 

Mr. Glad win for their infipedtion. 

A true copy of the Minute. 

(Signed) J. P. JURIOL, 

bECRETARY. 



translator's preface. XV 

The Board aliented to the Governor-Ge- 
neral's recommendation ; but a ftrict line of 
economy having been adopted, with which 
this expence might have been deemed 
incompatible, the tranllator requeued that the 
fubfeription of the Company's name might 
be withdrawn. The private generolity, how- 
ever, of the Governor-General interpofed, 
to indemnity him for this difappointment. 

The Prefident and Members of the Board 
of Trade, through their Secretary, were 
pleafed to fignify to the Tranllator their ap- 
probation of his work, and took the trouble 
to circulate the propofals, with recommenda- 
tions to ail the officers in their department. 

Here are fubjoined copies of their Secre- 
tary's notification of the Board's refolution, 
and the circular letter written to the Com- 
mercial Chiefs and Refidents. 

To Mr. Francis Gladwin. 
Sir, 

By order of the Trfidcnt and Members of the 
Board of Trade, 1 have the pJeafure to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of your letter of the 2d infant, 
indofing propofals for publi/hing an Englifh 
Tranfation of the Aye en .Akbery, 

The 



XVI TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

The fenfe they entertain of the general utility 
of the Work, engages them to afford it every encou- 
ragement in their power, and, upon thefe grounds, 
they have circulated copies of the propofals to the 
fever al flations and offices in their department, 
•with their recommendation to the gentlemen in the 
Company sferz>ice employed in them. 

In their public capacity they do not think it 
confiflent to fubferibe for any number of copies of 
the publication on the part of the Company. They 
have rejolved, however, to recommend it to the 
Honourable the Court of Directors, to authorize 
them to take fifty upon this footing, for the 7ife of 
the fervants in their department, in addition to 
the copies already fubf crib ed for by the Honour- 
able the Governor -General and Council. In the 
mean time, in tefiimony of their fenfe, as indivi- 
duals, of the merit of the Work, I have the 
pleafure to notify to you their fubf cription in that 
capacity for eleven copies, 

I am, Sir, 

Commemd-Houfe, Your mo J obedient fervant, 

sth July !78:j. (Signed) R. Kexnaway. 

Secretary. 



t.vd. F. L. G. 



The 



TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. XY11 

The Circular Letter from the Board of Trade 
to the Commercial Chiefs and Residents. 

Sir, 
Mr. Francis Gladwin having fent us the ac- 
companying Propofals for publijhing an Engli/b 
Tranjlation of the Ayeex Akbery, — the fenfe 
we entertain of the general utility of the Work to 
every one employed in the Company s fervice, in- 
duces us to recommend them to your fupport, and 
to requefl you will afford them your recommendation 
to the Gentlemen of your flat ion. 

Commercial- Houfe, JPe are, 

8th July, 1783. 

&C. &C. 



Vol. T. b the 



THE 

AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD ! 



Lord ! all thy myfteries are impene- 
trable ! 

Unknown are thy beginning and thy end 1 

In thee both beginning and end are loft. 

The name of both is loft in the maniions 
of thy eternity ! 

It is fufficient that I offer up my thankf- 
giving, and meditate in aftoniftiment ! 

b 2 My 



xx author's preface. 

My eeitalY is fufricient knowledge of 
thee ! 



He is the moil commendable who ftrives 
to perform meritorious actions, rather thai 
how to utter fine i'peeches ; and who, by 
delineating a few of the wonderous works 
of the Creator of the world, acquires im- 
mortal felicity. 

Abul Fazel Mobarck returns thanksgiving 
to the Almighty, by tinging the praifes of 
royalty; and, for the inftruction of thofe 
w r ho fearch after knowledge ami prudence, 
he records a few of the inftitutcs. of the 
Lord of the world * ; thus tranfmitting unto 
all ages a model of wifdom. Since the flim 
of his intentions is to fet forth the laws of 
royalty, it is neceifary that he fpeak fome- 
thing of its exalted dignity, ,and defcribe 
the conditions of thofe who are afliitants 
in this great office. 

Some with cheerfulnefs take the road of 
obedience, by th« light of the king's juftice ; 

* Meaning Akber. 

whilfl 



AUTHOR S PREFACfc. XXI 

whilft others, through fear of punifliriient; 
abttain from violence, and out of neceflity 
make choice of the path of rectitude. 

'hey call him King who furpafTes his 
( a 8, and who, by his wifdom, is acquaint- 
e with the temperament of the world, and 
regulates his actions by the flate thereof. Out 
of the abundance of his patience he doth not 
depart from his ftation at the tight of any 
impropriety ; neither is he difcouraged at an 
inconiiderate rebellion. By his liberality the 
hearts of the high and of the low obtain 
their del; res ; Co that the needy never wait in 
painful expectation. He is perfectly refigned 
to the will of God ; being confident of the 
equity of the divine difpenfations. He is not 
dejected in adverlity ; and in profperity he 
doth not neglect to return thanks unto 
God. He putteth the reins of deiire into 
the hands of reafon, and will not lofe him- 
felf in feekihg after what is improper. He 
keepeth his anger under the fubjection of 
wifdom, to the end that blind rage may not 
get the upper hand, nor inconfideratenefs 
carry aught beyond its limits. He feateth 
himleif on the eminence of humanity, that 

b 3 thoie 



XXU AUTHORS PREFACE. 

thofe who have fvverved from their duty 
may have a way left to return, without 
being expofed to ignominy ; and in his be- 
haviour there is fuch condefceniion, that the 
petitioner feems to be the judge, and himfelf 
the mitor for juftice. He confiders the hap- 
pinefs of his people as the belt, means of 
pleafing the Creator ; but he never feeks to 
pleafe the people in contradiction to reafon. 
He is ever fearching after thofe who ipeak 
truth, and he is not difpleafcd with words 
that are bitter in appearance but fweet in 
efFecl. He confiders the nature of the fpeech 
and the rank of the fpeaker. He is not con- 
tented in that folely himfelf doth not commit 
violence, but he fees that no injuilice is com- 
mitted within his realm. He is continually 
attentive to the health of the body politic, 
and applies remedies to the feveral difeafes 
thereof. 

: And in the fame manner that the juil 
temperature of the animal constitution is 
produced by a fit mixture of the elements, 
fo alfo doth the political constitution become 
well tempered by a proper diftribution of 
ranks ; and by means of the pure rays of un- 
animity 



AUTHOR S PREFACE. Xxiil 

animity and concord, a multitude of people 
become one body; and the people of the world 
may be divided into four kinds : Warriors, 
in the political body, have the nature of fire, 
whofe flames, guided by reafon, deftroy the 
flraw and rubbiih of rebellion and ftrife. 
The artificers and merchants hold the place 
of air, as from their labours and travels the 
bleflings of God become univerfal, and the 
breeze of contentment gives vigour and frefli- 
nefs to the tree of life. The learned, fuch as 
the philofophcr, the phyfician, the arithme- 
tician, the geometrician, and the attronomer 
are like water, refrefliing the world with the 
llreams of art and fcience. Huibandmen and 
labourers rcfemblc earth, and by their exer- 
tions the capital ftock of life is completed i 
coniequently, a king is a perfon who, having 
put each of thefe in their proper place, ftrives 
to make the world flourim, and regulates the 
degree of truft by the degree of ability, when 
certainly confuiion will hide its head in non- 
existence ; for this mixture will produce a due 
temperament. 

And as the grand political body is tem- 
perately adjufted by four kinds of men, fo 
b 4 likewise 



XXIV AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

likewise is the royal palace. The army, re- 
gardlefs of themfclves, make no account of 
their lives in the field of battle ; and thefe 
fortunate men are in the king's court, in the 
place of fire, being the cnlighteners of the 
hearts of his friends, and the deltroyers of 
his enemies. At the head of this number is 
the vakeel, who has acquired wifdom in the 
fourth degree of perfection. He is the em- 
peror's lieutenant in all matters ; and by his 
management and penetration the grand affairs 
of the nation are let in order: promotion and 
degradation, appointment and difmiffion, de- 
pend on his good pleafure ; therefore he mull 
pofTefs great experience, wifdom, nobility of 
mind, honelty, liberality, and confummate 
patience ; he mull: entirely diveft himfelf of 
prejudice, and behave with equal complacency 
towards relations, ftrangers, friends, and ene- 
mies. He mult, be eloquent, intelligent in 
buiineis, a fpeakcr of truth, well-bred, capable 
of giving advice, faithful, vigilant, and long- 
lighted. He mould be well verted in the 
arts of government, and be privy to the 
iecrets of the ltate, that in buiineis there may 
be no obltruction. He mould not fuiTer his 
mind to be diffracted by the multiplicity of 

his 



AUTHOR S PREFACE. XXV 

his affairs, but fliould consider it as his duty 
to promote the whiles of others. All his 
actions fliould be founded on the bails of in- 
tegrity and a due regard to the different ranks 
of men. Delirous of attaching to himfelf the 
hearts of all perfons, he treats even his in- 
feriors with refpeel. He takes care not to 
commit impropriety in converfation, and 
guards himfelf from bad actions ; and al- 
though he is not the immediate fuperin- 
tendent of the finances, yet as the heads of 
all the offices make their reports to him, it is 
necelfary that he be himfelf acquainted with 
the particular duty of each. The meer mahl, 
the keeper of the leal, the meer bukhfliy, the 
youbeghy, the kourbeghy, the meer tuzek, 
the meer behr, the meerber, the meer munzil, 
the khanfalar, the moonfhy, the koofkbeghy, 
and the akhtah beghy * are included in this 
divilion. 

The arliitants of viclorv, the collectors of 
the revenues, and thofe who are entrufted 
with the management of the receipts and 
difburfements of government, refemble wind : 

* All thefc offices arc explained in the courfc of the work. 

either 



XXXI AUTHORS PREFACE. 

either a heart- rejoicing breeze, or a hot pcfti- 
lcntial blaft. The head of this divifion is the 
vizier, whofe office is equivalent to that of 
tlcwan. He is manager of the finances, 
grand-treafurer, and accomptant. He muft 
be a perfon of diltinguilhed worth, fkilful in 
arithmetic, free from avarice, circnmfpecl and 
abftinent, active in bufinefs, and poflefled of 
a pleating and clear ft vie of writing; a fpeakcr 
of truth, of ftricl: honeily, with an agreeable 
manner ; and he ihould avoid precipitancy in 
bufinefs. He is alio the recorder and keeper 
of the archives. He explains many intricate 
points of bufineis that happen to the muftofy ; 
and whatever is beyond his ability is referred 
to the vakeel. The mufiofy, the writers of 
the waflc-book and of the journal, the meer 
faman, the fuperintendent of the offices, and 
the devvan of the offices ; together with the 
muihreffof the treafury, the wakeh navces, 
and the aumil of the khaifah, are under his 
orders, and act by the force of his wifdom. 
Some princes reckon the vizaret a part of the 
vakalet ; and fometimes, from not being able 
to find a perfon qualified for the office of 
vakeel, they make choice of fome one who 
has a tafie of his qualities, whom they appoint 

mufhrefF 



A"THOR S PREFACE. XXVll 

muflireff dewan ; and he is higher in rank 
than the dewan, and lower than the vakeel. 

The companions of the prince, whofe ad- 
vice he follows in affairs of moment, refemblc 
water. When they are of a mild tempera- 
ment, they warn orF the dull of affliction from 
the hearts of the di(trefled,and diflufc fremnefs 
and delight ; but if they depart from mo- 
deration, they inundate the world with a 
deluge of calamity, fo that numbers are over- 
whelmed by the billowy waves of misfortune. 
At the head of thefe is the philofopher, who, 
by the depth of his wifdom and the found- 
nefs of his morals, itrives to infufe virtue 
into mankind. And the fuddcr, and the meer 
adel, the cazy, the phvlician, the aitrologer, 
the poet , and the foothfayer are of the number 
of thole fcrvants who adorn the portico of the 
kingdom, and are neceflarv for the fervice of 
the pretence. 

The menial fervants, who perform the 
duties about the royal perfon, are in the place 
of earth. If they are free from impurities 
and alloy, they are the elixir of the body; 
otherwife they are its deitru&ion. The 

lackeys, 



XXV111 AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

lackeys, thekewirehy, the fherbetdar, theab- 
dar, the tufhckchy, the kcrkerah, andfuch like, 
are included in tliis number ; and as the mo- 
narch adjuils the political body by a wile 
arrangement of ranks, lb is his court properly 
regulated by :i judicious mixture of thefe. 

The fages of ancient times have delineated 
the four elements of monarchy after the fol- 
lowing manner: lit, An upright intendant 
of the finances, who is the protector of the hui- 
bandman and all the fubjecls of the itate, and 
who incrcafes the revenues, by causing the 
kingdom to nouriih. sd, The commander in 
chief of the troops, who acquits himfelf to 
the iatisfaction of all. 3d, The chief juftice, 
free from corruption and avarice, who, feat- 
ing himfelf on the eminence of circumfpection 
aud invedigation, does his utmoft to come at 
the truth, and decides with Uriel impartiality. 
4th, An intelligencer, who will tranfmit the 
news of the world without addition or dimi- 
nution, being pollened of integrity and pene- 
tration. 

It is moreover incumbent on a king to 
make himfelf acquainted with the five kinds 

of 



AUTHOR'S IREFACE. XXIX 

of men of whom the world is compolcd : 
lit, Tiie molt commendable perlbn is he who 
makes choice of the propereit time for every 
bufinefs, and whole goodnefs benefits others* 
Such an one is the ritteft perlbn for a king 
to confult in the arrangements of government, 
sd, One wlio poflefles the fame abilities as the 
perlbn above deieribed, but who does not 
communicate benefit to others. Although it 
may be proper to lhow him kindneis and 
refpedt, yet he doth not merit any degree of 
confidence. 3d, A limple perlbn, who doth 
neither good nor harm. Although he be not 
worthy of greatnefs, yet he deferves to live 
at his cafe. 4th, The inconlidcrate man, 
who injures himfclf without hurting others. 
Him the king mould difappoint in his expecta- 
tions, and bring into the road of virtue by 
good advice and fevere reprehenfion. 5th, He 
whole nature is vicious, and whole bale 
conduct injures others. If advice and rep rc- 
honlion do not amend him, he mould be 
confined feparate from mankind ; and pro- 
vided this treatment doth not awaken him to 
a fenfe of his error, let him be banifhed the 
city ; and if even this doth not reform him, 
they mall deprive him of light and cut ofF 
his limbs ; but they may not take away his 

life. 



XXX AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

life. The lages considering the human form 
as the work of God, have not given permiffion 
for its deftruction. 

He is a juft king who, having followed 
the light of knowledge and penetration, hath 
made himfelf acquainted with the ranks of 
men, and regulates bulinefs accordingly : and 
from hence it is that the lages of ancient times 
have laid, Thofe are the moil illuftrious princes 
who mount the Heed of wifdom. — They ad- 
mit not into their fervice any low people, 
but always make choice of thoie whom they 
know to be worthy of the itation. They 
do not judge every one fit to be admitted to 
their prefence every day ; and thofe who are 
ib efpecially favoured as to have daily admit- 
ance, are not therefore deemed worthy of a 
near iiation ; neither is every one who is fit 
for a near itation to be admitted into their 
privacy : nor are alL thofe who are admitted 
into privacy allowed to be feated in the 
auguft afTcmbly ; and of thofe who are fo 
fortunate as to be permitted to lit in the 
augur! afTembly, every one is not to be treated 
with familiarity : nor are all familiar com- 
panions to have a place in the cabinet council 

of Hate affairs. 

Praife 



AUTHORS PREFACE. XXXi. 

Praife be unto God! the exalted monarch 
of our own time is fo endowed with thefe 
laudable difpofitions, that it is not exaggeration, 
to faj he furpafTes all the fages of antiquity : 
from the light of wifdom he difcovers the 
ranks of men ; and by the re&itude of his 
conducl he adds fplendour to his underltand- 
ing by the performance of laudable actions. 
Who is it that is able to meafure the extent 
of his virtues ? They are not only beyond ex- 
prefhon, but even exceed conception. It is 
better that I make not the attempt, but point 
out only a few intelligible wonders, by fetting 
forth his regulations for the houfehold., for 
the ordering of the army, and for the pros- 
perity of the kingdom ; upon which three 
things depend the glory of a monarch ; hereby 
preparing a rich gift for the intelligent who 
feek after knowledge. Thofe who are verfcd 
in ancient hirlory, wonder how kings of 
former times governed without fuch a wife 
rule of conduct. 

This fublime volume is arranged under the 
three above-mentioned heads, with a few 
grateful acknowledgements of favours re- 
ceived. 

TONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



OF THE 



FIRST VOLUME. 



Preface, 

TART L 



Page 

i 



CONTAINING REGULATIONS FOR THE 
DIFFERENT OFFICES. 

The Houfehold, - - I 

Royal Treafuries, - - -2 

Jewel Office, - - 4 

The Mint, - - 7 

Sojjie Account of the Immortal Corns, - 21 

Of Dirh cms and Dinars, - - 34 
An Account of the Profit which Mcrchayits 

gain by bringing Gold, Silver, and 

Copper to the Tint, - "3^ 

Vol. I. c Of 



XXXIV CONTENTS. 

Pagtf 

Of the Production of Metals, - 40 

Of the Specific Gravities of Metals, - 41 

The Haram, or Seraglio, - 45 

Of the Equipage for Jouniies, - - 47 

Regulations for the Encampment of the Army, 50 

Regulations for the Illuminations, - 51 

The Enjigns of Royalty, - "53 

Of the Royal Seals, - ~ ' 55 

Of the Camp Equipage, - "5° 

The Abdar Khaneh, - "59 

The Kitchen, - - - - 60 

The Sufyaneh, - - - 68 

Current Prices of Provifions, - -69 

The Fruitery, - - - 74 

37^ Perfume Office, - " " 79 

Flowers, - - - 85 

The Wardrobe, - - 9 1 

Shawls, - - - "94 

Current Prices of Manufactures, - 96 

T£<? Tufweer Khaneh, - -100 

The Painting Gallery, - - 104 

The Kowr Khaneh, - - - 105 



CONTENTS. 




XXXV 

Page 


A Table of Warlike Weapons, &c. 


- 


IO; 


The Artillery, 


- 


I09 


Rules obferved in making Fire-arms for 


his 




Majeflys XJJe, 


- 


110 


Barghu, 


- 


112 


The Ranks of the Royal Bundooks, 


- 


ibid. 


Pay of the Bundookchyan, 


- 


JI 3 


Feel Kha?ieh, or Elephant Stables, 




114 


Khafeh Elephants, 


- 


127 


Horfe Stables, 


- 


130 


Shuter Khaneh, or Camel Stables, 


- 


144 


Gaw Khaneh, or Ox Stables, 




155 


Of Mules, 


- 


156 


Manner in which his Majejly fpends 


his 




Time, 


- 


158 


Bar, or Times of Admiffion to the i?i 


oval 




Prefence, 


- 


161 


Koornifh and Tufleem, 


- 


162 


Of Spiritual Guidance, 


- 


163 


Of Mufters, 


- 


167 


Pow Gojbt, 


- 


172 



c 2 Regulations 



XXXVI CONTENTS. 



Page. 



Regulations for the Public Fights of 
Animals, - - - 173 

Regulations for Buildings, - " l 75 



PART II. 

CONTAINING REGULATIONS FOR THE 
MILITARY DEPARTMENT. 



The Army, 


^ 


187 


Regulations for the Cattle, 


- 


- 188 


Munfuhdars, 


- 


191 


The Ahdy, 


- 


204 


The other Cavalry, 


- 


- 205 


The Infantry, 


- 


206 


The Cheelah, 


- 


- 208 


Kahars, or Bearer^ 


- 


209 


The Pyadeh Dakhely, 


- 


- ibid. 


The Dagh, or Mark, 




2,10 


The Ktfbek, or Military 


Commands, 


212 

The 



CONTENTS. XXXVU 

Page 

The Office of Wakyahnavees, - - 213 

Of Sunmtdt, or Grants, - - 214 

The Ranks of Seals, - 2 1 8 

The Manner of receiving Pay, - 220 
Mufa-adet, or Aids granted to Military 

Officers, - - ibid. 

Donations, - - 22 1 

Alms, - ii/V. 

X£<? Ceremony of weighing the Royal 

Perfon, - - 222 

The Seyurghal, - - ^223 

Of Machines, - - 225 
Of the ten Seers of Grain exacted from every 

Beegah of Land, - - - 226 

Of Feflivals, .,* /&/'</. 

Khufhroz, or Days of Diverfion, 228 

Of Marriages, - ibid. 

Regidations for teaching in the Public 

Schools, - - - 2 jo 

The Office of Meer Behry, - - 231 

Of Hunting, &c. - - 234 

Of 



xxxviii 


CONTENTS. 


Page 


Of Hawking, 


«» "* 


- 244 


Oj Games, 


• R 


249 



PART III. 

CONTAINING REGULATIONS FOR TH7. 
REVENUE DEPARTMENT. 

OfMras, - - - 2$9 
A Table, &c. 

Of Tribute and Taxes, - - 278 
Ilahee Gnz, - - -281 

Tenab, - - - 284 

Beegah, or Jereeb 9 - - ibid. 
Of the Divifion of the Lands ; together 
with fome Account of the Revenues of 

Hindoftan, - - - 284 

Of the Nineteen Years Collections, - 292 

Of the Ten Years Settlement, - ibid. 

INSTRUCTIONS 



CONTENTS. XXXIX 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE OFFICERS. 

Page 

Sepahfillar, or Viceroy, - - 2,94. 

Foujdar, - 298 

Meer Abdul and the Cazy, - 300 

Cootwal, - ^ ibid. 

Amilgirzzar ', or Colleclor of the Re- 

ve fines, - - " S°3 

Tepukchy, - - 309 

Treafunr, - • 3 11 



AYEEN 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART I. 



CONTAINING 



REGULATIONS FOR THE DIFFERENT 
OFFICES OF GOVERNMENT. 



THE HOUSEHOLD, 



jOLE is of the nobleft chandler who fubdiieS his 
paflions,and behaves with propriety to all ranks of men. 
He who poilefTes not theie qualifications oughc not to 
engage in ftrife, but obferve a peaceable conduct. 

True greatnefs gives attention to the minutiae of 
bufinefs as well as to capital affairs ; he who hath not 
capacity to comprehend the whole, ought to make 
choice of one or two intelligent, diligent, and virtuous 
men, and be guided by their advice. 

The wife efteem not him a king who confines his at- 
tention to great affairs, becaufe fycophanrs «£b$und who 
Vol. i. B ftrive 



1 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

ftrive to place things in a falfe light, in order to preju- 
dice the virtuous, and thereby promote their own par- 
ticular interefts. The good prince refufes not his 
attention to the mod trivial points j and by the grace of 
God, he is able to attend both to his temporal and 
eternal concerns, like the king of our time, who, con- 
trary to the maxims of former monarchs (they having 
thought it derogatory to their greatnels) makes himfelf 
converfant with the particular duties of the feveral 
offices, and eftablifhes proper regulations for every 
department. 

The fucceis of this vaft undertaking depends upon 
two things : ift, Wifdom and forefight to difcover what 
is proper to be done : id, Committing the execution 
thereof to men of integrity. 

Notwithftanding many fervants of the houfehold re- 
ceive their falaries on the lift of the army, there was paid 
moreover on this account in the thirty-ninth year of the 
prefent reign, the fum of thirty crore, ninety-one /arks, 
eighty-fix thoufand and ninety-five Jams *. 

Both for the expences of the ftate and for the receipt 
of the revenues, there are upwards of one hundred 
offices, each refembling a city, or rather a little king- 
dom ; and by the unremitting attention of his majefty 
they are all conducted with regularity, and the revenues 
are encreaftng daily ; a few particulars whereof mall here 
be given for the ule of pofterity who may fearch after 
truth. 

ROYAL TREASURIES. " 

It H univerfally agreed, that the rioblefl employments 
are the reformation of the manners of the people, the 
advancement of agriculture, the regulation of the offices, 

■ •Or rupees, 77,29,652-15 Jams. 

and 



?ART I. AYFFN AKBERY. 3 

and the discipline of the army : and thefe defireable 
tnds are not to be attained without flu dying to pleafe 
the people, joined with good management of the finances, 
and an exact ceconomy in the expences of the itate ; 
but when all thefe are kept in view, every clafs of people 
enjoys profperity. 

When his majefty firft began to give a little attention 
to thefe weighty concerns, A tarried Khan, an eunuch 
of the royal palace, was dignified with befitting titles, 
and entrufted with his inmoft fecrets ; whereby a few of 
the royal intentions were gradually introduced into 
practice. 

The royal domains and the Jagheer lands were fe- 
parated, and a collector appointed over every crore -of 
dams, to each of whom a treafurer was appointed. And 
it was commanded that they ihould not infift upon the 
hufbandman paying coin of full weight ; but that in 
whatever fpecies the collections were made, an account 
thereof fhould be taken in writing, and be iealcd up 
with the money : and this laudable regulation relieved 
the Subjects from a variety of opprefiions. When this 
mode was eftablifhed, there was appointed a grand- 
treafurer, with a darogha and clerks. 

The following cuftom was alfo introduced : — When 
the provincial treafuries had accumulated the fum of a 
lack of dams, they fent the money to court; which, to- 
gether with their accounts, were delivered to the grand 
treafurer. 

There were alio appointed treafurers, and officers 
tinder them, for the peiflthu/k, for rever lions-, for offerings, 
and for the monies ufed in weighing the royal perfon, 
and for charitable donations. And to thole who had 
charge of the money for disbursements, was delivered, 

B 2 from 



4 AYEEN AKBERV. PART f. 

from the grand treafurer, whatever was requifite for 
their expences. 

In Iran and Turan there is only one treafurer, which 
neceflarily creates great difficulty in making inveftiga- 
tions ; but here the wealth is fo exceffive, and the 
bufinefs fo multiform and extenfive, that there are 
twelve treafuries : nine for the different kinds of fpecie, 
and three for the jewels, the plate, and inlaid work. 
Beiides which there are diftinct treafuries for every 
office, whole number is near one hundred ; and there 
are kept daily, monthly, quarterly, and yearly accounts 
of the receipts and difbui Cements. Alfo, by the com- 
mand of his majefty, a perfon of known integrity keeps 
ready in the bargahaum * fome gold and filver for the 
neceffitous, that their wants may be relieved without 
delay. Moreover, there are always ready in the palace 
a crore of dams, every thoufand of which are kept in 
bags, which they call fahfah , and thefe when heaped 
together are called a gitnge. 

Befides all thefe, there is a fum of money entrufted 
to fome of the nobility, part of which is always carried 
in a purfe, which they call behlah ; and from hence it 
arifes that this is ufually called curch behlah^ or the ex- 
pences of the purfe. This laft is likevvife one of his 
majefty's righteous inftitutions. Would to God he 
might live a thoufand years, for the happinefs of his 
people ! 

JEWEL OFFICE. 

To avoid prolixity, I (hall give only a few particulars 
of this department. 

His majeity appointed to this office a treafurer, 
a trfi/tkrUji, a darog/ia, and feveral fkilful jewellers 5 

* The public hall of the palace. 

and 



?ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 5 

and they clafied the jewels in the following man- 



ner 



RUBIES. 






ift cla/s, not lefs than ioo mohurs; id cla/s, from 
999 to 500 mohurs ; ^d cla/s, from 499 to 300 mohurs; 
4th cla/s, fiom 299 to 200 mohurs ; 5//; cla/s, from 199 
to 100 mohurs; 6th cla/s, from ninety-nine to fixty 
mohurs ; 7/// cla/s, from fifty-nine to forty mohurs , 
Sth cla/s, from thirty-nine to thirty mohurs ; 9//; cla/s, 
from twenty-nine to ten mohurs; 10/A cla/s, from nine 
and three-quarters to five mohurs; 11//; cla/s, from 
four and three quarters to one mohur ; 12M cla/s, from 
three quarters of a mohur to four rupees. 

They made no account of any that were fmaller. 

Diamonds, Emeralds, Topazes, and Sapphires, were 
clafied as follows : 

\Ji cla/s, thirty mohurs and upwards ; id cla/s, twenty- 
nine and three quarters to fifteen mohurs; $d na/s, 
fourteen and three quarters to twelve mohurs ; ^th cla/s, 
eleven and three quarters to ten mohurs; $th clafs, 
nine and three quarters to feven mohurs ; 6th cla/s, fix 
and three quarters to five mohurs ; ph cla/s, four and 
three quarters to three mohurs; 8//; cla/s, two and three 
quarters to two mohurs; gth cla/s, one and three 
quarters to one mohur; \oth cla/s, eight and three 
quarters to five rupees; wth cla/s, four and three 
quarters to two rupees ; 1 ith cla/s, one and three 
quarters to one quarter of a rupee. 

Pearls were flrung in fcores ; and here follows the 
value of each pearl : — 

\fi cla/s, thirty mohurs and upwards ; id cla/s, twenty- 
pine and three quarters to fifteen mohurs ; 3 d cla/s, 

B 3 fourteen 



6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

fourteen and three quarters to twelve mohurs ; 4//; clafs, 
eleven and three quarters to ten mohurs ; §th clafs, nine 
and three quarters to feven mohurs ; 6lk clafs, fix and 
three quarters to five mohurs; pli clafs, four and three 
quarters to three mohurs ; 8/// clafs, two and three 
quarters to two mohurs ; qth clafs, one and three 
quarters to one mohur ; 1 oth clafs, lefs than a rnohur 
down to five rupees ; 1 \th clafs, lefs than five rupees to 
two rupees; nth clafs, lefs than two rupees to one 
quarter rupee ; lph clafs, kfs than one and a quarter 
of a rupee to thirty darns; 14th clafs, lefs than thirty 
dams down to twenty dams ; \§fh clafs, lefs than twenty 
dams to ten dams -, 1 6th clafs, lefs than ten dams to half 
a dam. 

The above are ftrung upon a number of firings ac- 
cording to. the clafs, fo that thofe of the lad clafs are 
upon Sxteen firings ; and at the end of each bunch a 
feal is affixed, that they may not be unforted or ftolen. 

The following are the charges for boring peurls :— 
For boring a pearl of the 



lft Clafs, 


I chera 


9th Clafs, 


| dam. 


2d do. 


1 afliet 


1 oth do. 


one fifth 


3d do. 


l deffah 


nth do. 


one fixth 


4th do. 


3 dams 


1 2th do. 


one feventh 


5 th do. 


\fuky 


13th do. 


one eighth 


6th do. 


1 dam. 


14th do. 


one ninth 


7 th do. 


1 do. 


15th do. 


one tenth 


8th do. 


|do. 


1 6th do. 


one eleventh 



The value of the above jewels is fo well known, that 
it is needlefs to mention ir here ; but thofe which have 
fince come into his majefly's pofleffion are of the 
following rates : — 

Rubies, 



PART I. 


AYEEN AKBERY 








Weight 




Value of 




Tanks. Ruttees. 




each. 


Rubies, 


I I 20 - 


Rs. 


100,000 


Diamonds, 


-51 4 - 




100,000 


Emeralds, 


J 7* 3 - 




52,000 


Sapphires, 


- 4 71 .-: 




50,000 


Pearls, 


.50- 

THE MINT. 




50,000 



Providence has beftowed on men gold, filver, and 
copper, for the equitable adjuftment of their tranfactions 
vvirth each other ; and princes, in order to give currency 
to thofe metals, have cftablifhed mints, the fuccefs of 
which depends on the /kill and integrity of the officers. 

The officers of the mint are, ift, The darogha, who 
mull be a man of authority, knowledge, and integrity, 
to comprehend the whole, and keep every individual 
to the faithful difcharge of his duty. 

2d, A feraf, who is perfectly acquainted with the art 
of aflaying metals, and who will execute the bufinefs oi 
his office with honefty. In this glorious reign there arc 
numbers of ikilful ferafs ; and by the attention of his 
majefty, gold and filver are refined to the higheft degree 
of purity. 

In Perjia they do not know above ten degrees of 
finenefs, which they call dehees. In Hindojian they have 
twelve degrees, which they call barah barmy. Formerly, 
the old hun, which is a gold coin current in the Decan, 
they reckoned at ten bannees ; but his majefty has now 
fixed it at eight and three quarters : and the gold 
round dinar of Khofru AUaiy, which they received for 
twelve bannees > now turns out only ten and a half. 

Thofe who are experienced in the bufinefs, have 
written hiftories of this matter, and in their fables con- 

B 4 fider 



8 AY;.: '■ AKBERY. PART U 

fider this gold as the effect of alchymy ; for, fay they, gold 
ore does not come tip to this finenefs. They know 
not that when gold is put into fufion fmall particles 
feparate from it and mix with the allies, and that al- 
though the ignorant make no account of this, yet the 
ikilful recover the metal therefrom. Although gold ore 
be made malleable, is calcined,, and even reduced to 
allies, yet by a certain operation it is brought back to its 
original (tale with a little lofs. 

BUNWARY, OR THE TOUCH-NEEDLES, 

In this county i\\q fcrtifs know the degree of finenefs 
from the colour and brightnefs of the metal ; but for the 
fatisTaction of others this grand rule has been introduced : 
the bumi-dry is compofed of a number of bars of copper, 
or fuel} like metal, on the point of every one of which is 
fixed a fmall piece of gold, and the degree of purity 
written thereon. 

When they want to aiTay the newly imported gold, 
they draw on the touchftone a line of that and a line of 
the hmvvqry'y and by comparing them together they dis- 
cover the degree it is of. There ate alfo other methods 
of allaying gold. 

They mix one majhah of pure filver with the fame 
quantity of pure copper, and melt them together with 
fix ma /hubs of gold of ten bannees and a half ; then 
one niafluth of this compofuion is divided into fix- 
teen parts, every one of which will be half a rutty. 
Whenever feven and a \\a\truttees of this gold are mixed 
with one part of the composition, the touch thereof will 
be ten bannees and a quarter : and if feven rut tees of 
gold are mixed with two parts of the compofition, it 
becomes ten bannees, &c. as is fet forth in the following 
table : — • 



PART I. 



AYEEN AKEETIY. 



I of Bunny. 


IO Banny 9! Banny. 


9I Banny. 


Gold. Comp. 
Rutty R. 

?i of 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

7 1 


Grid. Comp. 

R. R. 
6f ij 


Gold. Comp. 

tf. R. 

6 2 


9I Banny. 


9 Banny. 


8| Banny. 


81 2&mn?. 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

Si ^i 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

5 3 


Gold. Comp. 
R. R. 

4i 3i 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

4 4 


8| Banny . 


8 Banny. 


7I Banny. 


7I Banny. 


Gold. Comp. 
R. R. 

Jl 4l 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

3 5 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

2 1 c 1 

^3 J) 2 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 
2 6 


7I Banny. 


7 Banny. 


6| Banny. 


61 Banny 


Gold. Comp. 

R. R. 

if 61 


Gold. Comp. 

#. R. 

1 7 


Gold. Comp. 

7l of 


Gold. Comp. 
R. R. 
8 



Summarily, every half rutty of the compofition leffens 
the bannce one-fourth ; and if it be required to lefTen 
the touch of the fix and a half Ihtnnec, which is entirely 
of the above compofition, they mix together half a rutty 
of copper and filver with feven ruftees and a half of this 
compofition, and this will leave fix bannees. And if a 
bafer mixture than this is wanted, add another half rutty of 
copper and filver, and take away half a rutty from thefe 
fix bannees. But in the bunwary they do not allay lower 
than fix bannees. 



3d, An aumcen, who is perfectly difinterefted, to pre- 
vent any one from acYing with difhonefty. 

4th, 



XO AYELN AKBERY. PART I. 

4tb, A muJJueff to write the wade-book, in which 
are entered the receipts and difburfemeius, and from 
whence the journal is formed. 

5th, The met chanty whofe bufinefs it is to buy gold, 
filver, and copper, to be coined, by which he gains a 
profit for himfelf and benefits the revenues of the ftate. 
And this trade will flourifli when the rulers are jult, and 
cot avaricious. 

6th, The treafurer, who watches over the flock of 
profit, and is upright in his dealings. 

The falaries of the darogha, aumeen, mujlirejf, and 
treajurer, differ from each other ; the feraf is paid by 
fees, and the merchant gains his own profit. 

7th, The •weighman, who weighs the coin. If he 
weighs 100 jilaly gold mohurs, he takes a fee of one dam 
and a half; for 1000 rupees in filver, fix dams and 
nineteen cheetels ; and for 1000 dams of copper he takes 
eleven cheetels ; and, after this rate, according to the 
quantity. 

8th, Mdter of the metal he/ore it is refined. He 
makes trenches of different fizes in a bed of clay, which 
he moiftens with oil, and pours into them the melted 
gold and filver, to call them into ingots. For copper, 
inflead of anointing with oil, he fprinkles the moulds 
with afhes. 

His- fees are, for the weight of 100 fuch gold mohurs, 
two dams and fifteen cheetels ; for 1000 rupees weight 
of filver, five dams thirteen cheetels and a quarter ; and 
for iooc dams of copper, four dams twenty-one cheetels 
and a half. 

9th, 



PARTI. AYEL.V AKEERY". II 

9th, The flatc-makcr. The adulterated gold fa* 
makes into plates ot fix or feven m.iJJmhs weight, and of 
fix fingers in length and breadth ; thefe'he carries to the 
aiTay- mailer, who meafures them in a mould made of 
copper, and then makes a ftamp upon them. His fees 
for each of iuch 100 gold mohurs, is roity-two Mann and 
three quarters. 

THE METHOD OF REPINING GOLD. 

When the above-mentioned plates have been (lamped, 
the owner of the gold, for the weight of every 100 gold 
mohurSy mud furnifti four feers of fait pet re, and the like 
quantity of new brick-dull ; which are to be ufed in the 
following manner i — 

The plates, after having been warned in water, are 
unratified with the above mixture, and the whole is 
covered with field cow-dung, which, in the Hindoltany 
language, is called ouplah. Then they fetfire to it, and 
let it burn gently till the cow-dung is reduced to a(bc*, 
when they leave it to cool ; then thefe afhes, being re- 
moved from the fides, are prelcrved. In Perfian, this is 
called klhik khelafs, and in Hindoitany,y<7owy ; and by 
a procefs which will be hereafter related, they recover 
filver from it. 

The plates then remain upon the allies that are un- 
derneath them, and twice again are covered with cow- 
dung in the manner before directed, and thefe allies are 
alfo preferved ; when after this manner three fires have 
been applied, they call it feet'thy. 

After that, the plates are again warned in clean water, 
and ftratified with the aforefaid mixture; which opera- 
tions muft be repeated till fix Gratifications and eighteen 
fires have been applied. 

Then the alTay-maiter breaks one of the plates ; and if 
there comes out a flat dead found, it is a fign of its being 

fumciently 



12 AYEEN AICBERY. PART r, 

fufnciently pure ; otherwife, it muft again be ftratified 
with the mixture, and undergo three more fires. 

Then from each of the plates is taken one ma/hah ; of 
which aggregate a plate is made and tried on the touch' 
Hone. If it is not fufficiently pure, it is ftratified once 
or twice more j but the defired effect is generally ob- 
tained bv four flratifications, 



THE FOLLOWING IS ALSO A METHOD OF 
ASSAYING. 

They take two tolahs of the above gold, and the like 
quantity of pure gold, and make eight plates of each, of 
equal weight. 

Then having ftratified the whole with the above- 
mentioned ingredients, and ht lire to them in the man- 
ner above directed, they wafh them clean; and if, upon 
weighing them with an exact balance, both kinds are 
found to be equal in weight, it is a proof of purenefs, 

toth, The melt er of the refined metal. He melts the 
refined plates of gold, and cafts them into round ingots. 
His fee for 100 gold mohurs is three dams. 

nth, The %crrah cuts from round ingots pieces of 
gold, filver, and copper, of the fize of the coin. His 
tecs are, for ioo gold mofyrs, twenty-one dams one 
fkeetel and a quarter ; for loofilver rupees, fifty-three 
dams eight chert els and three quarters ; and for 1 ooo 
rupees weight of four anna filver pieces, twenty-eight 
dams more. For iooo dams in copper he takes twenty 
- fee ; and for one half or one quarter dams, twenty- 
five dams; and for eighths, which are called dwnery y 
lixty-nine dams for ioo dams weight. It is furprifing, 
that in Iran and Turan they cannot cut thefe round 
pieces without an- anvil made on purpofe; and in Hin- 

doftan, 



J>ART I. AYEEK AKEERY. 13 

doftan, the workman without any fuch machine, performs 
this bufinefs with fuch exactness, that there is not the 
differ en cc of a fingle hair. 

1 2th, The feal- engraver. He engraves the die? of 
coins on fteel, and fuch like metals. At this day. 
Mollana Aly Ahmed of Dehly, who has not his equal 
in any Country, cuts different kinds of letters in fteel, in 
fuch a manner as equals the writing of the moft fkilful 
matters. He holds the rank oianjoozba/hv; and two of 
his men are in the mint, each of whom has a monthly 
falary of 300 Jams. 

13th, The fickchy places the round piece of metal 
between two dies ; and by the ftrength of the hammerer 
both fides are ftamped at one ftroke. His fees are, for 
100 gold mohursy one dam and ten cheeteh \ for 100 
filver rupees, rive dams nine cheeteh and a half j and for 
1000 filver rupees weight of fmall pieces, one ihim and 
three cheeteh more; for 1000 dams of copper, three 
dams; for 2000 \a\idams^ or 4000 quarters, three dams 
eighteen cheeteh and three quarters ; and for 8ooo 
eighths, tens dams and a half. And the Jickchy, out of 
his fees, gives one-fixth to the hammerer, for whom 
there is no further allowance. 

14th, The fubhak makes the refined filver into ingots ; 
and for every 1000 rupees weight, he take fifty-four d& 

Silver is alloyed with lead, tin, and copper. 

In Iran and Turan, the highefl degree of finenefs 
thereof is alfo called ten dehee. The ferafs of Hin- 
doftan call the higheft degree twenty Ivjzvah, and ac- 
cording to the alloy, it defcends in degree ; but it cannot 
be made lefs than five, and none is ufed bafer than ten. 
J he fkilful can difcover from the colour with what the 
f'iperficial part is alloyed ; and by t he file and punch, 

is 



14 AYEES' akelry. part I. 

is learnt the quality of the inlide. They alfo try it by 
heating it in the fire, when, upon throwing it into water, 
blacknefs denotes lead ; rednefs, copper ; a whitifh 
cinder-colour, tin ; and according as it is more or lefs 
white, the greater or lefs is the proportion of filver. 



THE METHOD OF REFINING SILVER. 

They dig a hole, and having fprinkled in it a fmall 
quantity of the afhes of field cow-dung, they fill it with 
ihe afhes of Bahool-wood, then they moiften it, and 
work it up into the fhape of a dim ur coppel ; into this 
they put the adulterated filver, together with an equal 
quantity of lead, after the following manner : id, They 
put with the filver a fourth part of the lead, and, fur- 
rounding the coppel with coals, blow the fire till the 
metals are melted : this operation they repeat as often 
as is neceflary ; but in moft inftances four times are 
required. The proofs of the metal being pure are, 
the brightnefs thereof, and its beginning to harden on 
the fides. When it is hardened in the middle they 
lprinkle it with water, when, if a flame ifTues from it, 
it is arrived at the defired degree of finenefs ; and if 
rhey melt this mafs again, there will be loft half a rutty 
m every tolah y or fix majhaks and two rut tees in ioo 
tolahs. The coppel becomes a kind of litharge, which, 
in the Hindoftany language, they call kehrel, and in 
Verfian, kenneh ; the ufe of which will be hereafter 
explained. 

Out of too tolahs of fuch refined filver, five majhahs 
and five ruttees are taken for the khalja ; after which 
the allay-mafler marks the mafs with a {lamp, that it 
may not be altered or exchanged. 

Formerly, filver was alfo allayed by the bunivary ; 
now it is calculated after the following manner : — ]f, by 
refining ioo tolahs of the filver called jliahy, which is 

current 



.JPART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 15 

current in Erak and Khorafan, and the lary and . 
kaly which are current in Turan, there are loll three 
tolahs and one rutty ; and from the tiarchecl frengy and 
roomy, the mahmoodee and mozuffery of Guxifrat and 
Mahvah, thirteen /o/</fo and fix majluihs and a half are 
loft, they become of the royal ftandard. 

15th, The koorjkoob having heated the refined filvcr, 
hammers till it has loft all fmell of the lead. His fee 
for the weight of 1000 rupees is four dams twelve 
checteh and a half. 

1 6th, The chaJJinecgeer affays the refined gold and 
filver after this manner : — 

Having made two tolahs of the refined gold into 
eight plates, he, in the fame manner as has been before 
delcribed, ftratifies them with faltpetre and brick-dud, 
and furrounds them with cow-dung, to which he lets 
fire. After that, having walhed the plates, he melts 
them ; and if they have not loft any thing by the above 
operation, the gold is arrived at the greateft decree ot 
purity. Then the afiay-mafter draws a line of it on 
the touch-done, to latisfy himfelf and others. For 
allaying this quantity he takes for his fee one dam and 
ten chceteh. 

. For filver he takes one tolahs with a like quantity of 
lead, which he puts together into a bone crucible, and 
keeps it on the fire till the lead is all burnt. Then, 
having fprinkled the filver with water, he hammers it 
rill it has loft all fmell of the lead : and halting again 
melted it in a new crucible, he weighs it, and ii it has 
halt a rutty, it is fufficiently pure ; ochcrwife he melts it 
again till it comes to that degree. And for aflaying 
that quantity his fee is three dams four cheeids and a 
half. 
- 

17th, 



l6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART f. 

17th, Neeareeah. The khak khclafs, or fchmy, being 
collected together, he wafhes two feers of it ; and what^ 
ever gold there may be amongft it, from its weight, fet- 
tles to the bottom. This walhed earth, in the Hindof* 
tany language, is called Kookerah ; and it alio contains 
fomegold; for the recovery of which, directions lhall 
hereafter be given. 

To every feer of the above-mentioned adulterated 
fediment they add fix majhahs of quick-filver, which, 
being rubbed together, the quick-filver attracts the 
gold to it ; and this amalgama being put into a glafs 
retort, they place it on a fire, and ieparate the gold 
from the quick-filver. 

The Neeareeah, for refining this quantity of earth, 
takes for his fee 20 dams and 2 chcelels. 

THE PROCESS OF KOOKERAH. 

They mix with it an equal quantity of poonher; then, 
having prepared a pafte of reJJ'y and cow-dung, they 
break the firft composition into pieces, and mixing it 
with the pafte, work it up into balls of two feers weight, 
which they dry on a cloth. 

THE PROCESS OF POONHER. 

They make a hole in the earth fufficiently large to 1 
contain a maund of lead, wich fix fingers of the allies, 
of Babool-wood laid over it ; then they cover it with 
charcoal, and melt the lead. After that, having re- 
moved the coals, they place over the hole a curved 
plate of clay, and clofing up the bellows-hole, they 
cover the vent with bricks, which they remove fre- 
quently, to learn the ftate of the lead. When the 
afhes have foaked up all the lead, there will be four 
majhahs of filver mixed with them. Thefe allies they 

cool 



PART I. AYEEN AKEERV. 17 

cool in water ; and the name of this compofition is 
poonher. Out ot : a maund of lead two feers are burnt, 
and it is encreafed by four feers of afhes; fo that the 
weight of the whole mafs will be one maund and two 
feers. 

Re/Jy is a kind of aquafortis, made from foap-afhes 
and faltpetre earth. 

Having explained the prdcefs of bopntier* I return 
to finilh the procefs of kookerah. 

They make an earthen vcfiel with a narrow neck 
and large belly, half a cubit in height, perforated at 
the bottom, and containing an oven ; 

Then, having filled the vend with coals within four 
fingers of the top, they place it over a pit dug in the 
earth, and blow the lire with a bellov, . 

After that, the afore-mentioned balls being broken 
into pieces, they fill the veffel with them, and melt 
them. The gold, iilver, copper, and lead, falling 
through the hole in the bottom of the veffel, will 
collecl: in the pit. Whatever remains, in the veilel, 
they walh it, and feparate the lead from it ; and thev 
likewife preferve the afhes, from whence alio a profit 
will be derived. 

Then, having taken out ( f the pit whatever there 
be of metal, they melt it like foonhcr. The lead will 
mix with the allies, from which thirty feers will be 
recovered, and ten feers will be burnt. The gold, 
filver, and copper, with a fmali quantity of lead, 
will remain together in a mafs; and this they call 
bookruivfy. 

Vol. I. C THE 



l8 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 



THE PROCESS OF BOOKROVVTY. 

For i oo tolahs of it, they make half a feer of the 
afhes of Bahool-wood into a fcoppel, into which they 
put the hookrowty y with the addition of one tolah of 
copper, and twenty-five tolahs of lead ; and, furround- 
ing the coppel with live coals, they cover it with 
bricks. When the metals are melted, they remove 
the coals and bricks, and make a fire of Babool-vtood, 
till the coppel, having united with the lead, leaves the 
gold and filver together. The coppel will be a kind 
of litharge, called kehrel, from which lead and copper 
are obtained, as will be hereafter explained. 

THE METHOD OF SEPARATING GOLD 
FROM SILVER. 

This mixture they melt fix times j thrice with copper, 
and thrice with Hepar fulphur, called in the Hindof- 
tany language, chahcheea. 

For each toluh of that mixture, are required one 
majhah of copper, and two majhahs and two mttees 
of Hepar fulphur. 

Firft, they melt it with copper, and then with the- 
Hepar fulphur. 

If the mixture be of ioo tolahs weight, they firft 
melt it with fifty majhahs of copper, and then twice 
again, with twenty-five maJJiahs each time; and the 
operation with the Hepar fulphur is repeated in the 
fame manner. 

The following is the manner of melting it : The 
mixture of gold and filver being made into fmall 
grains, they mix with it fifty majliahs of copper, and 
todt them together in a crucible. They have near at 

hand 



?ART Ii AYEEN AKBERY; IQ 

hand a veflel full of cold water, on the furface of 
which is laid a bundle of ftraw, upon which they pour 
the melted metal, and ftir it with a ftick, to hinder it 
from forming into a mafs. Then having again melted 
thofe grains, with the remaining copper, in a crucible, 
they let it to cool in the (hade : and, for every tolah 
of this mixture, two majhahs and two rut tees of 
Hepar fulphur are ufed ; fo that ioo tolahs require fix 
chat lacks *. 

When it has been thrice melted in this manner, 
there appears on the furface a whitifh kind of ames, 
which is the filver. This is taken off and kept feparate ; 
and its procefs mall hereafter be related. 



When the mixture of gold and filver has been thus 
melted fix times with the copper and the Hepar ful- 
phur, it is called, in the dialect of Punjab, k\cl\ and 
in the city of Dehiy, phtftr. If in the above mixture 
there was a large proportion of gold, it will turn out 
fix ba?iny and a half; but it often happens that this 
pinjer turns out only four or five barmy. 

In order to refine this gold, one of the following 
methods mud be ufed : Either they mix fifty telahs of 
this with 400 tolahs of pure gold, and rctinc it ac- 
cording to the felony procefs ; or eife they ufe the 
alony procefs. 

THE PROCESS OF ALON'Y. 

Two parts of field cow-dung, and one part of falt- 
petre earth are ufed after this manner. 

* A chattack is the fixteenth part of a feer, forty of which make a 
mail nd, commonly reckoned equal to ieventy-£x poucfc avoirdu- 
poile weight. 

C z Having 



20 AYEEN AKBERV. PART lr 

Having caft the aforefaid phijer into ingots, they 
make it into plates, every one of which muft not be 
lefs than one lolah and a half, but a little broader than 
thofe directed in the felony procefs. Then, having 
anointed them with fefame-oW, they fpread them over 
with the mixture of cow-dung and faltpetre earth, and 
then give them a gentle fire. This operation they 
repeat three or four times ; and, if they want the metal 
to be very pure, they repeat the procefs till it comes up 
to nine banny. The allies thereof are alfo colle&ed, 
being a kind of kerhel. 

THE METHOD OF EXTRACTING THE SILVER 
FROM THE ASHES. 

Whatever allies and drofs have been collected, both 
before and after the procefs of alony, being mixed with 
an equal quantity of pure lead, they put them into a 
crucible, and keep it on the fire for three hours. 
When the metal is cold, they refine it, according to 
the procefs defcribed under the article Subbak, and 
the allies thereof is alfo kerhel. The feloyiy is alfo 
applied to other ufes, well known to thofe converfant 
in the bufinefs. 

i 8th. The pimn-:ar having melted the kerhel y fepa- 
rates the filver from the copper ; and his fee for every 
tolah of filver, is one dam twelve cheetels and a halt. 
And he gladly gives 3c o dams per month to the deivan. 

His bufinefs is this : Having broken the kerhel into 
lhiall grains, he adds to every maund thereof one leer 
and a half of tlncar, and three feers of foap-afhes, and 
kneads them together. After which, having put a feer 
of this into the veilel defcribed in the procefs of kooke- 
rah, he melts it, when lead mixed with filver is collected 
in the pit, and afterwards refined by the procefs of 

fubbah i 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERT. 21 

fubbah ; and the lead which feparates from this, to- 
gether with the afhes, is foonher. 

19th. The pykar buys \ht felony and kcrhel from the 
goldfmiths of the city, and carries them to the mint to 
be melted, and gains for himfelf the gold and filver 
thereof. For one maund of fdony he gives feventeen 
dams ; and for one maund of kcrhel, fourteen Jams to 
the khalfah. 

20th. Neecheivceivalah. He brings old filver coins, 
which are mixed with copper to be melted ; and from 
too tolahs of filver, three rupees and a half go tQ 
the deivan : and when the filver is again coined into 
rupees, he pays another duty. 

2 1 ft. Khakjlui. He carries away to his own houfc 
the fweepixigs of the mint, by the wafhing of which he 
gains a profit j and every month he gives twelve rupees 
and a half to the (late. 

And in like manner all the officers of the mint, 
every month, out of every ioo dams, pay three dams 
to the ftate. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE IMMORTAL COINS. 

As, through the attention of his majefty, gold and 
filver were brought to the greatefl degree of purity, in 
like manner the form of the coin was alio improved : 
a few particulars of which mall here be given. 

GOLD COINS. 

Sehenfeh Am^w is a coin of a circular form, weighing 
1 01 tolahs, nine majhahs, and feven ruttees, in value 
J 00 laaljilalj mohurs. On the field of one fide is en- 

C 3 graved 



21 AYEEN AKBERY. PART U 

graved the name of his majefly ; and on the five arches 
in the border, 

" The great King— the glorious Emperor — may God 
" perpetuate his kingdom and his reign. — Struck at 
" the capital Agra." 

On the field of the reverfe, the Creed and this verfe 
of the Koran : 

l_jL*>^ ,-^xj i^^J (^yc { * m ^) t 1 . **"^ ' 

" God is bountiful unto whom he pleafeth, without 
if mcafore !" — -And on the border thereof, 

Abubecre — Omur — Ofmati — Aly. 

The above is what was firft cut on the dies by 
MoJlana MukJboJ, feal engraver ; after which Mollana 
AJy Ahmed made the following additions. On one 

iide, 

i* The bell coin is that which is employed in fupplying; 
«* men with the neceflaries of life, and that benefits the 
" companions fri the road of God." — And on the 
reverfe, 

li The Sublime Monarch ! — the moft exalted Khalif ! 

" —May 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 23 

«< —May God perpetuate his kingdom and his reign, 



<< 



and encreafe his juftice and righteoufnefs !" 



Afterwards all the above were laid afide, and two 
tetraftiches of the king of poets, Sheikh Fizee y were 
fubftituted in their ftead. 

On the border of one fide is this tetraftich, 

" The fun, from whom the feven feas obtain pearls. 

" The black ftone from his rays obtains a jewel. 

<{ The mine, from the correcting influence of his beams, 
M obtains gold ; 

rt And that gold is ennobled by the impreflion of Shah 
« Akber."— 

And on the field, 

•■ God is greateft — mighty is his glory." 

On the border of the reverfe is the following te- 
traftich : 

u This coin, which is the garment of hope, 
C 4 



24 4*#£tf AKRF. M I. 

" Carries an everlafting imprcffion and immortal name. 
s: 

*' lis fortunate front bears this, fufficient for ages, 

" Tijat i"he fun * has caft a g-limpfe upon it." 

And on the field is, written the date pf the month and 
year. 

And of tjie fame name, form, and impreflion, is a 
coin weighing ninety-one tolahs eight majlmhs, in value 

I o.o round mohnrs. 

Reliefs (jm&j is the hajf of both the aboye j and it 
is alfo (pnietitnes made of a fquare form. . On one fide 
it has the fame impreflion as the felievfeh ; and <pn th$ 
reverie this tetraftich of the king of poets : 

/ <£Lii tXA^Lij *$*Xs (m! tj JsJu (jot 

*' This current coin, the royal treafure, 

sc Accompanies the ftar of good fortune. 

H The fun flourishes it fox this caufe, that, to eternity., 
* The £ing. 



J»ART I. AYEEN AKEERY. 1$ 

c£ it may be ennobled by the imprefiipn of Akbcr 
« Shah." 

Atemah oL^J' I the fourth of a A hen/eh, ofafquare- 
circular form, bearing the iaine impreffion as that of 
ioo mohursi and fome of them have this tetraftich of 
the king of poets : 

" Let this coin Adorn the hand of the fortunate! 

'* JL-ct it be the ornament of the nine heavens and kven 
« ftars ! 

M It is a golden coin - e let its effects be propitious I 

c^U v/l ol* ^U# ^JJjr&^jj 
" Let it be current for ages, through the name of 

« shuh Jkhr r 

And on the reverfe, the tetraftich before mentioned. 

Bbifet L^awjwV is of the fame form as the atemah, 
and the fifth of i\\Qfehcnfch ; and there are alio of this 
name the eighth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth parts 
of nfehenfeh. 

Jugul <J^-£> of a fquare form, is the fiftieth part of a 
fehenj'eh, being in value two laal jilaly mohurs. 

Ceerd 



26 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Geerdy O f in value and weight is equal to two round 
On one fide is, 

" God is greateft." 
And on the reverfe, 

" O Defender !" 

Aftaly, /-jLo f of a round form, weighs one tolah 

Vtoomajhahs and four ruttees and three quarters, the 
value, twelve rupees. 

On one fide is, 

" God is greateft — mighty is his glory." 

And on the reverfe, the month and year, and place 
where it was (truck. 

Uahee / -^Jl is round, in weight twelve majkahs 

thirteen ruttees and a quarter, with the fame impreflion 
as the aftaby, and is in value twelve rupees, 

Laal jllaly (JU^ <J^J is of a fquare form, in 
weight and value the fame as the Uahee. 

On 



PARTI. AYEEN AKBERY. 2J 

On one fide, 

a God is greateft." 
And on the reverfe, 

" Mighty is his glory." 

Add Gootkeh &&f <J«Ac is of a round form, 
weighing eleven majhahs ; in value nine rupees. 

On one fide, 

" God is greateft." 
And on the reverfe, 

" O Defender!" 

Mohur iffro is of a round form, and in weight and 
value the fame as the adel gootkah j but it bears a dif- 
ferent impreffion. 

Mehraby i^A vs** its weight, value, and impreffion, 
tie the fame "as the round mohur, 

Moieeny 



28 AYEILN AKPfcRY. PART I. 

Moieeny i J^*** * s Sometimes made fquare, and fome- 
times of a round form, in weight and value the fame as 
the laaljilaly ; imprefled with, 

" O Defender !" 

ChargoJIiey A^^/jU*. is of the fame weight and im- 
preflion as the affaby. 

Geerd i3/ is tb.e half of the ilahee, and bears the 
fame impreffion. 

Dehn {<y&£> is the half of the laaljilaly. 

Sehemy / < ^X^ is the half of the adel gootkelu 

Reby t^Jj is the fourth of the ajtaby. 

Man /j^o is the fourth of the ilahee and of thtjilaly. 

Nisfy Seleemy i^^jXm /^**o> is the fifth of the adel 
gootkeh, 

Fioij g^. is the fifth of the ilahee. 



Pandow «v-\jb is the fifth of the laaljilaly ; marked 
on one fide with a tulip, and on the other with a wild 
rofe. 

Sumny (<sj a ^° ca ^ e ^ -djhtfideh olXmjCaj^I is the 
eighth of 'the ilahee, flamped on one fide with God is 
great eft ; and on the reverfe, mighty is his glory. 

Kala 



PART 1. AYEEN AKBERY. 29 

Kala US is the fixth of the ilahee, and is impreffed 
on each fide with a wild rofe. 

7,errah ojj is the thirty-fecond part of the ilahee, 
bearing the fame impreflion as the kala* 

It is the cuftom in the mints of the prefence, that 
for one month's continuance they coin the gold laal 
jila/y, the dehn and the tmm ; but they do not ftrike 
any other gold coins without a frefli order every day. 



SILVER COINS. 

Rupccah <3Uj«j is a filver coin of a round form, in 

weight eleven majhahs and a quarter, It was firft intro- 
duced in the time of Sheer Khan; and under the pre- 
fent reign it has been revived, and made more pure. 

On one fide is, 

AJUiw <J^ y/\ «UJI 
" God is greateft ; mighty is his glory V' 

And on the reverfe is the date. 

Although the market-price is fometimes mote or 
lefs than forty Jams, yet this value is always fet upon it 
in comparative calculations. 

Jilaleh d^Uss*. is of a fquare form. It made its firft 
appearance under this reign, and has the iunie impref- 
fion and weight as the rupeeah. 

Durb V—^O is the half of a jilahh. 

Chern 



30 AYEEN AKEERY, PART l\ 

Chern ^ p* is the fourth of a jilaleh* 
P widow «Oj L» is the fifth oi&jilaleh. 
JJhet Ou^l is the eighth of ajilalek. 
De-fa Lw£ is the tenth of zjilaleh. 
Kola U/ is the fixteenth of a jilakh. 

Sodky t^y*i is the twentieth of & jilakh. 

And there are alfo fuch fmall divifions of a rupee, 
bwi of a round form. 

COPPER COINS. 

Dam J& is a copper coin, in weight five tanks t or 

one to/ah eight majhahs and feven ruttees ; in value the 
fortieth part of a rupee. Formerly this coin was called 
Pyfah Aw*>o anc * alfo Behlooly (JjK^t now it is iffued 

under this name. On one fide is damped the place 
where it was {truck ; and on the reverfe, the month and 
year. Accomptants fuppofe the dam to be divided into 
twenty-five parts, each of which they call a cheetel 
<JkXo* and ufe them in calculations. 

Adheleh dX&&\ is half of a dam, 

PowJah <*-Ut>. tne f° urtn - 

Dumree 



TART I. AYEEN AKBERT. 31 

Dumree (^£v*£ the eighth. 

In the beginning of this incomparable reign, gold 
was coined in many parts of the kingdom in the royal 
name j now none are ftruck excepting at the four fol- 
lowing places : Firft, the capital Agra ; Second, Bengal ; 
Third, Ahmedabad, in Gujerat ; Fourth, Cabul. Silver 
and copper, befides being coined at the four above- 
mentioned places, are alfo ftruck in ten other cities, 
viz. lllhabafs, Agra, Owjain, Surat, Dehly, Patna, 
Cafhmeer, Lahoor, Multan, and Tandah. And in 
the following twenty-eight places, only copper, viz, 
Ajmeer, Owedh, Attock, Allore, Badawur, Benaris, 
Behker, Behreh, Putten, Jownpoor, Jalendehr, Seha- 
rungpoor, Sarungpoor, Sembehl, Kennaje, Rehntore, 
Herdewar, Hifiar Feerozeh, Calpee, Gualiar, Goruck- 
poor, Kelonwer, Luckhnow, Mundow, Nagore, Sir- 
kind, Secalhoote, and Serovvnj. 

A great deal of traffic is carried on in this flouriming 
country in mohurs, as well as in rupees and darns. 

The firft time that the reins of government were in 
the hands of Rajah Tudermull, his majefty gave cur- 
rency to four kinds of mohursi ift, The laal ji/aly, 
weighing one tolah thirteen ruttecs and three quarters, 
which was of the greateft degree of finenefs, and in value 
400 dams. 2d, The malmr, which in the beginning of 
this reign they had made of the weight of eleven maJJiahs, 
and it palled current under three degrees. When of 
lull weight its value was 360 dams ; and if after a time 
there was worn away the weight of three grains of rice, 
they itill accounted it of the lirft degree, and made no 
difference between them ; what was deficient from four 
to fix of (uch grains, they made of the lecond degree, 
and its value was 355 dams ; and if from fix to nine 
grains were loft, it was then reckoned of the third de- 



32 AYEESJ AKBERY. PART f* 

grce, and its value was 350 dams : and whatever was 
of fhorter weight than the latter was received as bullion. 

Rupees were alfo current after three degrees : 1 ft, The 
fquare rupee of pure filver, twelve majhahs and a half in 
weight, which they called jdaly, in value forty dams ; 
and the old round rupee of Akber Shah, which, when of 
full weight, and until one ruttte fhort weight, was valued 
at thirty-nine dams. That which was two ruttees de- 
ficient was rated at thirty-eight dams ; and whatever was 
of fhorter weight than this was received as bullion. 

Again, on the 1 ith of the month Meher, and in the 
twenty-ninth year of the reign, AzededdowlaJi Emeer 
FaUalidJah Sheerazy coming at the head of affairs, the 
royal orders were iliued, that on the mohurs, as far as 
three grains, and on the rupees, as far as fix grains fhort 
weight, no account fhould be taken, but that they 
fhould be reckoned of full weight ; and that whatever 
were more deficient, the excels fhould be taken ; and 
that after nine grains deficiency they fhould not be 
accounted of the fame kind. According to this regula- 
tion, a rnohur that was one rutty deficient, was worth 
3jj£ dams, and fomething more; and the value of one 
nitty of coined gold, they calculated at four dams, and 
fomething lefs. According to the regulations of Tuder- 
mull, for the deficiency of one rutty they took five darns; 
and for whatever was deficient as far as three grains and 
a half, they made no further account; but upon a 
deficiency of one rutty and a half, they took ten dams 
fhort weight, and even exacted this deficiency from thofe 
that were not come up to that limit. According to this 
latter regulation, by taking fomething lefs than fix dams, 
the value of the third degree becomes 353 dams and 
fomething more. Alio the round rupee, which, al- 
though there be no difference between it and thejilaly 
either in weight or finenefs, they had eftimated at one 
dam lefs, was now fixed at forty dams, until one rutty 

Chort 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 33 

fhort of weight ; and two ruttees fhort of weight, which 
before they reckoned two dams, is hereby made one 
dam and fomething more. 

When Azededdowlah was fent to Kandees, Rajah 
Tudermull made the price of gold mohurs to be e(ti- 
mated in rupees ; and the deficiency on the mohurs and 
rupees, from his obitinate difpofition, he again fixed at 
the old rates. 

When Kulij Khan came to the head of affairs he 
confirmed what the Rajah had done, excepting that the 
fhort weight mohurs, upon which the Rajah exacted five 
dams, he coufed to be cftimated in receipts and pay- 
ments at ten dams deficiency ; and as far as one rutty 
and a quarter, twenty dams ; and whatever were more 
deficient than one rutty and a half, to be reckoned as 
bullion. 

The king's mind being at this time occupied by a 
multiplicity of affairs, he paid little attention to this 
bufmefs, till after having received fome intimation of 
the matter, he, on the 26th of the month Behmen, 
and the thirty-fixth year of his reign, adopted another 
mode. He ordered that the mohur of three grains, and 
the rupee that was fix grains deficient, fhould no longer 
be reckoned of full weight. And this regulation was 
the only effectual method that could have been taken 
for lhortening the hands of mean mercenary wretches ; 
becaufe, that if the officers of the mint coined monev 
of fuch deficiency in weight, or the treafurers reduced 
the coins of full weight to this quantity of deficiency, 
there was no remedy : and alfo fhamelefs thievifh 
people dipt the coin ; and mohurs deficient three grains, 
they reduced to fix grains deficiency ; and thofe of fix 
grains, they made nine grains deficient. Thus, by in- 
creafing the deficiency of the coin, they defrauded the 
flate of a great deal of gold. 

Vol. 1. D By 



34 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

By the command of his majefty they made grains of 
agate, which were ordered to be ufed in weighing; and 
during the fame month and year many other efforts were 
exerted. It wasalfo ordered, that the treafurers and the 
collectors of the revenues fhould not demand any par- 
ticular fpecies of coin from the Ryotts ; but that what- 
ever was the deficiency in weight or ftandard, fhould be 
taken exactly according to the prelent rate and no more. 

OF DIRHEMS AND DINARS. 

Having given fome account of the immortal coins, 
I mail here add a few particulars regarding thefe two 
pieces of money. 

Dirhem, which they alio call dirham, is a filver coin ; 
originally it was of the fhape of a date-done : in the 
khalifat of Omar it was changed into a round form ; and 
in the time of Zofrier, it was imprefled with the words 
Allah (God) and Berk'et (blefiing). — Hejaj impreffed it 
with the Soorah Ekhlafs*, and fome fay that he ftamped 
his own name on it ; others aflert, that the firft perfon 
who tramped an impreffion on dirhems was Omar. 
According to others, in the time of Abdalmalek Merwan, 
Greek dirhems, and thole of the Khq/roes and of Himar, 
were in ufe ; and at his command Hejaj Yufef 'ftruck 
dirhems. Some (ay that Hejaj refined the bafe dirhems, 
and ftamped on them Allah Ahed (God is fingle) and 
Allah Samed (God is eternal) ; and thefe were called 
the abominated dirhems \ becaufe th*J facred name was 
thereby expofed to die touch of unclean perfons ; and 
afterwards Omar Ebu Hobeerah coined in Erak, dirhems 
like thofe of Hejaj ; then Khaled Ebn Abdallah Kajhery, 
who was governor oi Erak, improved them 3 and after 
that, Yufej Oiujr brought them to the higheft degree of 
puiity. 

* i he I2lh chaptet of the Koran. 

Again, 



PART I, 



aYeen AKEF.RV 



33 



Again, ir is faid that Majfaeb Ebn Zobier was thefirtr. 
perfon who (tamped dirhems ; and [here are different ac- 
counts of their weights, fome faying that they were of 
ten or nine, or fix or five mijkuli ; and others relate 
that they were of twenty keera/s, twelve keerats, and 
ten keerals weight ; and that Ow^rtook. a dirhem of each 
kind, and formed a coin of fourteen keerats t being the 
third part of the aggregate fum. 

It is likewife faid that, in the time of Omar there were 
current feveral kinds of dirhems of eight dangees, which 
they called Beghalv, after Rajs Beghal, who was the 
allay- matter, and who fhnick dirhems by the command 
of Omar. Others fay that they are called Beghaly, from 
a town of that name ; and that the dirhems of four dangs, 
called tebry, thofe of three dangs, called mughreby, and 
thole of one dang, named jr.w///, were formed into one 
coin. 



Faze! Khojendy fays, that in former times dirhems 
were of two kinds, eight dangees and fix dangces. 



2 Hehbeh 
2 TeJ/uj 
2 Keerats 



make one 



Teffuj ; 
Keerat j 
Da?ig. 



DINAR 



Is a gold coin, weighing one mijkal, which is equal to 
one and three-fevenths of a dirhem. 



I 2 Zerrahs 

6 Kitmeers 

6 Nekeers 

6 Fete eh 
i j. Fuls 

6 Muflard feeds 

2 Barley corns 

2 Hebbehs 

4 Teffuj 

6 Da tigs 



c 

o 

a 

s 



D2 



Kitmeer ; 

ISekeer ■> 

Feteel * 

Fid; 
i Muftard feed } 

Barley corn ; 

Hebbeh ■ 

Tejjit'i ; 

Dang i 
I Mijkal. 



And, 



$6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART 1, 

And, according to this calculation, a mi/kails ninety- 
fix barley corns. 

Mifkal is a weight ufed in weighing gold ; and it is 
alfo the name of a coin. From the ancient records of 
fome monafteries, it appears that the Greek mijkal has 
been for a longtime difufed, and that it was two keerats 
lefs in weight than this. Alfo the Greek dirhems are dif- 
ferent from the others, being one dang and a half lefs in 
weight. 

An Account of the Profit winch Merchants gam by bringing 
Gold, Silver, and Copper to the Mint. 

The following is the value of a round gold mohur in 
bullion. 





Quantity 


thereof given for 


Degree of finenefs of 


a round gold mo//ut weigh- 


the gold bullion. 


ing eleven majhahs. 




Tolahs. 


Majhahs. Ruttees. 


jo Banny 


I 


O O 


9! Banny 


I 


O 2 


\ lianny 


I 


O 4 


9'| Banny 


I 


6 


9 Banny 


I 


1 



And after this rate upon each vanny alloy, they take 
one majhah more than the weight of the mohur. 



EXAMPLE. 



The merchant buys for 100 laal jilaly mohurs, a 
number of gold huns, weighing 130 tolah, two majhah, 
and five banny, and of eight bannees and a half finenefs. 
Out of this' quantity of gold, twenty-two tolahs, nine 
majhahs, and {even ruttees and a half are burnt in the 
fire, and mixed with the khak khelafs, and there will 
remain 107 tolahs, four majltahs, and one and one-eighth 
of a rutty of pure gold, which is coined into 105 jilaly 

mohurs, 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 37 

mohurs, and leaves a remainder of about half a tolah of 
gold, the value of which is four rupees. From the khak 
khelafs are recovered two tolahs, eleven majhahs, and 
four ruttees of gold, and eleven tolahs, eleven maJJiahs, 
and four ruttees and a half of filver ; the value of which 
gold and filver is thirty-five rupees and twenty-two dams. 
JSo that the aforefaid gold produces altogether J05 
mohurs, thirty-nine rupees, and twenty-two dams ; out 
of which fum are to be deducted the following charges : 

Rs. Ds. Cs. 
For the workmen, as before related, 2 18 12$ 

For articles ufed in refining 

the metal, viz. R s . Ds. Cs. 

OupeJah, - o 26 i6| 

Selony, - o 4 20 

Water, - o 1 10 

Quickfilver, - o 1 1 5 



For the khak khelafs, viz. 

Charcoal, - o 21 7I 

Lead, - 3 22 24 



4 if 



4 4 6f 



7 26 20f 
Duty to the flate, at fix rupees £er cent, 6 10 12! 

*3 37 8 

But if the aforefaid gold is bought by the khalfah, 
thefe charges are defrayed by the dewan, and the 
merchant, in exchange for his gold, receives 100 laal 
jilaly mohurs, and a profit of twelve rupees, twenty-feven 
dams, three cheetels and a half. The remaining five 
mohurs, twelve rupees, twenty-feven dams, thirteen 
cheetels and a half, are received into the khalfah, 

»3 It 



38 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

It ought to be known, that although merchants bring 
gold into Hindoftan, yet, in the fouthern mountainous 
parts of this empire there is found a great quantity of 
this metal, and likewife in Tibet : moreover, the fands 
of the Ganges, thofe of the Scind, and feveral other 
rivers of thefe kingdoms are mixed with gold, which 
may be obtained by the felony procefs : however, the 
labour and expence greatly exceed the profit. 

SILVER. 

Nine hundred and fixty-nine tolahs, nine majkahs, 
and four ruttees of pure filver are purchafed for nine 
hundred and fifty rupees, reckoning one tolah and two 
ruttees for every rupee. 

Out of this quantity, five tolulis, four ruttees and 
three quarters are burnt in cafting the ingots j and there 
are produced 1006 rupees, with a remainder of twenty- 
feyen dams, twelve cheetels and a half. 



Weighman, 


CHARGES 
Ks. Ds. 

5 


Cs. 

7* 


Chajhnegeer, 

Melter, 
Zerrab, 
Sickchy, 


3 
6 

2 1 
6 


4i 


12* 



Articles Jifed in refining, viz. 

Charcoal, - o 10 o 
Water, - o 015 



2 22 12 



o 10 15 



Duties to the Dewan, 50 13 o 

53 6 2 

The merchant receives 950 rupees in exchange for 
the filver, and three rupees, twenty- one dams, ten cheetels 

and 






PART I. AYEEN AKBEPY. 39 

and a half for his profit. If he refines the filver at his 
own houfe, his profit will be much greater. 

Of the filver called lary Jhahy and mijkaly, for one 
rupee are bought one tolah and four ruttees ; fo that the 
fum of 950 rupees purchafes 989 totalis and nine 
maJJiahs thereof; out of which fourteen tolahs, nine 
?najhahs, and one rut tee, are burnt in the Subbakee 
procefs, being at the rate of one tolah and a half in 
100 tolahs. And in making the ingots, there will be 
loft in the fire four tolahs, ten rnajliahs, and three rntteees. 
There are coined 1 01 2 rupees; and from the khak 
khelafs three rupees and a half more are recovered. 





CHARGES 


t 




Rs. Ds. 


Cs. 


Weighman, 


5 


1 


Subbaky, 


2 


19 


Koorjkoob, 





l 9 


Chajlmegeer, 


- 3 


4 


Melter, 


6 


I2f 


Z,errab, 


2 1 


O 


Sickchy, 


6 


iaf 



Articles ufed in refining, viz. 

Lead, - 5 1 1 o 

Charcoal, - o 10 o 
Water, - o o 12I 



4 28 



5 2I I2 i 
Duties to the ftate, 50 24 o 



60 1Z I2§ 



In exchange for the filver t.he merchant receives 950 
rupees, and has four rupees and twenty-nine dams for 
his profit. 

D4 copper. 



40 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

COPPER. 

A maund of copper is purchafed for 1044 dams, at the 
rate of twenty-fix dams two chcelels and a half per leer. 

Out of this quantity one feer is burnt, and tl.ere are 
coined 1 1 70 dams, reckoning thirty dams for every feer. 
The merchant has out of this film a profit of eighteen 
dams and nineteen cheeteh ; thirty-three dams and ten 
cheetels go to the workmen,: and the charges for ar- 
ticles expended in the coinage are, 

R. D. Oh. 

Charcoal, - o 13 8 
Water, - 010 

Clay, - 010 

o 15 8 

Duties to the date, 119 o 



1 13 8 

OF THE PRODUCTION OF METALS. 

Metals are formed of vapour and exhalation, which 
is to be particularly learned from books of philolbphy. 

Metals are feven in number, viz. gold, filver, rooh- 
tooteea*, copper, tin, iron, and lead. 

And there aTe formed compofitions of the above 
metals, which are ufed by jewellers, braziers, and others. 

Of this number is fefaid ru, which the natives of 
Hindoftan call kanfeh ; and it is a compofition of four 
feers of copper and one feer of tin, melted together. 

* A kind of native pewter. 

Rowee 



PART I. AYEEN AKEERY. 41 

Rowee is made of four feers of copper an& one feer 
and a half of lead ; and this is called in Hindoltan, 
buhngar. 



o 



Berinj (brafs) in Hindoftany, peetel, is of three kinds : 
one kind is malleable without being heated in the fire, 
and it is made of two feers of copper and one feer and a 
half of roohtooteea. The other kind is not malleable, 
and it is ufed in calling ; this is compofed of two feers 
of copper and one feer and a half of roohtooteea. 

Seem fuckhteh is compofed of filver, lead, and cop- 
per ; it is of a deep colour and very bright, and is ufed 
in filvering. 

Huft joafli. Where roohtooteea is not to be had, this 
is made of the other fix metals ; fome call this taleekoon, 
and others take this to be a fictitious kind of copper. 

Uflir daht is a compofition of eight ingredients, m 
the fix metals above mentioned, together with rooh- 
tooteea andkanfeh. 

Cowelputter, which is compofed of two feers of fcfaid 
ru and one feer of copper, is a very elegant and beauti- 
ful compofition. It is an invention of his prefent 

majeily. 

OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF METALS. 

All metals are compounded of vapour and exhala- 
tions, which are formed of the four elements; conie- 
quently, that mixture wherein there are abundance of 
fire and air, will be comparatively lighter than thole 
which abound with watery and earthly particles. So 
that cubes of equal fizes of each kind of metal will 
differ from one another in weight, in the following 
degrees. 

Gold, 



42 AYEEN AKBF.RV. PART I. 

Gold, ioo Iron, - 40 

Quickfilver, 71 Copper, 45 

Lead, - 59 Bras, - 45 

Tin, - 2>6 Rowee, "1 ^ 

Silver, - 54 Sefaid ru, j ^ 

And this is called the fpecific difference. 

Some calculate with water after the following manner: 

They fill a veffel with water, and put into it feparately 
100 mifkals of each kind of metal ; and from the quan- 
tities of water thrown out upon the introduction of the 
metals, are found the fpecific difference between them. 
That metal which retains the large ic quantity of water 
in the veifel is the heavieft ; and, on the contrary, that; 
which ejects the greateft quantity is the lighted. 

Thus the ejected water of the before-mentioned filver 
will be nine miJJcah and three quarters, and the gold wi),l 
throw out five mijkah and a quarter. And when the 
quantity of water ejected is fubtraded from the weight 
of the metal in air, the remainder is the hydroftatic 
weight. 

The fcales of the air-balance are both fufpended in, 
air : thofe of the hydroftatic one are on the furface of 
the water ; when whichfoever of the two bodies placed 
thereon is fpecificalry the heavieft, will quickly make 
the other kic •: the beam : and if one of the fcales be 
placed on the furface of the water and the o r her in tho 
sir, the feale which is in the air will inevitably fink 
laweft; becaufe the air being rarer than the water, 
cannot iupport its fcale. 

If the water ejected be lefs than the weight of the body 
immerfed, that body will fink in water; and if the 
water exceeds the body in weight, it will float on its 

furface i 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 4^ 

furface ; but if the water and the body are of equal 
weights, it will fink till its furface comes even with that 
of the water. 

For the further illuftration hereof, Abu Rihan Al 
Birouni * has left us the three following tables. 



TABLE I. 

The Quantity of JVatcr ejecled upon the Introduction of 
ioo Mijkah of the following Metals ', &c. 





Mirk. 


Duw. 


Tef. 


Gold, 


5 


1 


2 


Qiiickfilver, 


7 


2 


I 


Lead, 


8 


5 


8 


Silver, 


9 


4 


1 


Sefaid ru, 


1 1 


2 


8 


Copper, 


ii 


3 


8 


Brals, 


ii 


4 


8 


Iron, 


12 


5 


2 


Tin, 


13 


4 


8 


Sapphire, 


*5 


1 


2 


Amethyfl, 


26 


8 


8 


Ruby, 


27 


5 


2 


Emerald, 


36 


2 


8 


Pearl, 


37 


1 


8 


Lapis lazuli, 


38 


3 


8 


Cornelian, 


39 


8 


8 


Amber, 


39 



$ 


8 


Chryflal, 


40 


8 


8 

TABLE 



* Abu Rihan, furnamed " Al Khovarezmi al Birouni," was a 
native of the city of Birpun, fituated in the province of Khovarezm, 
and not that in India, as fome have written. He was an excellent 
aftronomer, and travelled into India for the fpace of forty vears. 

He 



iQJ. AYEEN AKBERY* PART I, 



TABLE II. 

The IV eight in Water of the following Metals > &c. when 
they weigh I oo Mijkals in Air. 





Mifk. 


Duw. 


Tef. 


Gold, 

Ouickfilver, 

Lead, 


95 
92 

9 1 


4 
8 

1 


2 

8 


Silver, 
Sefaid ru, 


90 
88 


1 
4 


8 
8 


Copper, 
Brafs, 


88 
88 


3 

2 


8 
8 


Iron, 
Tin, 


87 
86 


8 
2 


2 
8 


Sapphire, 
Amethyft, 
Ruby, 
Emerald, 


74 
74 
72 
68 


4 
8 
8 

4 


2 
S 

2 
8 


Pearl, 


62 


5 


8 


Lapis lazuli, 
Cornelian, 


61 
61 


3 
8 


8 
8 


Amber, 


60 


3 


i 


Chryftal, 


60 


8 


8 



He was a contemporary of the famous Abu Sina (vulgarly called 
Avicenna) with whom he had frequent contefts, and in which he 
was generally too much for his adverfary. 

The moft famous of his works is a complete fyirem of geography, 
infilled " Canun al Maflaudi," which he dedicated to Sultan Maf- 
fand, the Gaznivide. This work is often quoted by Abulfeda and 
Abumoal. He afterwards publiflied the Theory of the Fixed Stars, 
uititkd " Tafhim fi tangim." A. H. 42 I, or A. D. 1029. 

fide D' Her Mot's 3'ibliotheque Orient ale, /t.2\ & 32. 

TABLE 



*ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 45 



TABLE III. 



The Weight of 'the following Metals, &c. in Air, "when thev 
equal in Bulk i oo Mijkah of Gold. 





Mifk. 


Duw. 


Tef. 


Gold, 


IOO 





O 


Quickfilver, 


7 1 


I 


I 


Lead, 


59 


2 


2 


Silver, 


54 


8 


8 


Sefaid ru, 


46 


2 


8 


Copper, 


45 


3 


S 


Brals, 


45 


8 


5 


Iron, 


45 


3 


3 


Tin, 


38 


2 


2 


Sapphire, 


94 


8 


8 


Amethyft, 


94 


8 


3 


Ruby, 


90 


2 


3 


Emerald, 


69 


3 


8 


Pearl, 


67 


5 


2 


Lapis lazuli, 


65 


3 


2 


Cornelian, 


64 


4 


2 


Amber, 


64 


3 


E 


Chryftal, 


63 


8 


8 



THE HARAM, OR SERAGLIO. 

There is in general great inconvenience arifing from 
a number of women ; but his majefty, out of the 
abundance of his wifdom and prudence, has made it 
iubfervient to public advantage ; for, by contracting 
marriages with the daughters of the princes of 
Hindottan and of other countries, he fecuies him felt 
againfi infurrections at home, and forms powerful 
alliances abroad. 

The haram is an enclofure of fuch immenfe extent 
as to contain a feparate room for every one of the 

women, 



46 AYEEN AKfcERY. PART. I, 

women, whofe number exceeds five thoufand. They 
are divided into companies, and a proper employment 
is afligned to each individual. Over each of thefe 
companies a woman is appointed darogha. And one is 
felecled for the command of the whole, in order that 
the affairs of the haram may be conducted with the 
fame regularity and good government as the other de- 
partments of the ftate. 

Every one receives a falary equal to her merit. The 
pen cannot meafure the extent of the emperor's largeffes ; 
but here (hall be given fome account of the monthly 
ftipend of each. The ladies of the firft quality receive 
from 1610 rupees down to 1028 rupees. Some of the 
principal fervants of the prcience have from fifty-one 
down to twenty rupees ; and others are paid from two 
rupees up to forty. 

At the grand gate Is Rationed a mufhrefF, to take 
account of the receipts and expenditures of the haram 
in ready money and in goods. 

Whenever any of this multitude of women want any 
thing, they apply to the treafurer of the haram, who, ac- 
cording to their monthly flipend, fends a memorandum 
thereof to the mufhrefF of the grand gate, who tranf- 
mits it to the treafurer of the king's palace, and he pays 
the money. In payment of thefe demands no align- 
ments are given, but only ready money. 

An eflimate of the annual expences of the haram 
being drawn out, the mufhreff writes a draft for the 
amount, which is countcrfigned by the minitters of 
ftate, after which it is paid in a coin that his majeity 
has caufed to be {truck folely for this purpofe. This 
money is paid by the grand treafurer to the paymafter- 
general of the palace ■> and, upon a written order 
being fenc by the mufhreff of the gate, it is diftributed 

amongft 



3»ART I. AYEEN AKEERYi 47 

amongft the inferior paymafters of the haram, and by 
them paid to the different fervants thereof. And this 
money is reckoned in their falaries equal with the cur- 
rent coin. 

The inficle of the haram is guarded by women ; and 
about the gate of the royal apartments are placed the 
mod confidential. Immediately on the outlide of the 
gate, watch the eunuchs of the haram, and at a proper 
diftance are Rationed the rajpoots, beyond whom are 
the porters of the gates ; and on the out fide of the 
enclofure, the omrahs, the ahdeeans, and other troops 
mount guard, according to their rank. 

Whenever the begums, or the wives of the omrahs 
or other women of character, want to pay their compli- 
ments, they fir ft notify their defire to thole who wait on 
the outfide, and from thence their requeft is lent in 
writing to the officers of the palace, after which they 
are permitted to enter the haram : and tome women 
ot rank obtain permiflion to remain there for the (pace 
of a month. 

But befides all the precautions above defcribed, his 
majefty depends on his own vigilance, as well as on that 
of his guards. 

OF THE EQUIPAGE FOR JOURNIES. 

It would be difficult to defcribe every particular of 
this eftablifhment ; but fomethine (hall be laid of the 
equipage ufed for hunting, and for Ihort journies. 

The goolalbar is an enclofure, the invention of h's 
majefty, the doors whereof are fecured with locks mi 
keys. At the eaftern end thereof is erected a pavilion, 
containing fifty-four rooms, each twenty-four yards 
long, and fourteen yards wide. In the middle is 

erected 



4$ A VEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

erected a chowbeen rowty *, and to this adjoin other 
pavilions ; and near to rhefe is a wooden houfe of two 
(lories, where his majeity performs divine worlhip ; 
and from the upper ftory he alfo receives the compli- 
ments cf the nobility, in the morning. But women do 
not go there without leave. 

Next are twenty-four chowbeen rowtees, ten yards 
long and fix yards wide, which are feparated from one 
another by kenauts. Here refide the favourite women : 
and there are other tents and pavilions fet apart for 
particular women : and they are adorned with em- 
broidery, brocade, and velvet. Adjoining to thefe 
is a pavilion of carpeting, fixty yards fquare, under 
which fome tents are pitched : and this is the ftation 
of the ourdubegeean -f and other women. 

In the front thereof, as far as the dowlet khanah 
khafs, is a plain 150 yards in length and 100 yards 
broad, which they call mahtaby ; and on both fides 
thereof are erected magnificent tents, fuch as have 
been already defcribed ; and at the diftance of every 
two yards is fet up a pole fix yards long, one yard of 
which is in the ground ; and the top is ornamented 
with a brafs knob, and it is fattened with two tent- 
ropes, one on each fide. The guards watch here, as has 
been defcribed in the regulations for the haram. 

In the midit of this plain is railed a platform, over 
which is fpiead an awning called a numgeerah, which 
is fupported by four poles. This is the place where his 
majefty fits in the evening ; and none but thofe who are 
particularly favoured are allowed to be preient. 

• Defcribed amongil the camp-equipage. 

I They are Calmuc women, who watch the firft inclofure of the 
haram. 

Near 






*ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 49 

Near to the goolalbar is a circular enclofure of 360 
yards, with twelve pavilions ; in the midft whereof is a 
chowbeen rowty of ten yards fquare, raifed from the 
ground, and forty other rooms. Thefe are covered 
with twelve awnings of twelve yards each ; and they are 
leparated from others by kenauts*. This place is 
called the oupcheky khanah. And for each apartment 
there is a privy. 

Adjoining to this are erected kenauts of carpeting 150. 
yards fquare, and which, in the manner before defcribed, 
are fupported by poles ornamented with brafs knobs. 
In the center thereof 100 ferafh raife four tents, con- 
taining feventy-two rooms; and over thefe is fpread a 
calendery, refembling a tent, made of wax-cloth, or oil- 
cloth, to defend them from rain and the heat of the 
fun; and the outfide is fhaded by fifty awnings, of twelve 
yards each. This is the dowlet kanah khafs, which 
is alfo fecured with doors and locks. And here the 
nobility cannot enter till the oupcheean has obtained 
them permifhon. 

On the firft day of every moon, both the infide and 
outfide of the dowlet khanah khafs are ornamented 
with flowered carpeting ; and on the outfide, for the 
fpace of 350 yards, tent-poles and ropes are fet up, at 
the diftance of three yards from each other, about 
which guards are ftationed ; and at that time this is the 
dewan khanah aum, which is guarded on all fides. 

At the diftance of twelve yards from the dowlet 
khanah is an enclofure of fix-ty yards of rope, for the 
nekar khanah : and in the middle of the area, the 
akafs-deah is lighted up. 



• Partitions made of linen, broad cloth, &c, 

Vox. I. E Tfo 



50 AYEEN AKBERY. PART It 

•The ferafh * pitch this encampment on a fpot chofen 
by the meer munzil. 

And fuch an equipage requires for its carriage ioo 
elephants, 500 camels, 400 carts, and 100 men : and 
rhev are efcorted by 500 cavalry, including munfub- 
dars ahdeean, and others. And there are alfo employed 
on this fervice 1000 ferafh, natives of Iran, Turan, 
and Hindoftan, 500 pioneers, 100 water-carriers, fifty 
carpenters, fifty tent -makers, fifty linkmen, thirty 
workers in leather, and 150 lweepers. The monthly 
pay of the foot is from 240 to 130 Jams. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE ENCAMPMENT OF 
THE ARMY. 

His majefty never collects his armies together in one 
body ; for, befides that many are employed on different 
fervices, he doth not carry all his troops along with 
him, from the confideration that fuch an immcnfe 
multitude would breed a famine : and it would be im- 
poffible to find quarters even for the foldiers ; and then 
what mud become of the followers of the camp ! 

His majefty has invented an admirable method of 
encamping his troops, which is the means of affording 
eafe to the people. 

Tn a fpace of ground 1530 yards long, are pitched 
the royal tents and pavilions, in the manner juft now 
defcribed. Then on the right and left fides, and behind, 
is an open fpace of 100 yards, which is never entered 
by any but the guards. After this, at the diftance of 
100 yards, in the quarter of the kov.r, are the tents of 
Meriem Mukany and Goolbuden Begum, and other 
princeffes, together with thole of Sultan Daniel. On 

* Camp- colour-men. 

the 






Part i. ayeen akbery. 5f 

the right fide, Sultan Seleem is encamped ; and on 
the left, is the ftation of Sultan Morad : and at a 
fmall diftance behind are the offices : behind which, 
in every corner, is left a road thirty yards wide. The 
omrahs are encamped without on all fides, according 
to their rank. 

The guard for Thurfday, Friday, and Saturday, are 
encamped in the rear ; thofe for Sunday and Monday, 
on the right ; and thofe for Tuefday and Wednefday, 
on the left fide of the royal tents. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE ILLUMINATIONS. 

This is a fpark of celeftial fire. 

At noon, when the fun enters the fourteenth degree 
of the fign Aries, they place in the fun's rays a kind 
of mining onyx, called in the Hindoftany language, 
foorej kerant, and put it to a piece of cotton, which 
from the heat of the ftone catches fire : — and this 
celeftial fire is committed to the care of proper perfons ; 
and the lamp-lighters, linkmen, and cooks, make ufe 
thereof for their refpective offices ; and when the year ex- 
pires, they catch new fire. The veflel this fire is preferved 
in is called aganger, or the fire-pot. There is alio a 
mining white ftone, called chunderkerant, which, upon 
being expofed to the moon's beams, drips water. 

Every afternoon, at one ghnrry before fun-fet, his 
majefty, if on horfeback, alights ; or if fleeping, he 
is awakened. And when the fun fets, the attendants 
light up twelve camphor candles in twelve candlefticks 
of gold and filver, and bring them into the prefencc ; 
when a finger of fweet melody, taking up one of the 
candlefticks, lings a variety of delightful airs, and con-* 
eludes with imploring bleffings on his majedy. 

E 2 It 



^2 AYEEN AK3ERY. PART T. 

It is impoiiibie to defcribe the beauty and various 
forms of thefe candleltics : Some ot them weigh forty- 
pounds and upwards, and are carved with a variety of 
figures. Some are fingle, others of two branches, and 
others of more. 

They caft camphor candles three yards long, and 
fome larger ; and they are ornamented with flowers. 

The palace is moreover illuminated vvithinfide and 
without with flambeaus fixed upon poles with iron 
prongs. The firft, fecond, and third nights of the 
moon, when there is but little moon-light, the prongs 
are lighted with eight flambeaus. From the fourth to 
the tenth they decreafe one in number every night, fo 
that on the tenth night, when the moon mines very 
bright, one flambeau is fufficient ; and they continue 
in this ftate till the fifteenth, and increafe one every day 
from the fixteenth to the nineteenth. On the twentieth 
they continue the fame, and on the twenty-firft and 
twenty-fecond increafe one daily; the twenty-third is 
the fame as the twenty fecond ; and from the twenty- 
fourth to the thirtieth night of the moon, eight prongs 
arc lighted up. For each link are allowed one feer and 
a half of oil, and half a feer of rags, more or lefs 
according to the fize. In fome places they burn 
lamps with greafe ; but in the palace nothing is ufed 
but oil. 

In order to render the royal camp confpicuous to 
thofe who come from far, his majefty has caufed to be 
erected, in the front of the dowlet khanah, a pole 
upwards of forty yards high, which is fupported by 
fixteen ropes ; and from the top of the pole is fufpended 
a large lantern, which they call the akafldeeah. 

Thefe offices are performed by many of the mun- 
fubdars, ahdeeans, and other military men. The pay 

of 






PART I. AVEEN AKBERY. 53 

of a foot- fold ier never exceeds 2400, and is never lefs 
than eighty darns. 

THE ENSIGNS OF ROYALTY; 

Which wife monarchs confider as marks of divine 
favour. Some of thole which are ufcd in our time 
fhall be here delcribed. 

The an rung (or throne) is made of feveral forms ; 
fome are inlaid with precious ftones, and others are of 
gold, filver,, he. 

The chutter (or umbrella) is made of great value, 
being ornamented with precious ftonesj and thole are 
never fewer than feven. 

The fayiban is ot an oval form, a yard in length, 
and its handle, like that of the chutter, is covered 
with cloth of gold, and ornamented with precious 
ftones. One of the attendants holds it to keep off the 
rays of the fun. It is alfo called aftabgeer. 

Kowkebah *. Several of thefe are hung up in the 
front of the palace. 

And thefe four infignia of grandeur are ufed only 
by kings. 

The alum. When the king goes abroad, never lefs 
than five of thefe are carried along with the kowr. 
They are wrapped up in fcarlet cloth-bags, and are dis- 
played on days of feftivity, and in battle. 

The chuttertowk refembles the alum, only that it is 
fmaller, and is adorned with tails of the mountain-cow. 

* Stars made of gold and other metals. 

E 3 The 



54 AYEEN AKBERT. PART I* 

The tementowk is like the chuttertovvk, only that this 
is longer. 

And thefe two lad mentioned are the flags of the 
higheft dignity. The tementowk is folely appropriated 
to military officers of high rank. 

The jendeh is another kind of flag. 

Every one of thefe kinds of flags muft abfolutely 
be along with the kowr ; and in battle great numbers 
of them are difplayed. 

The kowrekh *, commonly called demameh. Of 
thefe there are eighteen pair, more or lefs ; and they 
make a very deep noife. 

The nekareh * twenty pair, more or lefs. 

The Dehl, * four. 

The kerna-f- is made of gold, filver, brafs, and 
other metals : and they never blow fewer than four. 

The ferna -f of the Perfian and Indian kinds -, nine 
in number. 

The nefeer-j- is of the Perfian, European, and 
Indian forms ; and they blow fome of each kind. 

The ling is of brafs, and made in the form of a 
cow's horn ; of thefe there are four. 

The fenj J. They blow three pair of thefe. For- 
merly they ufed to be blown at four ghurries before 

* Different kinds of drums. 

f Different kinds of trumpets. 

X Cench. 

night, 



■PARTI. AYEEN AKBERY." 55 

night, and at the fame diftance from day-break. Now 
the firft blaft is at midnight, and the other at fun-rife. 

One ghurry before fun-rife, the enlivening blaft of the 
ferna awakens thofe who (lumber ; and the kowrekh is 
beat a little. Thefe are joined by the kerna, the 
nefeer, and all the other mufical inftruments, excepting 
the nekarah. After a fhort paufe the ferna and the 
nefeer play the mufical modes; after which the nekarah 
is beat, and the people with one voice pray blemngs on 
his majefty. 

His majefty is converfant in mufic, and has compofed 
upwards of 200 new modes, which are the delight of all 
hearers. The mod excellent are the Jilallhahy, the 
Mehameerkurget, and the Nowrozy. 

In this department are munfubdars, ahdeeons, and 
other troops. The monthly pay of a foot-foldier never 
exceeds 340 dams, and is never lets than feventy-four. 



OF THE ROYAL SEALS. 

In the beginning of the reign, Mollana Mukfood, 
feal -engraver, cut on fteel, in the Roka character, the 
name of his majefty with thofe of his predeceflbrs up to 
Timur j and after that, he cut another in the Nuftaleek 
character, with his majefty's name alone. — For every 
thing relative to petitions another feal was made, of a 
femicircular form. On one fide was, 

OwwIOo* (j^Li?; v» r o^ v /^aam!^ 

" Rectitude is the means of pleafingGod. 
" I never faw any one loft in a ftraight road.'" 

E 4 After 



56 AYEEN AKBERY. PART 1. 

After that, Tumkeen Kabuly made another feal. 

Then Mollana Aly Ahmed Dehlivy cut two feals ; 
one fmall and the other large. The fmall one, which 
is called ouzek, is ufed for ftamping of firmans; and 
the large one, on which are alfo engraved the names of 
his majefty's predecefibrs, is ufed fur letters to foreign 
princes. And both thefe feals are in ufe at this day. 

For other orders is ufed a fquare feal, with this in- 
fcription, 

" God is greateft; mighty is his glory !" 

There is alfo a particular feal ufed for all orders re- 
lative to the haram : and there is likewife a feparate 
feal for ftamping the conclufion of firmans. 

Mollana Ibraheem has engraved on every one of the 
rubies of value, 

i( The magnificent ruby." 



OF THE CAMP -EQUIPAGE. 

The bargah is of fuch a magnitude as to be able to 
contain ten rhoufand perfons; and the erecting of it 
employs one thoufand ferafh for a week, with the help 
of machines. One of thefe bargahs, without any orna- 
ments, coils upwards of ten thoufand rupees. They 
are ibmetimes finely ornamented with tin. From the 
price of a plain one, may be formed a comparative 
eflimate of what would be the expence of making 
other kinds. 

The 



PART I AYEEN AKBEPY. 57 

The chowbeen rowty is raifed on ten pillars of un- 
equal heights, and or which fome part goes into the 
ground ; and beams are laid upon the upper part, and 
fattened above and below with crofs pieces of wood ; 
and fome fmall crofs beams are fixed on the top, and 
fattened with iron cramps. The roof and walls are 
made of reeds woven together. There are either one 
or two doors; and a platform is railed at a convenient 
height from the ground. The inlide is ornamented with 
velvet and brocade, and the outfide is covered with 
fcarlet broad cloth bound round with filken tape. 

The duafhanah munzil is raifed upon eighteen pillars 
of iix yards in height, which fupport a wooden plat- 
form ; and on the level thereof pillars of four yards in 
length are made to fit into thole below, and form an 
upper ftory. The upper part is the place for divine 
worfhip, and the lower ftory is for the women. In the 
upper ftory his majefty performs his religious duties, 
and worfhips the fun. After this ceremony, the women 
are admitted to pay their compliments ; and when they 
retire, the nobility enter and make their obeifances. On 
iournies the king generally holds his court in this h'oufc, 
which is alfo called the jehrokah. 

The zemeendoze is made of various forms, and is 
divided by curtains. 

The ajayby is compofed of nine awnings, each fup- 
ported by four pole?. Five of the awnings are fquare, 
and four of an elliptical form. 

The mundel is compofed of five awnings meeting 
together, and fupported by four poles. Sometimes four 
of the awnings are let down to form curtains, and 
fometimes they lift up one of them. 

The 



58 AYEF.N AKBERY. PART r. 

The atkcmbeh confifts of feventcen awnings, fome 
joined together, and others feparate ; and they are 
fupportcd by eight poles. 

The khergah is made differently ; fome with one, 
and others with two doors. 

The (hahmyanah is of different fizes, but never lefs 
than twelve yards. 

The calendery is in the form of a tent, and is 
made of wax-cloth and fuch like. It is fpread over 
the top of the bargah, to defend it from rain and the 
heat of the fun. 

The farahperdah. Formerly thefe were made qf 
coarfe white linen cloth ; but his majefly has now 
cauied them to be made of carpeting, and thereby 
greatly added to the magnificence of the encampment. 

The gulalbar are wooden walls like thofe of the 
khergah ; they are ilrengthened with ftraps of leather, 
and fold together for the convenience of carriage. 
They are folded up in red linen, and tied round with 
tape. 

Galeem*. His majefly has given fuch encourage- 
ment to this manufa&ure, that the carpets of Perfia 
and Tartary are thought no more of. Great numbers 
of carpet-weavers are fettled here, and derive immenfe 
profit from their labour. The belt carpets are made at 
Agra, Futtehpoor, and Lahoor. In the royal work- 
ihops, a carpet in length twenty yards and feven tefluj, 
and fix yards and a half tefluj broad, is made for 1810 
rupees j which thofe fkilled in the bufinefs value at 
2715 rupees. 

• Woollen carpets. 

Tukeeahnemed. 



•1>ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 59 

Tukeeahnemed. Thefe are brought from Europe, 
and abundance are made in this country. It would 
take up too much time to defcribe the beauty and va- 
riety of the jajums, fahtrinjes, baiuchies, and filken 
carpets that are fabricated in this empire. 



THE ABDAR KHAN AH*. 

His majefty calls water cooled with faltpetre the 
water of life, and has committed the care of it to pro- 
per perfons. His majefly, both at home and on jour- 
nies, always drinks Ganges water. Some trufty perfons 
arc ftationed on the banks of that river, who fill vefTek 
with its water, and feal up the mouths thereof. When 
the court is at Agra or Futtehpoor, the water is brought 
from the town of Saroon : now that his majefty is at 
Punjab, they bring it from Herduwar. For the kitchen 
are ufed the waters of the Jumnah or Punjab, mixed 
with fome of that of the Ganges. And on journies 
and hunting parties, proper perfons are appointed to 
make trial of the waters they may meet with. 

Saltpetre, which in the compofition of gunpowder 
iupplies heat, his majefly has difcovered to be alfo pro- 
ductive of cold. 

Saltpetre is a faline earth. They fill with it a per- 
forated veflel, and fprinkle it with water, and collecting 
together what drops through, they boil it until it chryl- 
talizes. 

A quart of water is put into a gugglet of pewter, or 
filver, or any other clean metal, and the mouth Hopped 
dole. Then is thrown into a vefiel two feers and a 
half of faltpetre, with five feers of wa r .er; and the 
gugglet of water is ftined about in that mixture for 

* The place where water is cooled with faltpcire. 

the 



60 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

the fpace of a quarter of an hour, by which time the 
water will be fufficiently cool. 

The price of faltpetre is from thirty feers to four 
maunds for the rupee. 

Now that the victorious ftandards are erecled in Pun- 
jab, being the thirtieth year of the reign, they bring 
lnow and ice by land and water, from the fouthern 
mountains bordering on the town of Puthan, forty-five 
cofe from Lahoor : the people fell it at the rate of two 
or three feers for a rupee, and find their account in 
bringing it. 

THE KITCHEN. 

His majefty even extends his attention to this depart- 
ment, and has made many wife regulations for it. 

He eats but one in the courfe of twenty-four hours, 
and he always leaves off with an appetite : neither is 
there any fixed time for this meal ; but the fervants have 
always things in fuch readinefs, that in the fpace of an 
hour after the order is given, an hundred difhes are 
ferved up. What is required for the haram, is going 
forward from morning till night. 

Trudy people are appointed to this department, and 
his majeily is not unwatchful of their conduct. 

At the head of thefe fervants is the meer bekawel (or 
matter) who has under him many affiftants, who tafte 
every dim before it is brought to him ; there is alfo an 
officer to take charge of the money, and of the kitchen* 
utenfils ; together with a number of cooks. There is 
Iikewife a muihreffto keep the accounts ; and cooks of 
every nation prepare all foits of victuals. 

There 



PARTI. AYEEN AKEERY. 6, 

There is always kept in readinefs fle(h, oil, greens, 
fpices, fvvcermeats, &c. and every day fuch a number of 
exquifite dimes are prepared, as are fcarcely Teen at the 
banquets of other monarchs. 

On the beginning of every year there is taken out of 
ftore whatever will be required for one year's confump- 
tion, and the different articles are diltributed to the 
officers of each particular branch ; and the mouths of 
the facks and doors of the magazine are fealed with the 
ieals of the meer bekawel and the mumrefT. 

Every month, is drawn out an account of the daily 
expenditure, for which vouchers are produced under 
the ieals of the two officers above mentioned, when they 
are entered in the account charges. 

At the beginning of every quarter, the dewan of the 
offices and the meer bekawel, collect together whatever 
they think will be required for the kitchen : fuch as thole 
kinds of rice called fukdofs, from Bahrantch ; dow- 
zerah, from Gualiar; khenjen, from Rajowry ; nimlah- 
zurd and oil from Hiflar; and geele and other water- 
fowl from Cafhmeer. The cooks fatten fheep, goats, 
and poultry : the flaughter-houfe is without the city, 
and from thence the meat is lent to the kitchen in facks 
fealed by the cooks. 

The water-carriers pour the water out of leather bags 
into earthen veflels, the mouths whereof, being covered 
with linen cloth, are fealed up ; and the water is left to 
fettle before it is ufed. 

The kitchen-gardens are kept under a guard, that 
there may be a continual lupply of frefti greens. 

The meer bekawel and the mufhrerT draw out an 
eftimate of the daily expence of every kind of food, and 
make that their rule. 

Ordinary 



62 aTSIS akeery; part r." 

Ordinary people are not permitted to enter the 
kitchen ; and no one is entertained as a fervant who 
cannot give fecurity for his good behaviour. 

The victuals are ferved up in difhes of gold, fihrer, 
ftone, and china. 

During the time of drefTing and taking up the vic- 
tuals, an awning is fpread over the top of the kitchen, 
and care taken that nothing falls therefrom. The cooks 
tuck up the fleeves and the fkirts of their garments, and 
hold their hands before their mouths and noftrils. 
Before the victuals are taken up, a cook and one of the 
inferior bekawels tafte them ; after which they are tailed 
by the meer bekawel, and then put into diihes. 

The gold and filver dimes are tied up in red linen 
cloths, and thofe of copper and china in white linen ; 
•nd the meer bekawel puts his feal upon every difli, 
and writes on the cloth what it contains ; then the 
mufhrefftubbuck khaneh (or clerk of the pantry) makes 
out an inventory of all the difhes, and this is fent under 
a cover with the leal of the meer bekawel, that none of 
the diihes may be changed. 

The dimes are carried by the inferior tatters, the 
cooks, and other fervants of the kitchen ; and the mace- 
bearers both precede and follow, to prevent people from 
approaching them ; and with the diihes of meat are fent 
plates of variety of fvveetmeats and pickles, fealed up in 
the lame manner. 

The fervants of the prcfence again talk the victuals, 
"and then ferve it up ; when the table is ready, his ma- 
jefty feats himfelf j and the attendants place thethfelvefe 
round the table in a fitting pofture : firft, the (hare of 
the dervifhes is fet apart, when his majefly begins 
generally with milk or curds.— After he has dined he 
fays grace. 

Ail 



|*AR'T I. AYEEN AKBERY. 6j 

All this time the meer bekawel is waiting without for 
directions ; and they carry back the dimes in the fame 
order that they were brought. 

Befides what is ferved up, a quantity of victuals is 
"kept half-dreffed, to be ready when called for. 

The copper utenfils for his majefty's ufe are tinned 
twice in a month, and thole ol the princes and the 
haram, only once in that time ; whatever copper 
utenfils are broken are given to the braziers, who make 
new ones. 

OF THE ARTICLES USED IN COOKING. 

It is difficult to defcribe the various difhes j but 
fomething ihall be faid on this lubject. 

Cookery is divided into three kinds : i ft, That with- 
out flefh, which is commonly called fufyaneh ; 2d, Flcih 
with rice, and fuch like; 3d, Flefh with greens: and 
of each of theie kinds I (hall defcribe ten dilhes. 

THE FIRST KIND. 

Zcrdberinj. Ten feers of rice, five feers of fugar- 
candy, three and a half feers of ghee, half a feer of 
kimmimes ; of almonds and piftachios each half a feer ; 
a quarter of a feer of fait ; an eighth of a feer of ginger ; 
one dam and a half of faffron, and two mifkals and a 
half of cinnamon : thefe will make four ordinary dilhes ; 
fome make this difh with fewer fpices, and even without 
any : and there is alio fometimes added flefh, with 
other feafonings. 

Khufkch. Ten leers of rice, feafoned with half a 
feer of fait ; but it is made in different ways : this will 
make four difhes. A maund of Dowzerah-paddy yields 
twenty-five feers of rice, fixteen feers of which will be 

very 



64 aye?;n akbery. part i. 

x-erv nnc ; a maund of Khenjin-paddy yields twenty- 
two feers. 

Khitchery. Five feers of rice, and the like quantiy 
of fplit peas, five feers of ghee, and one third of a feer of 
fait, will make four dimes. 

Shecrberinj. Ten feers of wheat ground, out of 
which a third will be loft in lifting, halt that weight of 
ghee, ten miikals of pepper, four miikals of cinnamon, 
three miikals and a half of cloves, the lame quantity 
ofcardamums, and one-third of a feer -of (alt, will make 
four dimes. Some add milk and fugar. 



o 



Chickhee. Ten feers of wheat-flour made into a 
pafte and warned, till it is reduced to two feers ; one 
feer of ghee, and the fame quantity of onions ; laffron, 
cardamums, and cloves, each half a dam; ^cinnamon, 
round pepper, and coriander feed, each one dam; green 
ginger and fait, each three dams, will make two dimes. 
Some add lemon-juice. 

Badinjan. Ten feers of bad injan, one feer and a half 
of ghee, three quarters of a feer of onions, a quarter of 
a feer of ginger, the fame, quantity of lemon-juice; 
pepper and coriander feed five dams ; cloves, carda- 
mums, and aflafcetida, each half a dam, will make fix 
dimes. 

Pahet. Ten feers of mowngh, mam, and adefs, and 
foch like, fkinned ; half a feer of ghee; fait and ginger, 
each half a dam ; cummin-feed two mifkals, and one 
half mifkal of affafoetida, will make fifteen dillies. 
This is generally eaten with khufhkeh. 

Sawg is made of fpinach, and many other greens : 
it is the moft natural difh that is cooked. 

Ten 



Part i, ayeen akbery. 65 

Ten feers of fpinach and fennel, &c. one feer and a 
half of ghee, one feer of onions, five mifkals and a half 
of pepper ; cloves and cardamums, of each half a 
mifkal, will make fix difhes. 

Huhva. Ten feers of wheat-flour, ten feers of fugar- 
candy, and the fame quantity of ghee, will make fifteen 
d iflies. 

All thefe difhes are made after different ways, and 
are eaten with a Variety of pickles and hveetmeats. 

THE SECOND KIND. 

Cabooly. Ten feers of rice, feven feers of flefh, 
three feers and a half of ghee, one feer of nakhud 
fkinned, two feers of onions, half a leer of fait, a 
quarter of a feer of green ginger and cinnamon ; cu- 
min-feed and pepper, of each one dam ; cardamums 
and cloves, of each half a dam ; and iome add almonds 
and kifhmiihes. Thefe will make five difhes. 

Dewzdberyan. Ten feers of rice, five feers and a 
half of ghee, ten feers of flefh, and half a feer of fait, 
will make five di flies. . 

Kheemah Palow. Rice and flefh, of each ten feers, 
four feers of ghee, two feers and a half of nakhud 
ikinned, two feers of onions, a quarter of a feer of 
green ginger; pepper, cumin-feed, cloves, and car- 
damums, of each one dam, will make five dilhes. 

Showlah. Ten feers of rlcfh^ three fcers and a half of 
rice, two feers of ghee, one feer of nakhud, two feers 
of onions, half a feer of iak ; a quarter of a leer of green 
ginger ; pepper two dams ; and cinnamon, cardamums, 
and cloves, of each one dam, will make fix dilhes. 



Vol. 1, F Boghra. 



66 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Boghra. Ten feers of flefh, three leers of flour, one 
feer and a half of ghee, one feer of nakhud, one feer and 
a half of vinegar, one feer of fugar-candy, one quarter 
of a feer each of onions, carrots, beet-root, turnips, 
fpinach, fennel, and ginger; faffron, cloves, carda- 
mums, and cumin-feed, of each one dam, two dams 
of cinnamon, and eight mifkals of pepper, will make 
twelve difhes. 

Keema Shoorba, Ten feers of flefh, one feer of rice, 
the fame quantity of ghee, half a feer of nakhud, and the 
fame feafonings as are ufed in the fhowla, will make ten 
difhes. 

Hereefah. Ten feers of flefh, five feers of pounded 
wheat, two feers of ghee, half a feer of fait, and two dams 
of cinnamon, will make five dilhes. 

Kefhek. Ten feers of flefh, pounded wheat three 
feers, ghee three feers, a quarter of a feer of nakhud, 
one feer and a half of fait, half a feer of onions, ginger 
one dam; cinnamon, faffron, cloves, cardamums, and 
cumin, of each two mifkals, will make five dimes. 

Huleem. The flefh, wheat, nakhud, and fpices, the 
fame as thofe ufed in the khefhek, with one feer of ghee, 
and turnips, carrots, fpinach, and fennel, of each a 
quarter of a feer, will make ten dimes. 

Nutab, which the natives of Hindoflan call fembufeh, 
is differently made. Ten feers of flefh, four feers of 
flour, two leers of ghee, one feer of onions, a quarter of 
a feer of green ginger, half a feer of fait ; pepper and 
coriander feed, of each two dams; cardamums, cu- 
min-feed, and cloves, of each one dam, and a quarter 
of a feer of fumach-feed, will make near twenty nutabs, 
which will rill four difhes. 



Tii£ 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 67 

THE THIRD KIND. 

Beryan drooft gofpund. Two feers of fait, one feer 
of ghee*, faffron, cloves, pepper, cardamums, and cu- 
min, of each two mi/kals, will make four difhes. 

Yekhny. Ten feers of nefh, one feer of onions, and 
half a feer of fait. 

Yulmeh. A goat is fcalded in water till all the hair 
comes off, and then made into a yekhny, or drefTed in 
any other way ; but a kid or a lamb is preferable. 

Kebab is of various kinds. Ten feers of nefh, half 
a feer of ghee ; fait, green ginger, and onions, of each 
half a feer ; cumin-feed, coriander-feed, pepper, 
cardamums. and cloves, of each one dam and a half. 

Mefemmen. They take all the bones out of a fowl 
through the neck, fo that the ileih remains perfect, and 
which they fill with half a feer of flefh, and the lilce 
quantity of ghee, together with five eggs, a quarter of a 
feer of onions, ten mifkals of coriander-feed and green 
ginger, five mifkals of fait, three mifkals of pepper, and 
half a mifkal of faffron. 

Dupeeazeh. Ten feers of flefh , neither very fat nor 
lean, and the like quantity of onions, a quarter of a 
feer of fait, an eighth of a feer of green ginger ; cu- 
min-feed, coriander-feed, cardamums, and cloves, of 
each one dam, and five dams of pepper, will make four • 
dimes. 

Motenjenah gofpund. Ten foers of flefh, not very- 
fat, two feers of ghee, half a feer of nakhud, a quarter 
of a feer of ginger; one dam of cumin-feed, pepper, 
cloves, cardamums, and coriander-feed, of each two 

F 2 darns, 



68 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I* 

dams, will make feven dimes : and it is alfo made of 
fowl or fifli. 

Dumpokht. Ten feers of flefli, two feersofghee, 
one feer of onions, fifteen mifkal* of pepper; cloves and 
cardamums, of each two dams. 

Kuleeah. Ten feers of flefh, two feers of oil, one 
feer of onions, two dams of pepper ; cloves and car- 
damums, of each one dam, and an eighth of a feer of 
fait, will make eight diflies. 

Mulghobah. Ten feers of flefh, ten feers of milk- 
curds ; ghee and onions of each one feer, a quarter of a 
leer of ginger, and one dam of cloves, will make ten 
diflies. 

OF BREAD. 

Bread is prepared in the pantry; the largeft kind, 
which is baked in an oven, is made of ten feers of flour, 
five feers of milk, one feer and a half of ghee, and one 
quarter of a leer of fait; fmaller ones are alfo made of 
this dough. Odiers, which are baked on an iron-plate, 
are fixteen, and fomctimes more, to a feer. There is 
likewife another kind, called chepaty, which are made 
of khuflikeh. 

THE SLIYANLH. 

His majefty has a great diiinclination for flefli ; and 
he frequently fays, " Providence has prepared variety of 
" food for man ; but, through ignorance and gluttony, 
tc he deftrovs living creatures, and makes his body a 
?.*. tomb for beads. If I were not a king, I would leave 
*'. off eating flefli at once; and now it is my intention to 
" quit it by degrees." For fome time he abftained 
from flefli on Fridays, then on Sundays, now on the 
firft day of every folar month, and on Sunday?, and on 

the 



TART I. AYEEN AKEERY. 69 

the days of the eclipfes of the fun and of the moon, and 
the day between two fufyanehs *, and the Mondays of 
the month Rejeb, and the feftival of the month Teer, 
together with the whole of the month -Fervirdeen 
(March) and the month in which his majelty was born, 
which is Aban (October) : and it being ordered that 
the fufyaneh mould laft for as man)* days as his majefty 
was years old, fome days in the next month, Azer, were 
likewife added ; and now the whole of this laft month is 
fufyaneh : and" out of his righteoufnefs, befides all thofe, 
it is frill increafing fome days every year, and never lets 
than live days. 

Whatever is faved in the fufyaneh days, is expended 
in the other months. 

At the expiration of the great fufyaneh, the firft dimes 
offleflithat are drefled come from the apartments of 
Merjem Mekany, and next from the other princes and 
princefJes, and the principal nobility. 

In this department are ahdyan and other cavalry. 
The pay of a foot-foldier is from one hundred to four 
hundred dams. 



THE CURRENT PRICES OF PROVISIONS. 

THE SPRING HARVLST, 

Price. 
Wheat, - 12 dams per maund. 

Cabul vetches, 1 6 

Black vetches, 8 

Adefs, - 12 

* That is, if a day intervened between two days that were ap- 
pointed for abstaining from rlelh, that intermediate day became alfo 
fufyaneh. 



F 3 Barlev, 



7* 



AYEEN 


AKBERY. P. 




Price. 


Barley, 


8 dams per maund. 


Millef, 


6 


Linfeed, 


10 


Maasfer-feed, 


8 


Fenugreek, 


io 


Peas, 


6 


Muftard-feed, 


12 


Kyood, 


7 



PART I, 



THE AUTUMNAL HARVEST. 



Shahy mifhkeen, 


1 1 o dams per maund. 


Shahy fadeh, 


90 


Sukdofs rice, 


100 


Downahperfaud rice, 


90 


Samzereh rice, 


90 


Sugar-candy rice, 


90 


Dowzerah rice, 


90 


Khenjon rice, 


80 


Deker rice 


So 


Zerhce rice, 


40 


Sathee rice, 


8 


Mowng, 


1$ 


Mafh, 


16 


Mowth, 


12 


White fefame, 


20 


Black fefame, 


19 


Lubya, 


12 


Jewary, 


10 


Lehdereh, 


8 


Koderem, 


7 


Korey, 


7 


Sawank, 


6 


GaU, 


8 


Millet, 


8 




KINDS, 






t ART I. 



AYEEN AKBEPT. 



■1* 



KINDS OF DAL. 
Price. 
Split peas, - 18 dams per matin d. 

Split nakhud, i6£ 

Split adefs, - 12 

Split mowth, 12 



KINDS 


OF FLOUR 


• 


Wheat flour, 




22 dams 


per maund. 


Khufhkeh, 




15 , 




Nakhud, 




22 




Barley, 




II 






GREENS. 




Spinach, 




10 dams 


per maund. 


Mint, 




16 




Onions, 




40 




Garlic, 




6 


. 


Radiihes, 




40 




Cabbage, 
Kengehchow, found- 


20| 
1 




in the wilds 


of 


L i dam per feer. 


Cammeer, 


J 


1 




Fennel, 




4 




Wild carrot, 


- 


3 




Garlic flowers, 




1 




Oopulhak, which 


1 




grows in the wilds 
ofCafhmeer, - 


I 1 




Ginger, 








Powey, 
Kutchnar buds 








Sorrel, 




o£ 




Retfeka, 




1 




Bchtua, 




H 




Chowliee, 


- 


ii 


* 






F 4 


ANIMALS 



* ^ 
/? 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART U 



ANIMALS AND FLESH. 



Rs. As. 



Sheep called dafhmi 


ndy, 


6 8 each. 


Sheep called afghany 


, ill kind, 


2 


Ditto ditto ditto, 


2d kind, 


1 8 


Ditto ditto ditto, 


3d kind, 


1 4 


Indian and Caflimeery iheep, 


1 8 


Berberry goats, 


1 ft kind, 


1 


Ditto ditto, 


2d kind, 


12 


Mutton, 


- 65 


dams per maund. 


Goat-mutton, 


5 + 


ditto ditto 


Geefe, 


20 


dams each 


Ducks, 


1 


rupee each 


Cranes, 


20 


dams each 


Cherz, a kind of buftard, 18 


dams each 


Quails, 


n 
3 




Partridge, 


20 




Eoodneh, 


I 




Lewa, 


I 




Kerdanek, 


20 




Doves, 


4 






BUTTER, &C. 


Ghee, 


I05 


dams per maunc 


Sefame oil, 


80 




Milk, 


2 5 




Milk Curds, 


18 






SUGARS, &C 




Refined fugar, 


6 


dams per feer. 


White fugar-candy, 5 




White fugar, 


128 


dams per maund 


Brown fugar, 


- 56 





SPICES3 



PART I. 



AYEEN AKBERV* 



73 



SPICES, &C. 



Saffron, 
Cloves, 
Cardamums, 
Round pepper, 
Long pepper, 
Dry ginger, 
Green ditto, 
Cumin-feed, 
Ajwain, 
Turmerit, 
Coriander-feed, 
Black feed 
Affafoetida, 
Anifeed, 
Cinnamon, - 
Salt, 



400 dams per feer. 
60 

J 7 
16 

4 
2 1 

2 

2 

2 

3 

10 

1 



40 
16 



dams per maund. 



pickles, 8cc. 



Prepared lemon-juice, 
Lemon-juice, 
Wine-vinegar, 
Sugar-vinegar, 
Pickled ufhterghar, 
Mangoes pickled in oil, 



ditto in vinegar, 
ditto in oil, 
ditto in vinegar, 
ditto in brine, 
ditto in lemon-juice, 3 
2 



Ditto 

Lemons 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Pickled ginger, 

Aderfliakh, 

Turnips pickled in vinegar, 

Pickled carrots - 

Ditto bamboo, 



dams per feer. 



-r 

2 1 

I 



Pickled 



74 



Pickled 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 



AYEEN AKBERV. 



PART 1. 



apples, 

quinces, 

garlic, 

onions, 

badinjans, 

kimmifhes, 

ketchnar, 

apricots, 

fehjeneh, 

keryl-flowers, 

keryl-buds, 

fooren-root, 

muftard, 

tewry, 

cucumbers, 

govvrds, 

kutchaloo 

radi(h-pods, 



8 dams per feer. 



9 

i 

Oi 

i 
8 

2 
I 

I 
Gl 

O? 

1 

o£ 
ci 
oi 
04- 

°i 

oi 



THE FRUITERY. 

ftis majefty is exceedingly fond of fruit ; and by the 
great encouragement he has given to the cultivation 
of fruit-trees, fkiiful people have come with their fa^ 
milies from Perfia and Tartary, and fettled in this 
countrv. 

i 

Mufk-melons and grapes are become very plenty ; 
and water-melons, peaches, almonds, piftachios, pome- 
granates, and many other fruits, have been introduced 
into Hindoftan. 

Ever fince the conqueft of Cabul, Candahar, and 
Cafnmeer, loads of fruit are annually brought from 
thence, and flock the markets. Muik-melons come 
in feafon, in Hindoftan, in the month of March (Fer- 
virdeen) and are very plenty in the month of April. 
They are exceedingly delicious, efpecially thofe called 
nafhpatiy, and babafheikhy, and alyfhery, and elcheh, 
and burgnei, and doodcheragh, and others which con- 
tinue 



*ART U AYEEN AKBERY." 75 

tinue in feafon two months longer. In the beginning 
of the month of Auguft they come from Cafhmeer; and 
before thefe are out of feafon, great plenty are brought 
from Cabul; and in the month of November the 
caravans come from Badakhfhan ; and when they are in 
feafon in Zabuliftan, they are alfo to be had in Penjab. 
In Behker and its vicinity, they are plentifully in feafon 
all the year, excepting in the extremity of winter. In 
the months of May and July there are variety of grapes 
in Hindoftan ; and in the month of Auguft, the 
markets are fupplied from Cafhmeer. In Cafhmeer 
eight feers of grapes are bought for one dam ; and the 
expence of transporting a maund is two rupees : the 
Cafhmerians bring them on their backs in long bafkets. 
From the month of April till September they are 
brought from Cabul, together with cherries, to which 
his majefly has given the name of (hah aloo (the royal 
plumb) and feedlefs pomegranates, apples, pears, 
quinces, peaches, apricots, feveral kinds of plumbs, and 
other fruits in great plenty ; and many of thefe are alfo 
introduced into Hindoftan. They alfo bring from Can- 
dahar, melons, pears, and apples. 

Whenever his majefty is inclined to drink wine, or 
take opium, or kuknar, trays of fruit are fet before 
him. He eats a few, but the greatefl part is diftriouted 
amongfl the attendants and nobility ; and every one is 
marked according to its degree of excellence. On the 
melons of the firft degree they mark one line quite acrofs 
the top, and thofe ot the fecond degree with two lines, 
and fo on. 

In this department are munfubdars, ahdvans, and 
other troops. The monthly pay of a foot-foldier is from 
one hundred and forty dams down to one hundred. 



TIIL 



"]$ AYEEN AKBERY. PART I, 



'The current Trices of Fruits, with the Scafon in which 

each is produced. 

Tartarian Fruits. Price. 
Mnik melons, id kind, 2f Rs. each 
do. do, zdand 3d kind, from 1 to 2§ Rs. each 
Cabnly melons, 1 ft kind, from 1 to if Rs. each 
do. do. 2d kind, from £ to 1 R. each 
do, do. 3d kind, . from \ to £ R. each 
Samarcandian apples, from 7 to 1 5 for a R, 
Quinces, - - from 10 to 30 do. 
Pears, - - from 1 o to 1 00 do. 
Pomegranates, - from 6 \ to 15 Rs. per Md. 
Cabuly, or Ferenmaky ap- 
ples, - - from 5 to 10 for a R. 
Cafhmeery grapes, - 108 dams per maund 
Dates, - - 10 dams per feer 
Kifhmilhes, - 9 do. 
Jowzmeghz, - 4l do. 
Walnuts, - - 2 § do. 
Abjewfh, - 9 do. 
Bokharah plums, - 8 do. 
Khoobany, - 8 do. 
Candahary grapes, - 7 do. 
Figs, - 7 do. 
Meneka, - - 6| do. 
Jujubes, - 3 1 do. 
Almonds, - - 28 do. 
Almonds in the (hell, n do. 
Piftachio nuts, - 9 do. 
Chelghozeh nuts, - 8 do. 
Sinjed, - 6| do. 
Unfhelled piftachios 6 do. 
Filberts, - 3 do. 



Indian 



PART I. 


AVEEN AKB] 


ery. 77 


Indian Fruits, 


Seafon. 


Price. 


Mangoes, 


The rains, 


40 dams per 1 00 


Pine apples, 


Winter, 


4 dams each 


Oranges, 


do. 




Sugar-canes, 


do. 


\ dam each 


Jacks, 


Summer, 


| do. do. 


Plantains, 


The rains, 


\ do. do. 


Pomegranates 


, do. 


from 80 to 100 darm 
per maund 


Byer, 


Winter, 


2 dams per feer 


Cuftard apples 


i,The rains, 


| dam each 


Figs, 


Summer, 


1 dam per feer 


Mulbcries, 


Spring, 


2 dams per feer 


Sedaphul, 


All the year, 


1 dam each 


Mufk-melons 


, Summer, 


40 dams per maund 


Water do. 


Before the rains, 


from 2 to 1 dam each 


Khirny, 


Rainy feaibn, 


4 dams per feer 


Mahowa, 


Summer, 


1 dam per feer 


Dayphcl, 


Winter, 


4 dams per feer 


Ovvfeera, 


do. 




Tyndoo, 


Summer, 


2 dams per feer 


Kehjoor, 


Rains, 


4 do. do. 


Ankoohel, 






Dccla, 


Rains, 


1 dam per feer 


Goolh, 


do. 


■ 


Bhoolfery, 


Winter, 


4 dams per feer 


Terkool, 


Summer, 


| dam each 


Panyaleh, 


Rains, 


2 dams per feer 


Lehfureh, 


Summer, 


1 do. do. 


Goombhy 


Winter, 




Gerherry, 


Summer, 


4 dams per feer 


Terry, 






Bengh, 


Rains, 


| dam each 


Gooleh, 


Spring, 


2 dams per feer 


Peeloo, 


Summer, 


2 dams 


Berooteh, 


do. 




Pyar, 


Rains, 


4 dams. 



Dried 



7* 


A YE EN A KB] 


SRtl PART I. 


Dried Fruits. 


Seafon. 


Price. 


Cocoa-nuts, 


Winter, 


4 dams each 


Pendkehjoor, 


Summer, 


6 do. per leer 


Walnuts, 


do. 


6 do. do. 


Cheroomjee, 


do. 


4 do. do. 


Mekhenan, 


W inter, 


4 do. do. 


Bettlenut, 


do. 


8 do. do. 


Kebelgutteh, 


Summer, 


2 do. do. 


Pot-herbs. 


Seafon. 


Price. 


Pulwuls, 


Rains, 


2 dams per feer 


Gourds, 


do. 


| dam each 


Badinjan, 


Always in feafon, 


i f dam per feer 


Turee, 


Rains,. 


1 1 do. do. 


Kenduree, 


do. 


i * do. do. 


Seem, 


do. 


i \. do. do. 


Pytch, 


do* 


8 dams each 


Keryleh, 


do. 


1 4- dams per feer 


Xekowreh, 


do. 


i-^ do. 


Ketchaloo, 


do. 


2 do. 


Chechynda, 


do. 


2 do. 


Sooren, 


Summer, 


i do. 


Carrots, 




i do. 


Singhareh, 


Rains, 


3 d ^ 


Salute, 


Winter, 


2 do. 


Pendaloo, 


do. 


2 do. 


Syaly, 


Summer, 




Keleyroo, 


Winter, 


3 do. 


Acid Fruits. 


Seafon. 


Price. 


Tamarir.ds, 


Summer, 


2 dams per feer 


Bedhel, 


do. 


i dam each 


Kemrek. 


Winter, 


I do. do. 



Acid 



PART I. 


AYEEN 


AKEERY. 




Acid fruits. 


Seafon. 




Price. 


Oranges, 


do. 


X 

z 


dam each. 


Mountain 


Summer, 






grapes, 








Jamen, 


Rains, 


I 


dam per feer 


Phalfeh, 


Summer, 


ll 


do. 


Kerundah, 


Rains, 


I 


do. 


Kyt, 


do. 


I 

4 


dam each 


Kankhoo, 








Paker, 


Rains, 


r 


a dam per feer 


Kerna, 


do. 


I 


dam each 


Lebhera, 


Summer, 






Junyherry, 


Rains, 


5 


for a dam 


Kerneh, 








Lemons, 


Rummer, 


4 


for a dam 


Amelbeyt, 


Rains, 


4 


do. do. 


Gelgel, 


do. 


i 

z 


a dam each 


Khyfs, 


do. 






Citrons, 


do. 


8 


dams each 


Enwlch, 


Summer, 


2 


dams per fecr. 



79 



REGULATIONS FOR THE PERFUME-OFFICE. 

His majehzy is exceedingly fond of perfumes j and the 
pretence-chamber is continually fcented with flowers, 
and fumigated with preparations of ambergris, lignum- 
aioes, &c. which are burnt in gold and lilver centers. 

His majefty conftantly perfumes his body and the 
hair of his head with odoriferous ointments. Some of 
the odoriferous compofitions (hall here be defcribed. 

Sentowk, One tolah and a half of civet, one tolah 
of cliuwah, two malhahs of Jafmin oil, and two bottles 
of rofe-water. This is uleci for anointing the body ; and 
it is a great exhilarator. 

Argehjeh. 



So AYEEN AKBERY. PART I» 

Argehjeh. Three quarters of a feer of fandal-wood, 
two tolahs of lignum-aloes, two tolahs of myd, three 
tolahs of chuwah, two tolahs of the roots of violets and 
kehlet (which is the feed of an odoriferous kind of grafs) 
half a mafhah of camphor, and eleven bottles of rofc- 
water. This is ufed for anointing the body in the 
fumnier. 

Gulkamth. One tolah of ambergris, fix mafhahs of 
laudan, two tolahs of muik, four tolahs of lignum- 
aloes, eight tolahs ofakyfir ground fine on a China difh, 
and mixed up with one feer of the expreffed juice of 
rofes ; this is dried in the fun, and in the evening is 
moiftened with the juice of lemon-blofToms, and ground 
on a fumac-ftone j and thefe operations are to be re- 
peated ten times. Sometimes the juice of fweet bafil 
is added. When the above operations have been re- 
peated ten days, it is mixed up with the juice of lemon- 
blofloms and then dried. Some of this compofition is 
ufed along with the argehjeh. 

Ruh-afza, for burning in cenfers. Five feers of 
lignum-aloes, one leer of fandal-wood, a quarter of a 
feer of laudan, a quarter of a leer of akyfir, three tolahs 
and a half of frank incenfe, three tolahs and a half of 
derhoop, which is a root brought from Cafhmeer, 
violet-roots twenty tolahs, ufhneh ten tolahs, pounded 
and fifted. To be made into cakes with four bottles of 
role-water, thickened with fyrup. 

Owpteneh is an odoriferous wafh for the hands. 
Three quarters of a feer of laudan, one dam and a half 
of lignum-aloes, with the like quantity of lemon-blof- 
foms, and one feer and a half of lemon-peel, one feer 
and ten dams of fandal-wood, one feer and five dams of 
ipikenard, the fame quantity of ufhneh, thirty-eight 
tolahs and fix mafhahs of mufk, half a feer and four 
tolahs of pacheh-leaves, thirty-fix tolahs of apples, fif- 
teen 



Parti. ayeen akbery. 8r 

teen tolahs of fad *, five dams of violets, One tolah two 
mafhahs of derhoop, one tolah and a half of a grafs 
called akenky, half a tolah of civet, one tolah two 
maftiahs of frankincenfe, with one hundred and fix 
bottles of rofe-watcr, and five bottles of the juice of 
lemon- bloiToms. All the ingredients are pounded and 
{trained, and then fet over a (low fire with the rofe- 
water and juice of icmon-bloflbms ; and when the com- 
petition is fufficientiy boiled, it is taken off from the fire 
and dried. 

Abyr mayeh. Lignum-aloes four dams, fmdal-wood 
two dams, violet-roots one dam, fpikenard three dams 
and a half, duwalek three dams, mufk of Tartary four 
tolahs, laudan two dams and a half, orange-bloffoms 
feven dams and a half: all thefe ingredients being 
pounded and lifted, are put upon a flow fire with ten 
bottles of rofe-water, and afterwards dried in the fhade. 

Kefhneh. Twenty-four tolahs of lignum-aloes, lau- 
dan, frankincenfe, and fandal-wood of each fix tolahs, 
akyfir and derhoop of each four tolahs, violet-roots and 
mufk of each two tolahs, one tolah of ufhneh, fifty 
tolahs of fugar-candy, and two bottles of rofe-water, 
to be boiled over a flow fire, after which it is made into 
cakes. It gives a very fragrant fmell when burnt. 

Bekhur. Lignum-aloes and fandal-wood of each one 
feer, a quarter of a feer of frankincenfe, two tolahs of 
inufk, and five tolahs of akvfir, mixed up with two leers 
of fugar-candy and one bottle of rofe-water, boiled over 
a flow fire. 

Fetylehs. Five feers of lignum-aloes, feventy-two 
tolahs of fandal-wood, twenty-five feers of akyfir, the 
lame quantity of laudan and violets, and ten tolahs of 

* An odoriferous grafs. 
Vol. I. G frankincenfe, 



82 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

frankincenfe, boiled up with three tolahs of fugar-candy 
and two bottles of role-water, and then made into 
fetylehs or tapers. 

Barjat. One feer of lignnm-aloes, five tolahs of 
taudan, mnfk and fandal-wood of each two tolahs, one 
tolah of frankincenfe, and fix mafhahs of camphor. 
This compofition is prepared like chuwah. 

Abyr akyfir. Sandal-wood three feers, akyfir twenty- 
fix tolahs, mufk two tolahs and eight malhahs, ground 
fit for ufe. 

Gheful. Thirty-five tolahs of kettowl, one tolah of 
mufk and chuwah, camphor and myd of each two 
tolahs, mixed up with two bottles of rofe-waier. 



OF NATURAL PERFUMES. 

Ambergris. Some fay that it is produced in the 
bottom of the feaj others make it to be the dung of the 
fea-cow, which is called fara ■> while others maintain that 
it is the foam of the fea. 

Laudan is by fome confounded with ambergris, but 
it is gathered from a tree found in the iflands ot Cyprus 
and Chios. It is a moiiture that fettles on the leaves of 
that tree. 

Camphor is obtained from a large tree found in the 
maritime mountains of Hindoftan and China. It is 
collected from the trunk and branches. 

Civet is a perfume procured from an animal refem- 
bling a cat, but fomewhat larger, with a longer face and 
tail. They bring this perfume from Achin. 

Kowrah 



PART ft AYEEN AKBERY. 83 

Kowrah is fortieth ing of the fame kind, procured 
from an animal much refembling the civet ; and it alto 
is found in Achin. 

Myd is likewife fomething of the fame kind, but of 
an inferior quality. 

Lignum-aloes is the root of a tree, which is lopped off 
and buried in the earth, when whatever is not good rot?, 
and the remainder is pure aloes. There are feveral 
kinds of it, viz. Mendely, Jebely, Semendury, Kemary, 
Kakey, Berry, Cathaiy, Chiny (which is alfo called 
Kemoory) and Jelaly, Mytaky, and Lemaky. Of all 
thefe kinds the Mendely is the belt. The Semendury 
is blue, thick, and moift, and burns for a long time on 
the fire. 

Chuwah is diflilled lignum-aloes. 

THE METHOD OF MAKING CHUWAH. 

Small pieces of lignum-aloes that have been fteeped 
in water for a week, are put into a narrow-necked 
vcifel, which is then luted with philofopher's clay. 
Philofopher's clay is compofed of clay, cotton, and rice- 
bran. A fmall fpace is left at the neck of the veflel, 
which is placed inverted in another vefTel perforated at 
the bottom, and fupported by a three-legged ftaad,- 
under which is placed a difh full of water, fo that the 
mouth of the firft mentioned veflel may touch its fur- 
face ; then there is made round the inverted velfel a 
gentle fire of cow-dung, which melts the aloes till it 
diftils into the water : this is collected, and repeatedly 
wafhed with water and rofe -water to take off all fmell 
of fmoke. 

Sandal. This tree is a native of China. It has been 
brought into Hindoftan in this reign, and thrives very 
well. 

G 2 Sandal- 



84 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Sandal- wood is of three kinds, white, red, and yellow. 
The beft is that which is yellow and oily, and it is called 
mekafiry. 

Storax is the gum of a native tree of Syria; and there 
are of it bot.i liquid and dry. 

Kelumbek is a tree whofe wood is very heavy and 
veined. It is brought from Zeerbad. It is ground 
fine and mixed with other perfumes ; and they alfo make 
rofaries of it. 

Mullageer is a tree relembling the former, only that 
the wood is lighter and not veined. 

Frank incenfe is the gum of a tree brought from the 
port of Java : fome miftake it for dry ftorax. When 
thrown on the fire, it evaporates like camphor. 

Scented nails refemble fhells, and are collected from 
the neft of an animal. They are found in the Indus, 
at Bafrah, and Bahrain. 

A Table of Perfumes , with their Prices. 

Ambergris^ - i mohur to 3 per tolah 

Civet, - I rupee to 1 mohur per tolah 

Mufk, - 1 rupee to 4! rupees per do. 

Lignum-aloes, - 2 rupees to 5 mohurs per feer 

Chuwah, * - 2 af. to 1 rupee per tolah 

Kowrah, - 3 rupees to 5 rupees per do. 

Camphor, - 3 rupees to 2 mohurs per tolah 

Myd, - 1 to 3 rupees per tolah 

Perlian faffron, - 12 to 22 rupees per feer 

Kahghydo. • 1 to3 mohurs per feer. 

Cafhmeery do. - 8 to 1 2 rupees per do. 

Sandal, - - 32 to 55 rupees per maund 

Mu/k-pods, - 3 to 1 2 mohurs per feer 

Kelumbek, - 10 to 40 rupees per maund 

■ Storax* 



PART I. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



85 



Storax, 
Frankincenfe, 
China camphor, 
Efienceof fitneh, 
Effence of baidmuik, 
Rofe- water, 



3 to 5 rupees per feer 
1 1 to 4 rupees per leer 
1 to 2 rupees per feer 
1 to 3 rupees per bottle 
1 to 4 rupees per do. 
I to 1 rupee do. 



Effence of orange-flowers, 1 to 5 rupees do. 



Effence of jafmin, 
Violet-roots, 
Scented-nails, 
Bah-leaves, brought 
from Gujerar, 



} 



4 to 8 rupees do. 

§ rupee to 1 rupee per feer 
1 1 to 2 rupees do. 

I to 1 rupee do. 



Sugendeh Kookelah, 


10 to 13 rupees do. 


Frankincenle, 


1 to 3 rupees per tolah 


Alek-khendy, 


| to 4 rupees do. 


Duwalek, 


3 dams to 4 do. 


Kanehleh, 


ditto 


Saad, 


ditto 


Akungy, 


ditto 


Zedoary, 


ditto. 




FLOWERS- 



Sugendehkukla is a flowering fhrub, very common 
in Hindoftan, 

Sewty refembles the red rofe, only that it is fmaller. 

Jafmin. There are two kinds j one of which is called 
roy chembely. 

Roy beyl refembles jafmin, and is of feveral kinds. 

Mowngra refembles roy beyl, but is larger. 

Chempeh is of a conical form, the length of a finger ; 
its tree is handfome, and bears flowers in feven years. 



Gj 



Keytkey 



86 AYEEN AKBERY. PART 1. 

Keytkey refembles the cone of a pine-tree, and has a 
very delicate fragrant fmell. Its tree bears flowers in 
fix or feven years. 

Chelteh is like a tulip, only larger, and in fmell it 
nearly Tefembles the violet. Thefe flowers when 
withered, are boiled and eaten. The tree is about the 
fizc of the pomegranate-tree, with leaves like the lemon- 
tree. It' flowers in the feventh year. 

Kewrah is like the keytkey, only twice as big. The 
tree flowers in four years. 

Tufbeh gulal has a very fragrant fmell. The petals 
are of the form of a dagger. The fhrub is two ells 
high, and flowers in the fourth year. They make beads 
of thefe flowers, which keep frefha week. 

Phulfery is lefs than the jafmin, and its petals are 
indented. The tree refembles the walnut-tree, and it 
flowers in the tenth year. 

Sengarhar is fhaped like a clove. Its tree flowers in 
the fifth year. 

Koozeh refembles the white rofe. Of this flower is 
made abyrmayeh, and they alfo diftil a water from it. 

Padel is a flower which gives an agreeable flavour to 
water. The tree flowers the firft year. 

Jewhy : its tree flowers in the third year. 

Newary refembles the roy beyl. Its tree flowers in 
the flrit year. 

Kepurbeyl has five petals, and refembles the faffron 
flower. It has been lately brought from Europe. 

The 



PARTI. AYEEN AKBERY. dj 

The faffron- flower refembles the kepurbeyl, but it 
has fix petals and fix threads. The firft three petals are 
very beautiful, and are encompaffed by three other 
fimilar ones ; and between thefe fix petals are three 
yellow threads furrounding three red threads ; which laft 
are the faffron. 

The fun-flower is round, broad, and large, and of 
numerous petals ; and it always turns towards the lun. 
Its fhrub grows to the height of three ells. 

The kenwel are of two kinds, one of which is yellow, 
blows in the morning, and follows the fun m his courfe, 
and in the evening the flower (huts up : it has fix petals, 
and refembles the anemone. The other, which is w^hite, 
has four petals, and when the moon (nines it blows and 
turns tovvards it, in the fame manner as the other follows 
the fun. 

Jafery is a round beautiful flower, larger than tho 
fudberg. 

Gorhel is like the tulip, and of numerous -petals. 
It flowers in the fecond year. 

Retenmungeny has four petals, and is fmaller than 
jafmin. Its tree and the leaves thereof refemble roy 
beyl. It flowers in the fecond year. 

Keyfew has five petals, refembling the nails of a lion. 

Kenayr remains a long time in bloom, and is beauti- 
ful, but unlucky. Whoever wears it on his head gets 
into quarrels. It flowers in one year. 

Kuddem is round like a ball. Its tree and the leaves 
thereof refemble the walnut-tree. 

G 4 Nagehfir 



88 AVEEN AKBERY. PART U 

Nagehfir is in fhape like the red rofe, but is white, 
with yellow in the middle : — it has five petals and 
threads. The tree flowers in feven years. 

Soorpun refembles the fefame-flower, with yellow in 
the middle. 

Sirrykhundy is fomewhat like jafmin. It flowers in 
two years. 

Henna has four petals, and every fhrub bears a dif-t 
ferent coloured flower. 

Dupahrya is a fmall flower of a dark red colour, and 
blows always at noon. 

Bhuyn chumpa refembles the neelofer. It has five 
petals, and grows in inundated ground, in fuch a man-, 
ner that nothing but the flower appears above the 
fljrface. 

Soodorfon refembles the roy beyl, and has yellow 
threads within the petals. The plant is like the lily. 

Spikenard is compofed of five petals, each ten fingers 
Jong, and three fingers broad. 

Rotonmala is ufed in dying cloth. With a decoction 
of it they mix vitriol and maasfer flowers, which produce 
a red colour. 

Maky is like jafmine, but rather fmaller. It flowers 
in the fecond year. ' . 

Soon is like yellow jafmin, but fomewhat larger. It 
has five petals. The tree refembles the jafmin, and 
flowers in the fecond year, 

Keroyl 



PART I. AYEES AKBERY. 89' 

Keroyl is a beautiful flower of three little petals. It 
is made into broth, and is alfo pickled. 

Jait grows on a large tree, whofe leaf refcmbles that 
of the tamarind. 

Chempelah is like a nofegay : it flowers in the fecond 
year. The bark of the tree makes a red decoction. 
It grows chiefly in mountainous countries. The wood 
thereof burns like a candle. 

Lahy. The fhrub that bears this floWer is an ell and a 
half high. The branches, before the flowers appear, 
are eat with bread. 

Kerundeh-flower fefembles the jewhy. 

Dhonwontor is a beautiful flower, refembling the 
neelofer. 

Serifs is like threads of filk, and fends its fragrance to 
a great diftance. Its tree is called the king of trees j it 
is very large, and is ufed in building. The heart of it 
js black, and refills the ftroke of the axe. 

Kunglay is a beautiful flower of five petals, each four 
Angers long ; and only one flower grows on each (talk. 

Hemp grows in clufters like a nofegay. The leaves 
of this plant refemble thofe of the chinar-tree, and of 
the bark is made rope. One fpecies bears a flower like 
the cotton-flirub ; and this is called in Hindoftan, fun- 
paut. It makes a very foft rope. 

It would be impoflible for one, ignorant as I am, to 
defcribe every flower of this country : — a few have been 
mentioned by way of fpecimen. Here are alio found 

abundance 



90 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART- 1, 



abundance of flowers tranfplanted from Perfia and Tar- 
tary ; fuch as rofcs, violets, jaimin, &c. 

The plants, flowers, roots, &c. of this country that 
are ufed for food, or applied to medicinal purpotes, are 
innumerable. It is faid by Indian authors, that if you 
take a leaf of every tree, they will amount to fix maunds. 



Names. 
Sewty, 

Jaftnin, 

Roy beyl, 

Mowngra, 

Chempeh, 

Kcytkey, 

Chekeh, 

Koozeh, 

Gulal, 

Tefbeh gulal, 

Phulfery, 

Scngarhar, 

Padel, 

jewhy, 

Newary, 

Narciifus, 

Violet, 

Kerneh, 

KJepurbeyl, 

Saffron-flower, 

Sun-flower, 

Kenwel, - 

Jatery, 

Gorhe>, - j 



t 



i TABLE OF FLOWERS 

Colour, 
white, - - 

white and yellow, 

white, 
ditto 

pale yellow, 
ditto 
white, 

white and yellow, 
white, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

yellow and white, 
, white, 
do. 

gives name to a colour, 
white, 
do. 

violet colour, 
yellow, 
a light red, and half 

blue and white, 
dead yellow, 
red, yellow, orange 

and white, 



Seafon. 
all the year 

{the rains and 
winter 
fummer 
do. 

all the year 
fummer 
winter 
autumn 
fpring 
winter 
the rains 
fummer 
fpring 
the rains 
fpring 
do. 

fummer 
fpring 
do. 

autumn 
do. 

> the rains 

fpring 

1 >.the rains 



Retenmungeny, 



1>A"RT X. AYEEN AKBERY. 

Names. Colour. 

Retenmungeny, fiery red, 



Kayfevv, 
Kenyar, 

Kuddem, 

Nagehfir, 

Sorpun, 

Serrykhendy, 

Henna, 

Dupahrya, 



91 

Seafon. 
all the year 
fummer 
do. 



do. 

red and white, 

f yellow, with white ") ,- . 

\ within, - J P rm S 

white, and yellow within, do. 



do. 



the rains 
fpring 
do. ' 

all the year 
do. 



white, red, and yellow, 

do. 

bright red and white, 

Bhuyn chumpa, apricot-colour, 

c j r f yellow, refembling the 1 , 

buderlun, < J ,., ° > the rains 

L water lily, J 

dirty red, - fp i "ing 

yellow, - - do. 

do. - - do. 

do. - - do. 

> gold colour, - fp r i n g 

do. - - do. 



Spikenard, 
Rutenmala, 
Soon, 
Malta, 
Clove jelly- 
flower, 
Keroyl, 
)ait, 
Chumpelah, 
Lahy, 
Kerundeh, 
Dhonontor, 
Sirefs, 
Kunglay, 
Hemp, 



yellow, with red and black, the rains 
white, - - fpring 

yellow, - - winter 

white, - - the rains 

like the water-lily, - do. 
yellow, inclined to green, fpring 
red and yellow, - . do. 
yellow, - - the rains. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE WARDROBE. 
Through the attention of his majefty, a variety of 
new manufactures are eftablifhed in this country ; and 
the cloths fabricated in Perfia, Europe, and China have 
become cheap and plenty. The fkill of the manufac- 
turers has increafed with their number, for his majefty 
has made himfelf acquainted with the theory and 
practice in every ftage of the bufinefs, fo as to be able to 

difcover 



03 AYEEN AKBER^., PARTI. 

difcover the merits of the workmen ; thus by bringing 
the arts into credit, the natives are encouraged to give 
application, and they fpeedily gain a complete know- 
ledge of their profeffion. 

The manufactures of every nation are to be found in 
the royal workfhops : whatever is brought or made there, 
or is received in Pefhcufh, is carefully preserved j and 
thofe articles of which there is an abundance, are either 
made up into garments or given away. 

Every piece that is received is put by with the price 
marked upon it ; and fkilful people are employed in 
comparing the former with the prelent price. By this 
means the intrinfic value being learned, the prices are 
lb much reduced, that the ghiafs nuklhbund, which 
was formerly bought for one hundred mohurs, is now to 
be had for fifty. 

Something mall here be faid of the different drefles. 
worn by his majefty ; to give more would run me into 
prolixity. 

The takowchyeh is made of a fingle cloth, and is of 
the Indian form ; formerly it had flits in the fkirt, and 
war tied with firings on the left fide : his majefty has or- 
dered it to be made with a round fkirt, and to be tied 
on the right fide. It requires feven ells and a half. 
The price for making one of them plain is one rupee, 
and thofe which are ornamented with flitches are from 
one rupee to five rupees. There are alfo expended three 
quarters of a mifkal ol filk. 

The paifhwaz is of the fame form, but ties, before; 
and (one are alfo made without firings. 

The du aiy requires fix ells and four girahs for the 
outfide and the lining, four girahs for the firings, ani 






TART I. AYEEN AKBERY. Qj 

nine for the finjaf, or border. The expence of making 
is, from one rupee to three rupees ; and it requires one 
mifkal of filk. 

The fhahajeedeh. In every gi rah * are woiked fixty 
lines of flitches ; and it is from thence alfo called fliufht 
khutty (fixty lines). It has a double lining ; and fome 
are quilted with cotton. The expence of working is 
two rupees per fquare ell. 

Sozeny. A quarter of a feer of cotton and two dams 
of filk. The quilter has eight rupees. 

Ajeedeh char kalemy, one leer and an eighth of cot- 
ton, and one dam of filk. Workman two rupees. 

Keba, commonly called jamah-pumbahdar. One 
feer of cotton and two mifkals of filk. The taylor has 
from a quarter of a rupee to one rupee. 

Guder is a drefs wider and longer than the keba, and 
has more cotton in it. It is ufed in Hindoflan in the 
place of furs. Seven ells for the outfide, fix ells for the 
lining, four girahs for the firings, and nine girahs fur 
the border; two feers and a half of cotton, and three 
mifkals of filk. The taylor is paid from half a rupee to 
one rupee and a half. 

Tlie firjy is open before without firings. Some add 
buttons, and wear it over the jamah : for the outfide, 
five ells and twelve girahs ; for the lining, five ells and 
five girahs ; for the border fourteen girahs, one feer 
of cotton, and one mifkal of filk. The taylor has from, 
a quarter of a rupee to one rupee. 

The firgool is a very becoming garment ; it was firil 
brought from Europe, and now is worn by people of all 

* The fixteenth part of an ell. 

ranks. 



$4 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

ranks. It is made of various kinds of ftufF. The out- 
fide requires nine ells fix girahs and a half, the lining 
the fame; fix mifkals of Jilk, and one fee r of cotton. 
They are made fingle and double. 1 he taylor has from 
half a rupee to two rupees. 

The chuckmun is made of broad-cloth, flannel, or 
wax-cloth. His majefty has it made of dara-iy wax- 
cloth, which is exceeding light and looks very well, 
and rain will not penetrate it. h requires fix ells for the 
cloke, five girahs for the firings, and two mifkals of 
filk. The taylor has for making one of broad-cloth 
two rupees, for one of flannel one rupee and a half, and 
for one of wax-cloth half a rupee. 

The frioolwar is made of different cloths, and is either 
fingle or double, and is fometimes quilted : for the 
outfide three els and eleven girahs ; for the waiflband fix 
girahs ; one mifkal and a quarter of filk, and half a feer 
of cotton. The taylor has from a quarter to half a 
rupee. 

Each of the above drefies is alfo made in different 
fafhions from what have been defcribed ; and the tur- 
bans and other parts of drefs are innumerable ; befides 
which, the rich dreffes that are beflowed on the nobility 
on feitivals, are beyond defcription. Every quarter 
there are prepared for the nobility one thoufand lirrapa 
(or complete drefles). They are tied up in feparate 
bundles, each containing twenty-one. 

His majefty is very fond of woollen duffs, particularly 
(hawls. 

OF SHAWLS. 

His majefty has ordered four kinds to be matje : 
lft, Toos aflel, which is the wool of an animal of this 
name, whofe natural colour, in general, is grey inclining 

to 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. ^ 

to red, though fome arc perfe&ly white ; and thofe 
fhawls are incomparable for lightnefs, warmth, and 
foftnefs. Formerly they were always made with the 
wool in its original ftate, but his majefty has had fome 
of them dyed, and it is furprifing that they will not take 
a red colour. 2d, Sefed alcheh, which they alfo call 
terehdar. The natural colours of the wool are white or 
black; and they weave three forts of them, white, black, 
and grey. Formerly there were not above three or four 
different colours for (hawls ; but his majefty has made 
them of various hues. 3d, Zerdozy, gulabetum, keih- 
ydeh, culgha, bandhenun, cheet, alcheh, and perzdar, 
which are of his majefly's invention. 4th, From being 
fhort pieces, he had them made long enough for jamahs. 

The fhawls are claffed according to the day, month, 
year, price, colour, and weight ; and this manner of 
clafling is commonly called miiiel. The mufhrefTs. 
having examined thele particulars, mark the quality of 
each fhawl on a piece of paper, which they affix to one 
corner thereof. All thofe that are brought into the 
palace on the day Ormuzd of the month Fervirdin *, are 
preferred to thofe received afterwards of the fame fine- 
nefs, weight, and colour; and each are written down in 
order. Every day there are received into ftore of the 
following kinds: toos, fefed alcheh, laal zerreen, na- 
renjy, berenjy, caremzy, kahy, gulpumbeh, fendely, 
badamy, arghuwany, anaby, tooteky* allely, iofeny, 
menjeny, gulkafny, libecky, alify, feftoky, pezk gul, 
gulkhear, nejyberen, bhowjputtry, afmany, gulaby, kul- 
ghy, aby, zytOony, jigery, zemroody, chceny, benefsh, 
emboweh, mufhkeen, fakhtehy. Frc/tn this account of 
one day, may be formed an idea of what is done in the 
courfe of a year. 

Formerly fhawls were but rarely brought from Cafti- 
meer, and thofe who had them ufed to wear them over 

* 10th March. 

their 



f>6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

their fhoulders in four folds, fo that they lafted for a long 
time ; now they are worn fingle by people of all degrees. 
His majefty has introduced the cuftom of wearing two 
fhawls, one under the other, which is a confiderable ad- 
dition to their beauty. By the attention of his majeily 
the manufacture of fhawls in Cafhmeer is in a very 
flourishing ftate, and in Lahoor there are upwards of a 
thoufand manufactories of this commodity. They alfo 
make ae imitation of fhawl with the warp of filk and 
the woof of wool ; and this kind is called Mayan. Of 
both kinds are made turbans, &c. 

Here follows a table wiih the prices of feveral manu- 
factures. 



Current Prices of Manufadiires. 



Cloths wove with gold 

Yezdy velvet brocaded 1 



with gold, 
Europe do. 
Gujerat do. 
Kaih do. 
Herat do. 
Lahoor do. 
Zirbafi fereer, 
Mutebbek, 
Meelek, 

Gujetat brocade, 
Tafs gujeraty, 
Daraiybaf, 
Mokiefh, 
Shirwany, 
Mofhejjer ferengy, 
Deyba ferengy, 
Deyba yezdy, 
Khara, 



1 



Price 

15 to 150 mohurs per piece 

10 to 70 mohurs per piece 
10 to 50 mohurs per piece 
10 to 40 mohurs per piece 



10 to 4c 


1 mohurs per piece 


3 to 7° 


do. 


do. 


2 to 70 


do. 


do. 


3 t0 7° 


do. 


do. 


6 to 60 


do. 


do. 


1 to 25 


do. 


do. 


2 to 50 


do. 


do. 


1 to 20 


do. 


do. 


6 to 17 


do. 


do. 


1 to 4 mohurs per elt 


1 to 4 


do. 


do. 


1 to if 


do. 


do. 



5 R. to 2 do- do. 



China 



PART T. 



China fattin, 
China tewar, 
Khaz, 
Tufleeleh, brought 

from Mecca, 
Koortahwar gujeraty, 
Mundeel, 
Cheereh, 
Dooputteh, 
Foteh, 
Coverlids, 



AYEEN AKBERY. 97 

Prices. 

5 rupees to 2 mohurs per ell 
do. do. 

do. do. 



I 15 to 20 rupees per ell 

i to 20 mohurs per piece 
1 to 14 do. do. 

I to 8 do. do. 
6 to 8 rupees do. 

I to 1 2 mohurs per piece 
1 to 20 do. do. 



European velvet, 
Kamy do. 
Yezdy do. 
Memed do. 
Herat do. 
Lahoor do. 
Gujerat do. 
Keteefeh pooreby, 
Tajehbaf, 
Daraiybaf, 
Mutebek, 
Shirwany, 
Meeklek, 
Kumcab, 
Tewar, 
Khowry, 

Mofhejjer ferengy, 
Mofhejjer yezdy, 
European fattin, 
Herat do. 
Khara, 
Sehrung, 
Kuttany, 
Vol. I. 



SILKEN STUFFS. 

i to 4 mohurs per ell 
2 to 7 mohurs per piece 
2 to 4 do. do. 
2 to 4 do. do. 
2 to 4 do. do. 
2 to 4 do. do. 
1 to 2 rupees per ell 

1 to 1 1 rupees do- 

2 to 30 mohurs per piece 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1 R. to 2 do. 



2 to 30 
1 to 30 
»i to 10 
1 to 7 
1 to 5 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



4 to 10 rupees per piece 

2 rupees to 1 mohur per ell 

1 to 2 mohurs per piece 

2 rupees to 1 mohur per ell 

5 rupees to 2 mohurs per piecs 
j to 6 rupees per ell 

1 to 3 mohurs per piece 
14 rupee to 2 mohurs do. 
H European 



9 3 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART I. 



European linen, 

Tafteh, 

Embery, 

Daraiy, 

Setty pooruby, 

Kebabund, 

Tatbund pooruby, 

Lah, 

Miflry, 

Saar, 

Tufllr, 

Plain fattin, 

Kepoordoor, 

Alcheh, 

Tefseleh, 



Prices. 
f to i rupee per ell 
| to 2 do. do. 

4 dams to f a rupee per ell 
2 to 5 rupees per ell 

6 rupees to 2 mohurs per piece 
6 rupees to 2 do, do. 
2 rupees to 14 do. 
9 to 7 rupees per ell 
•% to 1 mohur per ps. 

5 to 10 rupees per ell 
2 to 3 rupees per ps. 

I to 1 rupee per ell 
2 annas to 1 rupee per ell 
2 to 5 rupees per ell 
8 to 1 2 rupees per piece 



Khaflah, 

Chow tar, 

Mulmuls, 

Tunfook, 

Siryfaf, 

Gungajel, 

Behroon, 

Sehen, 

jewhneh, 

A tan, 

Afawely, 

JBaftah, 

Mahmudy, 

Penjtoleah, 

Jewhleh, 

Saloo, 

Dooreah, 

Bahaderlhahy, 

Gerbhfooty, 

Sheleri decany, 



COTTON CLOTHS. 

3 rupees to 15 mohurs per pee, 
2 rupees to 9 mohurs 

4 rupees to 5 mohurs 
4 rupees to 5 mohurs 
2 rupees to 5 mohurs 
4 rupees to 5 mohurs 
4 rupees to 4 mohurs 
1 to 3 mohurs 

1 rupee to 1 mohur 

2 § rupees to 1 mohur 

I to 5 mohurs 

I I rupee to 5 mohurs 
I mohur to 3 mohurs 

I to .3 mohurs 

I to 2 1 mohurs 

3 rupees to 2 mohurs 
6 rupees to 2 mohurs 
6 rupees to 2 mohurs 

I I to 2 mohurs 



I to 2 mohurs 



Mehrkul 



PART 1. 

Mehrkul, 

Mundiel, 

Sirbund (turband) 

Dnputteh, 

Ketancheh, 

Foteh, 

Gofhpeytch, 

Chintz, 

Gezeeneh, 

Salahety, 



AYEEN AKEERY. 



99 



3 to i o rupees per piece 

| to 2 mohurs 

4- to 2 mohurs 
i rupee to i mohur 
i rupee to i mohur per piece 

| to 6 rupees 
i to 2 rupees 
2 dams to i rupee per ell 

| to i ' rupee 
a dams to 4 dams. 



WOOLLEN CLOTHS 



European broad-cloth, 

Nagorey and Lahoory, 

Soof murreba, 

Soof mukhiyer, 

Shawls, 

Shawl chcereh, 

Shawl foteh, 

Shawl-pieces for jammas, 

Goofh-peytch, 

Sirpeytch, 

Aghry, 

Purrem gurrem, 

Ketafs, 

Phowk, 

Dermek, 

Puttoo, 

Reyokar, 

MnTery, 

Birdyemany, 

Panchynemed, 

Tekeahnemed, Europ. 

Tekeahnemed, Indian, 

Lewy, 

Blankets, 

Cafhmeery caps, 

Kumpeh, 



2f rupees to 4 mohurs per ell 

2 rupees to 1 mohur per piece 

4 to 15 mohurs 

3 rupees to 14 mohur 
2 rupees to 8 mohurs 

2 rupees to 25 mohurs 
I to 3 mohurs 

I to 4 mohurs 
i| rupee to l~ mohur 

I to 4 mohurs 
7 rupees to i\ mohurs 

3 rupees to i\ mohurs 
o.\ rupees to to mohurs 

2 \ rupees to 1 5 rupees per piece 
£ rupees to 4 mohurs 

1 to 1 o rupees 

2 rupees to 1 mohur per piece 

5 to 50 rupees 
5 to 35 rupees 

2 rupees to 1 mohur 

1 § rupee to 5 rupees 
if to 5 rupees 

14 dams to 4 rupees 
10 dams to 2 rupees 

2 dams to 1 rupee 

2 rupees to 1 mohur do. 

H 2 THE 



ICO AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

THE TUSWEER KHANEH. 

A picture is the refemblance of fomething in nature, 
which ordinary painters can draw from originals ; but 
the artifts of Europe with eafe create forms out of their 
own imaginations, that refemble nature herfelf; but 
through the medium of letters the experience of;, anti- 
quity has been tranfmitted to us, and become the capital 
flock ofwifdom: out of refpeet to which conlideration 
I fhall firfl defcribe the library. Of a truth, if it had 
not been for letters, fpeech would not have obtained 
life, nor our minds been enriched with the fecrets of 
antiquity. 

Various are the alphabets which have been chofen by 
different nations ; namely, the Syrian, the Greek, the 
Hebrew, the Coptic, the Maakely, the Kufy, the Cafh- 
meery, the Ethiopian, the Ryhany, the Arabic, the 
Perlian, the Roman, the Hymery, the Barbary, &c. as 
is evident from ancient books. 

The difference betwixt letters confifts in the fhape 
Of the lines which form them, that is, whether they be 
curved or flraight : thus the Kufy character is com- 
pounded of a line that is one dang in curve, and the 
remainder ftraight. The Maakely has no curve. The 
infcriptions on ancient buildings are moftly in this 
character. 
.• 

At this day there are in ufe eight different alphabets 
ir. Iran, Turan, Room, and Hind 

In the year three hundred and ten of the Hegira, 
Ebn Mokleh formed lix different alphabets from the 
Maakely and the Kufv ; viz. the Suls, the Towkya, the 
Mohekch, the Nufkh, the Ryhan, and the Rokaa; to 
which fome add the Ghobar, making him to have in- 
vented ie'van- alphabets. Some attribute the invention 

of 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. IOI 

of the Nufkh character to Yacoob MotafTemy. The 
Suls and the Nufkh are compofed of two dangs of curve 
and four dangs of ftraight line. The Towkya and Rokaa 
are four dangs and a half curved, and the reft ftraight line. 
The Mohekeh and Ryhan have four dangs and a half 
ftraight line, and the reft curve. The feventh kind of 
character is the Taleek, formed out of the Rokaa and the 
Towkya, and have very little of ftraight line. Khojeh Taj 
Solimany, who wrote the fix above-mentioned characters 
excellently, was alio a proficient in this; and fome fay 
that he invented it. Aihruff Khan, meer moonfhy to 
his majefty, has brought this character to the higheft 
degree of perfection. The eighth character is the 
Nuftaleek, which is all curve. Some pretend that it 
was compofed from the Nufkh and Taleek by Khojeh 
Meer Aly Tebrezee, in the time of Timar ; but this is 
not true, for 1 have feen books in this character that 
were written before the reign of that monarch. 

His majefty, by the encouragement that he gives to 
good penmen, has brought writing to the higheft degree 
of perfection, particularly in the Nuftaleek character. 
Thole who excel in the Nuftaleek, and are under the 
fhadow of the throne, are Mahommed Huflain Cafh- 
meery, who is generally known under the title of Zur- 
reen Kalum *, and he is reckoned to equal Molla Meer 
Aly ; alfo his fon Mollana Baker, together with thole 
here following, are famous for their ikill in this art : 
Mahommed Ameen Mefhedy, Meer HufTain Kolenjy, 
Mollana Abd-ai-Hy, Mollana Dury, Mollana Abdal- 
raheem, Meer Abdallah, Nezamy Cafzveeny, Aly 
Chemmen Cafhmecry, Noorullah, and Coflim Arfalan. 

His majefty has made fcveral arrangements in his 
library, part of which is kept in the haram, and the reft 
in the outer apartments. The books are clafied in 
fciences and hiftories, according to their feveral prices. 

• Or the golden pen. 

H 3 . Every 



102 AYEEK AKBERY. PART I. 

Every day fome capable perfon reads to his majefty, 
who hears every book from beginning to end. He 
always marks with the date of the month the place 
where he leaves off; and the reader is paid according 
to the number of pages. There is hardly a work of 
fcience, of genius, or of hiftory, but has been read to 
his majefty 5 and he is not tired with hearing them 
repeated, but always liftens with grea: avidity. 

The following works are repeatedly read: Akhlah 
NafTery, Kemia Saadet, Cabufnameh, Moktoobat Sherf 
Muneery, Gooliftan, Hedykeh, Jam Jum, Boftan, 
Shahnameh, Khumfeh Sheikh, Kuliat Khofru, Kuliar. 
Mollana jami, Dewan Khacany, Dewan Anveri, and. a 
number of books of hiitory. 

By the command of his majefty the following trans- 
lations have been made from the Shanfcrit and other 
languages, into the Perlian and Hindovee. 

The new Aftronomical Tables of Ulugh Beg, from 
Perfian into Hindovee, by Emeer Futtah Ullah Sheer- 
azee, Kifhen Jewfy, Gongadhor, Mahais, and Mo- 
hanond, with the affiltance of the author of this work. 

The Mohabharot, one of the mod ancient books of 
the Hindoos, into Per.fian by the joint labours of Ne- 
keeb Khan, Mollana Abd-ul-Cader, and Sheikh Sultan 
Tanfery. The original confifts of near one hundred 
thouiand diftichs. His majefty has entitled this an- 
cient itory Rezem-uameh *. 

The Ramayon, an ancient Hindoo work, into Fer- 
fian. It contains the hiilory o( Ramchondro at full 

* This, although it confifts of about 2000 folio pages, is nothing 
more than an abftract, and that very indifferently executed, many 
beautiful descriptions and epifodes being entirely omitted ; but Mr. 
Wilkins, at the perfuafion of Mr. Hafting^s, has begun to make a 
complete tranflaiion of the Mohabharot from the original Shanfcrit, 
and k already confiderably advanced in the work. 

length, 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. I03 

length, with many philofophical reflexions inter- 
fperfed. 

The Ot'horbo, which, in the opinion of the Hindoos, 
is one of the four books of divine authority, has been 
tranflated into Perfian by Hajee lbraheem Sirhindy. 

My elder brother, Sheikh Fizee, has made a Perfian 
verfion of Leelawotee, which is efteemed the beft book 
on Indian arithmetic. 

The Tajok, a treatile on aftronomy, has been tranf- 
lated into Perfian by Mokummel Khan Gujeraty. 

The Vakiat Babery -j~, which is a wife rule of conduct, 
has been tranflated from the Turkifh into the Perfian 
language by Mirza Khan Khanan, 

The hiflory of Cafhmeer, containing an account of 
that country for the fpace of four thoufand years, has 
been tranflated from the Cafhmeerian into Perfian, by 
Mollana Shah Mohammed Shahabady. 

The Moajem-ul-Boldan, which is a curious geogra- 
phical work, has been tranflated from the Arabic into 
Perfian by a number of learned men, amongfl whom 
were Molla Ahmed Tatah, Coflim Beg, and Sheikh 
Menewer. 

The Horeebongs, a Hindoo work, in which is in^ 
eluded the hiftory of Krifh.no, has been tranflated into 
Perfian, 

Naflferullah Muftofy and Mollana Harlan Vaez, had 
made Perfian verfions of the Kaleilah Dumnah ; but 
they being full of foreign metaphors, and written in a 
difficult ftyle, his majefty ordered the author of this 

f The Emperor Baber's commentaries of himfelf. 

H 4 work 



104- AYE EN AKBERY. PART I 

work to make a new verfion of it in Perfian, to which 
he has given the title of Ayar Danifh. 

The ftory of the loves of Nol and Domoyontee, which 
is highly efteemed in the Hindovee language, has been 
tranflated by Skeikh Fizee into Perfian verfe, in the 
manner of Leilee and Mujnoon. 

His majefty being fond of hiftory, commanded thofe 
{killed therein, to compile a hiflory of all parts of the 
world for thefe lad thoufand years. It was began by 
Nekeeb Khan and others ; and Mollana Ahmed Tat- 
tavee had a great (hare in the compilation ; jafer Beg 
and Afof Khan finished it, and the author of this work 
wrote the preface. It is called Tareekh Alfy, or the 
Hiftory of One Thoufand Years. 

THE PAINTING GALLERY. 

His majefty taking great delight in, and having 
patronized this art from the commencement of his 
reign, has caufed it to arrive at high perfection. With 
that view this department was eftablithed, in order that 
a numuer of artiits being collected together, might vie 
with each other for fame, and become eminent by their 
productions. 

Every week the daroghas and tepookchies bring to 
his majefty the performance of every artift, when, in 
proportion to their merits, they are honoured with 
premiums, and their falanes are increafed. 

The following is a Lift of the mofl eminent Art'ifts : 

Nieer Syed Aly Tebrezy, Lai, Mehmeen, 

Khojah Abdul-femed She- Mekend, Kehmkeren, 
reen Calum Sheerazee, Mumkeen, Tara, 

Defwant 



?ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. I05 

Defwant *, the foil of a Ferokh, Sanoolah, 

palkee-bearer, Kelmak, Herbuns, 

Befawen*, Madhu, Ram. 

Kyfu, Jojen, 

The great encouragement that is given to merit, has 
produced many admirable performances. Perlian 
books, in profe and verfe, are finely illuminated with 
paintings. The Kifiah Humzah, in twelve volumes, is 
ornamented with one thoufand four hundred paintings ; 
and in like manner, amongft many others, the following 
works are embcllilhed : Ginjeznameh, Zafer-nameh, 
Akbal-nameh, Rezcmnameh, Ramayon, Nul Dumen, 
Keleelah Dumnah, and the Ayar DaniQi. 

And, by the command of his majefty, portraits arc 
made of all the principal officers of the court, which, 
being bound up together, form a thick volume, wherein 
the paft are kept in lively remembrance, and the prefenr. 
are infured immortality. 

Other ingenious artifts are employed in embellidiing 
the margins of books ; and great pains are alfo bellowed 
upon the bindings. 

Many of the fcrvants ot this department are munfub- 
dars, ahdyan, and cavalry of every denomination. The 
monthly pay of a foot-foldier never exceeds one thoufand 
two hundred, and is never lefs than fixty dams. 

THE KOWR KHANEH. 

There is always kept in (tore armour fufficient for the 
equipment of an army. Thofe which are khafeh -j-, 
have particular names and ranks given them. 

* Thefe two excelled in taking likenefles and finifliing. 
f Applied to his majefly's particular uie. 

There 



I06 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

There are thirty khafeh fwords, one of which is 
carried to the haram every month, and the former one ' 
is returned. There are alfo in readinefs forty other 
{words, which they call kowtel. When of the thirty 
khafeh fwords twelve remain unufed, the complement 
is made up out of thefe forty, fo that there are always 
thirty khafeh fwords : alfo twelve fword-belts are kept 
apart, and fent into the haram, one every week alter^ 
nately. 

There are likewife forty jemdhers and forty khup- 
wahs* delivered out alternately; of each, one every 
week. And of the two laft mentioned, there are thirty 
more of each called kowtel, which are ufed to keep up 
the full complement of thefe, in the fame manner as 
has been defcribed of the khafeh fwords. Moreover, 
ihere are eight karecls-j-, twenty neyzahs J and twenty 
birchehs J ; and a different one of each is ufed every 
month. There are alfo eighty-fix mefaed and beh- 
rfayin bows, with twenty-four others, out of which, in 
everv folar month of thirty-two days, one bow is fent 
to his majefty every day ; and during every month of 
thirty-one days, two every week alternately. Every 
one ot thtfe has its rank affigned it ; and when his 
majefty goes abroad, or appears in the Bar Aum, the 
fons of the omrahs, with other munfubdars and ah- 
dyan, carry the kovvr in their hands, and on their 
ihoulders. One carries a bow, another a quiver, a 
third a fword, and a fourth a fhield ; and there are 
four of each of thefe kinds. But of the following 
weapons only four perfons are employed in carrying 
one of each ; viz. a neyzah, a birchez, a tubber- 

* Kinds of daggers. 

f Knives worn in the girdle. 

X Different kinds of fpears. 

gaghnow^ 



TART I AYEEN AKBERY. I07 

zaghnowl *, a peyarygupty-j-, a kemankeroheh J a 
gung-f-, and a fandely -j~. On journies a number of 
mules, camels, and carts are loaded with all forts of 
arms. 

In the bargah, the omrahs and others arrange 
themfelves between thofe who fupport the kowr. 
When his majefty goes abroad, they all march behind, 
excepting a few of the principal nobility, who go 
amongft the kowr. With the kowr are caparifoned 
elephants, with camels, chariots, nakarahs, flags, ko- 
kebehs, and other enfigns of flate ; and the mace- 
bearers clofe the whole, being aflifted by the meet 
bukhfhiean in clearing the way. 

W'hen his majefty hunts, fome nimble foot-foldiers 
alfo carry arms. 

Here is fubjoined a table of the names and prices of 
warlike weapons, &c. 

A Table of Warlike lVeapo?is. 

Prices. 
Swords, - 4- rupee to 15 mohurs 

Khandeh, - 1 to 10 rupees 

Goopty, - 2 to 20 rupees 

Jembher, - | rupee to 24 mohurs 

Khunjer, - 4- to 5 rupees 

Kehpwah, - -4 rupee to 4. mohur 

Jumkhawg, - 4 to 14. mohur 

Bauk, - 4- rupee to 1 mohur 

Jembveh, - do. do, 

* A kind of battle-axe. 

f Thefe I have not been able to get explained. 

% A kind of crofs-bow. 

Kettar, 



io8 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART I. 



Kettar, 

Narfingmotah, 
Bows, 
Bow- cafes, 
Nowek, 
Arrows, 
Quivers, 
Duddee, 
Teerburdar, 
Pykankufh, 
Neyzeb,"] 

Bircheh, Different kinds 
3 of fpears. 

£ang, J 

Synfty, 

Seelreh, 

Goorz (iron club) 

Shufhpur, 

Goopteen, 

Tubber (battle-axe) 

Byay, 

Zaghnowl, 

ChuckerlulTooleh, 

Tubberzaghnowl, 

Turrengaleh, 

Knives, 

Gooptykared, 

Kumtchykared (a kind 

of knife) 
Chakoo (clafp knife) 
Keman kcrocb, 
Kumteh, 
Dehaniufung, 
Pufhtkar, 
Shuftavaiz, 
Geerahkulha, 
Kharmahy, 
A fling, 



Prices. 

4 rupee to i mohur 
4 to 2 mohurs 
| rupee to 3 mohurs 
1 to 4 rupees 
4 to 1 rupee 

I to 30 rupees per bundle 
i rupee to 2 mohurs 
I to 5 rupees 

I to 24 dams 
| to 3 rupees 

I I rupee to 6 mohurs 
3 1 rupees to 2 mohurs 

I to 14 rupee 

I to 1 rupee 
10 dams to I rupee 

I to 5 rupees 

4 rupee to 3 mohurs 
1 to 3 rupees 

I to 2 mohurs 

4 to 5 rupees 

4 rupee to 1 mohur 
1 to 6 rupees 

1 to 4 rupees 
\ to 2 rupees 

2 dams to 2 mohurs 

3 rupees to 14 mohurs 

> 1 to 34 rupees 

2 dams to I rupee 
2 dams to 1 rupee 
5 dams to 3 rupees 
10 dams to 2 rupees 
2 dams to 4 rupee 
2 dams to 1 rupee 
1 dam to I rupee 
i to 5 rupees 
J 4 chm to £ rupee 

Gujbag, 



PART 1. 



AYEEN AKBEPY. 

Prices. 



F09 



Gujbag, 

&K*' } Shields 
JJahl, J 

Khereh, 

Phary, 

Adaneh, 

Debelghah, 

Ghoghee, 

Zireh kulah, helmet, 

Ghoghoweh, 

leebeh, 

Zireh, coat of mail, 



{ 



1 
1 
1 

20 



Bukter, 

Jowfhun, 

Charayeeneh, 

Kohty, 

Sadeky, 

Angerkeh, 

Bhanjoo, 

Cheera zireh, 

Selehkeba, 

Chelkud, 

Gauntlets, 

Rawg, 

Knntehfobeh, 

Iron cuirarTes, 

Kecjem, 

Artekkeejem, 

Kufhkeh, 

Girdeny, 

Matchlocks, 

War- rockets, 



1 



C/5 






U 

4 

4 
2 

5 



il 



4 
1 
1 

T 
2 

o I 

-2 



to 5 rupees 
to 50 rupees 
rupee to 4 mohurs 
rupee to 4 mohurs 
rupee to 1 mohur 
to 5 rupees 
rupee to 3 1 mohurs 
to 4 rupees 
to 5 rupees 
rupee to 2 mohurs 
rupees to 30 mohurs 
rupees to 100 mohurs 
rupees to 1 2 mohurs 
rupees to 9 mohurs 
rupees to 7 mohurs 
rupees to 8 mohurs. 
rupees to 8 mohurs 
rupees to 5 mohurs 
rupees to 2 mohurs 
rupees to 2 mohurs 
rupee to 1 mohur 
rupees to 25 rupees 
rupee to 2 mohurs 
rupee to 10 mohurs 
to 10 rupees 
rupee to 10 rupees 
to 300 rupees 
to 7 rupees 

e to 2-\ mohurs 
rupee to 1 mohur 
rupee to 1 mohur 
to 4 rupees 



THE ARTILLERY. 



Thefe are the locks and keys of empire; and, ex- 
cepting Room, no kingdom can compare with this 
in the number and variety of its ordnance. 

Some 



HO AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Some pieces of cannon are fo large as to carry a ball 
of twelve maunds; and others require each feveral 
elephants, and a thoufand bullocks for their tranf- 
portation. 

His majefty gives a great deal of attention to this 
department, and has appointed to it daroghahs and 
clerks. 

He has invented feveral kinds ; fome of which are 
fo contrived as to take to pieces for the convenience of 
carriage, and when the army halts, they are nicely put 
together again. Alfo feventeen pieces are fo united 
together as to be difcharged by one match. There 
are others which can be eafily tranfported by one ele- 
phant ; and they are called gujnal. Others can be 
carried by a fingle man, and are called nurnal. 

It has been wifely ordered, that a fufficient train of 
artillery be placed in each fubah. 

The cannon for battery and for boats, and thofe 
which are fit for journies, are kept feparate. It would 
be impomble to enumerate them ; and fkilful artifrs 
are continually making new ones, efpecially gunjahs 
and nurnals. 

In this department omrahs and ahdyan receive large 
falaries. 

The pay of a foot-foldier is from roo to 400 dams. 

RULES OBSERVED IN MAKING FIRE-ARMS FOR 
HIS majesty's USE. 

Bundooks * are now made in fuch a manner that 
when filled with powder up to the muzzle, there is no 

* Matchlock?. 

few 



TART I* ATE EN AKBEItY. Ill 

fear of their burfting. Formerly they never were of more 
than four folds of iron, and fometimes only of one, 
joined together by the two extremities of the breadth, 
and which were very dangerous. His majedy, after 
having the iron flattened, has it rolled up like a fcroll 
of paper, but flantingly, and every fold is palled through, 
the fire. There is alio the following metlnxl : (olid 
pieces of iron are properly tempered, and then bored 
with an iron borer ; and three or four of thefe are joined 
together to form a bundook. The (mailed bundooks 
that are made are two fpans long; and the longed near 
two ells. That of one ell and a quarter is called de- 
manik, and its deck is made differently from the others. 
Some are made to fire without a match, merely by 
giving a little motion to the trigger : and they make 
iome balls that will do execution like a fvvord. There 
are a great number of fkilful artiits in this department, 
the chief of whom are Odad Kebeer and Huffain. la 
preparing the iron for bundooks, half is lod in the fire. 
When the lengths are made, and before they are joined 
together, they are damped with figures, exprefiing the 
quantity of crude iron and the quantity remaining; 
and in this date it is called dowl : this is lent for his 
majedy's infpection ; and the weight of the ball being 
determined, the bore is made accordingly. The bun- 
dook-ball is never larger than twenty-five tanks, nor Ids 
than fifteen j but, excepting his majedy, no body is 
bold enough to fire off one of the larged. When the 
bore is finifhed it is again carried to the haram ; from 
thence it is brought out again and fee in an old dock, 
and filled with powder till within a third of the muzzle. 
It it dands this proof, it is carried again to his majefty. 
Then the muzzle is finifhed, after which it is again put 
into an old dock, as before-mentioned, and tried at a 
mark. If it does not carry true, they heat it, and 
ftraighten it by means of a wooden-rod ; then, in the 
royal prefence, it is delivered to the filer, who faihions 
the outiide as he is directed. When this is done, the 

barrel 



112 AYEEtf AKBERY. PART Ti 

barrel is again carried to his majefty, when the wood and 
form of the flock are determined. In this ftage the 
figures marking the weight of the crude and of the pre- 
pared iron are effaced, and in their room are engraven 
the maker's name, the place, the month, and the year. 
Kext are made the trigger, the ramrod, and primer. 
After all thefe are fin idled, the piece is again ordered to 
be proved. If it is found to carry true, it is again 
brought to the haram along with five balls. In this ftate 
it is called fadeh (or plain). The colour of the barrel 
and ftock is next determined ; and when the colouring is 
finidied, it is called rungeen (or coloured). It is now 
lent again into the haram with five more balls. His 
majefty fires it four times, and returns it back again 
with the fifth ball. When ten of thefe rungeen mufkets 
are collected together, they are ordered to be inlaid with 
gold, <kc. and are afterwards font to the haram, as before 
deicribed; and when ten fuch are completely finidied, 
they are committed to the care of the cheeyleh. 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE BARGHU. 

Formerly it required a great many men, with a num- 
ber of iron tools to polilh the bundooks ; but his majefty 
has invented a wheel, which is turned by a fingle bullock, 
and polifhes fixteen mufkets in a very diort time. 



OF THE RANKS OF THE ROYAL BUNDOOKS. 

Bundooks are either made in the royal worklhops, or 
are bought, or are received in prefents. His majefty, 
out of a thou find of thole of different kinds, felecls one 
hundred and five for his own particular uie, which are 
ufed in the following manner: viz. twelve are named 
after the months, and are brought to him alternately, fo 
that each comes in ufe once a year ; thirty others are 
changed every week, and thirty-two are ufed alternately 
every day of a folar month; and the remaining thirty- 
one 



PART I. AYEEN A^BERY. I 1 3 

one are for the kowtel. His majefty fires every day ; 
and after he has difcharged a piece four times, it is fent 
out and exchanged for another. 



'&* 



It is alfo a rule, mat the clerks of the Chace take an 
account of all the game that is (hot by his majefty, and 
with what particular piece ; from whence it appears, that 
with the mufket called lungram, which is the firfl in 
rank of the khafeh-.mufkets, and appropriated for the 
month Ferverdin *, there have been killed one thoufand 
nine hundred game of various kinds. 

THE PAY OF THE BUNDOOKCHYAN. 

His majefty has fixed the pay of the merdahs after 
four rates, viz. firft, 300 dams; fecond, 280 dams; 
third, 270 dams; fourth, 260 dams; and the pay of 
the others at five rates, each of which are divided into 
highelt, middle, and loweft. 






Firft Rate. 






Dams. 


Higheft, - 
Middle, - 
Loweft, 


250 
240 
230 


Second Rate 


. 


Higheft, - 
Middle, - 
Loweft, 


220 
2lo 
200 


Third Rate, 




Higheft, - 
Middle, - 
Loweft, 


I90 
180 

170 


* March. 




I 





Vol. I. I p ourt k 



114 ATEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Fourth Rate, 

Dams. 
Higheft, - 160 
Middle, - 150 
Lowed, - 1 40 

Fifth Rate. 

Higheft, - 130 
Middle, - 120 
Lowell, - no 

THE FEEL KHANEH, OR ELEPHANT-STABLES. 

The natives of Hindoftan hold this animal in fuch. 
eftimation, that they confider one of them as equivalent 
to five hundred horfes. The male elephant is of fo 
generous a difpofition, that he never injures the female, 
although (he be the immediate caufe of his captivity ; 
neither will he fight with a male who is much younger 
than himfelf ; and, from a fenfe of gratitude, he never 
hurts his keeper ; and out of refpect for his rider he 
never blows dull over his body when he is mounted, 
although at other times he is continually amufing him- 
felf with fo doing. In the rutting feafon an elephant 
was fighting with his match, when a young one coming 
in their way, he kindly let him afide with his trunk, and 
then renewed the combat. If a male elephant breaks 
loofe in the rutting feafon, no body dares go near him 
without being accompanied by a female one ; and then 
he fuffers himfelf to be bound without offering any 
refiftance. When the female dies, the male will neither 
eat nor drink for a confiderable time. He can be 
taught various feats. He learns the modes which can 
only be underftood by thpfe fkilled in mufic, and moves 
his limbs in time thereto. He. is alio taught to (hoot an 

arrow 



t»ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. H$ 

arrow out of a bow, and to take up any thing that is 
thrown down and to give it to his keeper. They are 
fed with any kind of grain wrapt up in grafs ; and, what 
is very aftonifhing, upon a fignal being given him by 
his keeper, he will hide eatables in the corner of his 
mouth, and when they are alone together will take them 
out again and give them to the man. An elephant 
frequently with his trunk takes water out of his ftomach, 
and fprinkles himfelf with it, and it is not in the leaft 
offenfive ; alfo, he will take out of his ftomach grafs on 
the fecond day, without its having undergone any 
change. 

The price of an elephant is from one hundred to a 
lack of rupees. Thofe of five thoufand and of ten 
thoufand rupees price, are not uncommon. 

There are four kinds of elephants. Bthder is that 
which has well-proportioned limbs, an erect head, broad 
breaft, large eyes, and a long tail, with two excrefcences 
in the forehead refembling large pearls. Thcfe excref- 
cences are called in the Hindovee language, guj manik ; 
and many properties are afcribed to them. Another 
kind, called mund, has a black fkin and yellow eyes; 
is bold and ungovernable. Tha r . called murg has a 
whiter fkin, with moles, and its eyes are of a mixture of 
red, yellow, black, and white. That called mirh has a 
imall head, and is ealily brought under command: its 
colour is a mixture of white and black, refembling 
fmoke ; and from mixtures of the above kinds are formed 
others of different names and properties. 

The rej turn, of whom a particular dekription fhali 
hereafter be given, is very common ; and this kind is 
handfome, well-proportioned, and tractable, has not 
jnuch inclination for the female, and is very long lived. 
The beyfli rej has a dreadful piercing eye, with a 

I a tremendous 



1 1 6 A'VF.EN AKBERY. PARTI. 

tremendous countenance, has a ravenous appetite, is 
vicious, and fleeps a great deal. 

Formerly it was thought unlucky to allow tame ele- 
phants to breed ; but his majefty has furmounted this 
fcruple. 

The female goes with young eighteen lunar months. 
The foetus begins to have iome form in the eleventh 
month; in the twelfth month the veins, bones, nails, 
and hair are difcemible ; in the thirteenth month its 
fex may be difcovered j and in the fifteenth month it 
has life. If the female increafes in ftrength whilfl 
breeding, it is a fign that fhe is big of a male ; and, on 
the contrary, if (lie is weak, it indicates her having a 
female. In general, an elephant has but one young at 
a birth, but fometimes fhe has two. The young one 
fucks till it is five years old, after which time it feeds on 
vegetables. At this age it is called bah At ten years 
it is called powt ; at twenty, bek ; and at thirty, kelbeh. 
it undergoes fome change at every one of thefe periods, 
and arrives at maturity in fixty years. It is a good fign 
in an elephant to have eyes of yellow and white, mixed 
with black and red. The elephant has two white tufks, 
an ell in length, and fometimes longer. The tufks are 
laid to be fometimes red, and likewife four in number. 
An elephant ought to be eight cubits high and nine in 
length, and fhould meafure ten cubits or more round 
the back and belly ; and white fpecks on the forehead 
are very lucky. 

The male elephant wants the female in different 
feafons; fome in winter, fome in fummer, and others 
in the rains - 3 and at this time they commit many ex- 
travagancies, throwing down houfes and flone-walls, 
and pulling men from on horfeback with their trunks. 
The fign of their being hot, is a filthy water, of a white 

or 



PARTI. AYEEN AKBERY. I I 7 

or red colour, exuding from their temples, and which is 
of an infufferable fmell. Each of the temples of an 
elephant is faid to have twelve perforations : before this 
fymptom the elephant is outrageous, and looks very 
handfome. The natural life of an elephant, like that 
of man, is one hundred and twenty vears. The ele- 
phant has many general names, amongft which are 
hufty, guj, feel, peel, and hawtee. An elephant by 
being properly trained may be made very valuable, fo 
that many who buy an elephant for an hundred rupees, 
in a fhort time make him worth ten thoufand. 

Elephants are taken in the following places : in 
Agra, *in the wilds of Begawan and Nerwar, as far as 
Berar ; the fubah of Allahabad, near Rutrcnpoor, 
Nunderpoor, Sirgetcheh ; the fubah of Malwah, Hat- 
tendeyah, Achowd, Chundary, Suntwafs, Bijehgur, 
Royfayn, Hofhengabad, Gurh, Harycgurh, in the 
fubah of Bahar on the borders of Rohtas, at Jahrkhend, 
and in the fubahs of Bengal and Orifla, particularly at 
Satgong, there are great numbers. The beif elephants 
are thofe of Tipperah. 

A herd of elephants is called in the Hindovee lan- 
guage fehan ; which word is alfo applied to a thoufand. 

His majefty has introduced many wife regulations 
into this department. 

He fir ft parcelled out the elephants, committed fome 
to the care of daroghahs, and appropriated others to his 
own particular ufe. He arranged the elephants in feven 
clafies : 1ft, Muft, which is an elephant that is arrived 
at perfection. 2d, Sheergeer, is an elephant uied in 
war, and who has been rank once or twice, and is 
always fo in fome degree. 3d, Sadeh is one that is 
fomewhat younger than the fecond. 4th, Menjholch 
is imaller than the one next preceding. 5th, Kerheh 

I 3 u 



u8 AYEEN AKBERY. PARTli 

is a fize fmaller than the fourth. 6th, Benderkeeah 
is a little fmaller than the fifth. 7th, Mukel is a young 
elephant that has never been rode; and each of thefe 
are fubdivided into three kinds, excepting the feventh 
rate, which is fubdivided into ten kinds ; and a proper 
quantity of food is fixed for each, as is fet forth in the 
fqllowing table of daily allowance. 



Mujl. 




Md. 


Sr„ 


Large, - 2 
Middling, 2 


24 
*9 


Small, - 2 


14 


SJ/eergeer. 




Large, - 2 
Middling, 2 
Small, - 1 


9 

4 

39 


Sadeh. 




Large, - 1 
Middling, 1 
Small, - 1 


34- 
29 

4 


Menjholeh. 




Large, - 1 


22 


Middling, 1 
Small, - 1 


20 
18 


Kerheh. 




Large, - 1 

Middling, 1 
Small, - 1 


14 
9 

4 




Benderkeeak. 



PART I. 


AYEES 


AKBE 


RY. 




Benderkeeak. 








Md. 


Sr. 




Large, - 


i 


o 




Middling, 


o 


36 




Small, 


o 


3* 




MukeL 










Sr. 




Firft, 


- 


26 




Second, 


. 


2 4 




Third, 


- 


2a 




Fourth, 


- 


20 




Fifth, 


- 


18 




Sixth, 


• 


16 




Seventh, 


m 


J 4 




Eighth, 


m 


12 




Ninth, 


- 


10 




Tenth, 


- 


8 



119 



The female elephants are of four clafTes, large, 
middling, fmall, and mukel; the firft and fecond of 
which are each fubdivided into three kinds, and the 
mukel into nine kinds. Their daily allowance is as 
follows : 

Large, 

Md. Sr. 
Firft, - 1 22 
Second, - 1 18 
Third, - 1 14 

Middling. 

Firft, - 1 10 
Second, - 1 6 
Third, -12 

I 4 Small 



120 AYEEN AKEERY. PART I 



AYEEN AKEERY. 


Small. 




Md. 


Sr. 


Firft, o 


37 


Second, o 


3* 


Third, o 


2 7 


Fourth, c 


22 


Mukel 






Sr. 


Firft, 


22 


Second, 


20 


Third, 


18 


Fourth, 


16 


Fifth, 


14 


Sixth, 


12 


Seventh, 


IO 


Eighth, 


8 


Ninth, 


6 



ESTABLISHMENT OF SERVANTS FOR THE 
ELEPHANTS. 

For a mufi there are allowed five men and a boy ; 
thus, one mehawet, one bhuy, three mayhets, and a 
boy. The bufinefs of the mehawet is to ride upon the 
neck of the elephant, and to train him : his monthly 
wages is 200 dams. The bhuy fits upon the rump of 
the elephants, and affifts in battle, and in quickening the 
fpeed of the elephant : his pay is 1 10 dams per menfem. 
The mayhet fetches fodder, and affifts in caparifoning 
and undreffing the elephant, &c. : on a journey he re- 
ceives four dams, and at ether times three dams and a 
half daily. 

The fheergeer has five men, viz. one mehawet, one 
bhuy, and three mayhets ; the firft has one hundred and 

eighty 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERYi 121 

eighty dams, thefecond one hundred dams per menfem, 
and the others as before mentioned. 

For the fadeh are allowed four men and a boy ; 
namely, a mehawet at 160 dams, a bhuyat 90 dams per 
month, and two mayhets and a boy at the eftablifhed 
rate. 

The menjholeh has four lervants, viz. a mehawet at 
140 dams, a bhuy at eighty dams monthly, and two 
mayhets at the eftabliflied rate. 

The kerheh has three men and a boy ; viz. a me- 
hawet at 120 dams, a bhuy at feventy dams per month, 
and a mayhet and a boy at the eftablifhed rate. 

The benderkeeah has a mehawet at 100 dams per 
month, and one mavhet at the eftabliflied rate. 

The mukel has a mehawet at fifty dams per month, 
and a mayhet at the eftablifhed rate. 



The following is the EJlahiiJliment of Serva?its for the 
Female Elephants. 

For the largeft fize, four men ; viz. a mehawet at 1 00 
dams, a bhuyat fixty dams per month, and two mayhets 
at the eftablifhecl rate. 

For the middle fize, three men and a boy ; viz. a 
mehawet at eighty, and a bhuyat fifty dams per month, 
and a mayhet and a boy at the eftablifhed rate. For 
the fmaller fize, a mehawet at fixty dams per month, 
and a mayhet at the eftablifhed rate. For the mukel, a 
mehawet at fifty dams per month, and a mayhet at the 
eftabliflied rate. 

At 



122 AYEEN" AKBERY. PART I. 

At firfl his majefty formed ten, twenty, or thirty 
elephants into a troop, which is called a hulkah ; and 
the perfon to whofe charge it is committed is called a 
foujdar ; the foujdar's bufinefs is to teach the elephants 
to be bold, and not be frightened at the fight of fire or 
at the noife of artillery ; and he is anfwerable for their 
difcipline in thefe refpe&s. 

Every munfubdar of ioo or more, has twenty-five 
or thirty elephants appointed for him ; and the other 
foujdars,. who are bifties or dehbamies, are under his 
command ; and this goes on progreffively from a deh- 
bafhy to an hezary j and the pay after the fuddies are dif- 
ferent, and many are of the rank of omrahs. A iuddy 
has two marked horfes. 

In the Rank of Bifties* 
Rs. per Month. 

The firfl: has - 30 
The fecond, - 25 
The third, - 20 

Of the Dehbajhies* 

The firfl has - 20 
The fecond - 16 
The third, - 12 

But the bifty and the dehbafhy, who has one marked 
borfe, is reckoned amongft the ahdyan. Each foujdar, 
who is appointed to twenty-five or thirty elephants, pays 
the wages of the mehawet and bhuy of the elephant 
which he ufes for his own riding : and he who has 
charge often or twenty elephants, pays the wages of one 
mehawet. Afterwards his majefty, not fatisfied with 
this method, gave a hulkah of elephants in charge to an 
emeer, and ordered him to fuperintend it. The food 

is 



FART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 123 

is 'provided by afiignments on government ; and a clerk 
is appointed to keep the accounts of the receipts and 
expenditures of the department, and to fee the royal 
regulations carried into execution. 



THE HARNESS, HOUSINGS, &C. OF AN ELEPHANT. 

Dehrneh, is an iron chain of fixty long links, each 
of which weighs three feers. One end is fixed in the 
ground, and the other is fattened to the left hind leg 
of the elephant. Sometimes thefe chains are made of 
gold and filver. 

Andow, is a chain which is ufed to fallen the fora 
legs of the elephant. 

Beyry, is a chain for fattening both the hind legs. 

Belend, is a chain that fallens the legs fo as to pre- 
vent the elephant from running ; but at the fame time 
allows him to walk. This is an invention of his ma- 
jefly. 

Gedh beyry, refembles the andow, and is ufed for 
unruly elephants. 

Loweh lunger, is a long chain, one end of which is 
faftened to the elephant's right fore leg, and the other 
end to a flrong flake. When the elephant is unruly 
they tie him to this flake till the chain twifls round 
him. This was invented by his majefty. 

Cherkhy, is a hollow bamboo about half an ell long, 
tied round with finews, and filled with gun-powder. 
It is divided into two by an earthen partition, and a 
fuzee is put in each end ; then the bamboo is wrapped 
up in paper, and fet upon a crofs flick, which ferves 
for a handle. Upon fire being put to both ends, it 

turns 



124 AYtEN AKBERV. PART I. 

turns round and makes a frightful noife. When an 
elephant is unruly they bring it before him. Formerly, 
in order to feparate two elephants that were fighting, 
they ufed to light a fire ; which feldom had the defired 
effed. 

Enderhyary, which fignifies darknefs (it is alfo called 
owjealy, or light) is a piece of canvas an ell and a half 
wide, or more, and it is fometimes made of. brocade 
and velvet, &c. It is fattened to the kellaweh, and 
when the elephant is refractory, is thrown over his face, 
fo that he cannot fee. Some have three bells. 

The kellaweh, is compofed of feveral ropes twifted 
together, and is eight fingers broad, and an ell and a half 
in length. It is fattened round the neck of the ele- 
phant : the elephant-driver refts his feet in it. Some- 
times it is made of (ilk or leather ; and in it are fome- 
times fixed iron fpikes, which may be ttuck into the 
elephant when unruly, to prevent his moving his head 
to throw off the driver. 

Dulthy, is a thick rope five ells long, which is tied 
over the kallaweh to ftrengthen it. 

Kenar, is a fharp iron fpike half an ell long, which is 
fufpended at the kellaweh, and is ufed to prick the bot- 
tom of the elephant's ear when he is unruly. 

Powr, is a thick rope, which comes from the tail, and 
is fattened on the neck of the elephant. It ferves for 
ornament, and is alio of ufc to the bhuy to hold by 
when the elephant is unruly ; and it likewile ferves to 
hang other trappings to. 

Gedyleh, is a cufhion put upon the back of the ele- 
phant, to prevent the dulthy from galling, and is alfo 
ornament ah 

Ficheweh 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. I2£ 

Picheweh, is a rope that goes acrofs the elephant's 
buttocks : the bhuy retts upon it, and when he han- 
dles his bow, fets his feet thereon. 

ChowrafTy, are a number of bells fattened on broad- 
cloth, and tied on before and behind ; they are orna- 
mental, and a mark of grandeur. 

Putgetcheh, are two chains that are fattened under 
the elephant's belly, and hung with little bells. Alfo on 
each fide of the kellaweh are hung three large bells. 

Katafs. Fifty more or lefs are fattened to the teeth, 
forehead, and neck of the elephant : they are either 
white, black, or pied. 

Teyeh. Five plates of iron, each one cubit long and 
four fingers broad, are joined together by rings and fat- 
tened round the ears of the elephant by four chains, 
each an ell in length ; and betwixt thefe another chain 
paries over the head and is fattened in the kellaweh ; 
and acrofs it are four iron fpikes with kataffes and iron 
knobs. There are other chains, with iron fpikes and 
knobs, hung under 'the throat and over the breait, and 
others fattened to the trunk ; thefe are for ornament, 
and to frighten horfes. 



o* 



Pakher, is a kind of {iee.\ armour that covers the 
body of the elephant ; there are other pieces for the 
head and probofcis. 

Gej-jhemp, is a covering made of three folds ; and 
is laid over the pakher. 

Meghdember, is an awning to (hade the elephant, in- 
vented by his majefty. 

Kempeel, 



126 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Kempeel, is a fillet of brocade, &c. from which are 
fufpcnded kataiTes. 

Ankus, to which his majefty has given the name of 
gejbah, is ufed for flopping and driving the elephant. 

Gedd, is a pronged iron fpike. The bhuy makes 
ufe of it when the elephant is refractory. 

Bencery, are iron or brafs rings which are put upon 
the elephant's teeth, and ferve to flrengthen them as well 
as for ornament. 

Jegawet, is an inftrument like the gedd, a cubit 
long, which the bhuy ufes to quicken the elephant's 
fpeed. 

The jhendeh, like the towgh, is hung round with ka- 
taiTes. It is tied on the loins of the elephant. 

But it is impoflible to defcribe the various houfings 
and trappings of an elephant. 

Every year, for each mnjl and fheergeer and fadeh, 
are allowed fevcn pieces of gunnies at eight dams and 
a half per piece, four blankets at ten dams each, and 
eight ox-hides, at eight dams each. Thefe are made 
into a covering, the lewing or which requires half a leer 
of twine. A menjhuleh and kerheh are allowed each 
four pieces of gunnies, three blankets, and feven ox- 
hides. For a benderkyah or a mukel, or a female 
elephant, three pieces of gunnies, two blankets, and 
four ox-hides. In proportion to the allowance of every 
maund of grain, there are given to the hulkehdar ten 
leers of iron for chains, &c. The iron coils two 
dams per feer. And there are allowed for each 
hide one leer of fefame oil, a maund of which cods 
iixty dams. Moreover, five leers of cotton thread, 

which 



PART I. AYEEN ARBERY. I 2 J 

which cofts eight dams per feer, are allowed for die kel- 
laweh of the elephant, upon which the foujdar rides ; 
and thole of the other elepliants are made of leather, &c. 
Every year twelve dams are paid by the hulkahdar, in 
confideration of his having the old articles. 

THE KHASEH ELEPHANT. 

There are always fet apart for his majeuy's riding 101 
elephants. Their allowance of food is the fame in quan- 
tity with thofe of the feel khaneh, but differs in qua- 
lity. Moft of thefe have moreover five leers of fugar, 
four fecrs of ghee, and half a maund of rice, with round 
andlong pepper, Sec. and fome have a maund and a half 
of milk mixed up with their rice. In the fugar-cane iea- 
fon each elephant has daily 300 canes more or lefs for 
the fpace of two months. His majefty is the mehawer. 
of the elephants that he rides ; but each has three bhuys 
in the rutting fcafon, and two bhuys when cool. The 
monthly pay of each is from 1 20 to 400 dams, and they 
receive this pay immediately from his majefty. And 
for each elephant four mayhets are alfo allowed. Three 
female elephants are appointed for every hulkah or the 
khafeh elephants j which rule is not obferved in the other 
hulkahs ; and for fome hulkhahs of khafeh elephants, 
even a greater number of females are allowed. The 
following are the fervams appointed for the royal fe- 
male elephants : for the rirft of the large clafs, two 
mayhets and a boy; for the fecond and third ot this 
clafs, one mayhet and a boy ; and for the other cla 
of the female elephants, the fame number of fervants 
are here allowed as in the feel khaneh ; only, that 
whereas in the feel khaneh one of the omrahs is ap- 
pointed to fuperintend a hulkah, — here an emeer is 
appointed for every fingle elephant. Likewiic for every 
ten khafeh elephants, a fktlful perfon is appointed, 
who is called a dehydar : the fiiil of thefe has twelve 
rupees, the fecond ten rupees, and the third eight ru- 
pees 



12$ AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

pees per month. Another officer, called Nekeeb, is alfo 
appointed to every ten elephants, whofe bufinefs it is 
to report to his majefty every day what elephants eat 
lefs than ufual, whether lefs food than what is allowed 
has been given them, or if they are afflicted with any 
diforder. The nekeeb has one marked horfe, and re- 
ceives his pay as an ahdy. Moreover, for every ten 
elephants one of the fervants of the prefence is appoint- 
ed to examine them once every week, and make his 
report. 

THE KHASEY SEWARY, OR THE MANNER OF 
RIDING THE STATE-ELEPHANTS. 

His majefty rides every kind of khafeh elephant, from 
the firft to the lalt clafs, making them obedient to his 
command : and frequently in the rutting feafon, he 
puts his feet upon the teeth of the elephant and mounts 
him, to the adorn fh men t of thofe who are ufed to thefe 
animals. 

Magnificent amarees are put upon the backs of fwift- 
paced elephants, and which ferve for places of repofe on 
lournies. An elephant fo caparifoned is always ready 
at the palace. 

Whenever his majefty mounts, a month's wages are 
given as a donation to the bhuys. And when he has 
rode ten elephants, the following donations are alfo 
bellowed, viz. to the weekly funervifor 100 rupees, to 
the dehdar thirty-one rupees, to the nekeeb fifteen ru- 
pees, to the mufhreff feven rupees and a half. More- 
over, the rewards occafionally given to thofe who are 
particularly attentive to the duties of their refpeftive 
office's, are innumerable. 

Every elephant has his match appointed for fighting : 
tome are alwavs ready at the palace, and engage when 

the 



PARTI. AVEES AKBERY. 120. 

the order is given. When the battle is over, if the 
combatants were khafeh elephants, the bhuys of the 
conqueror receive a reward of 250 dams; but if they 
were elephants of the feel khaneh, the bhuys of the 
conqueror receive only two hundred dams. 

The dehydar of the khafeh elephants takes from the 
monthly pay of every bhuy one dam, the mufhrcfThalf 
a dam, and the nekeeb a quarter of a dam out of every 
rupee. 

In the feel khaneh, out of every rupee one dam is 
taken by the fuddywal, the dehbafhy, and the bifty ; 
and by the mufhreff and nekeeb as in the khafeh de- 
partment. 

OF FINES. 

As in the other departments, fo likewife in this there 
are certain eftablifhed fines. 

Whenever a male or female khafeh elephant dies, 
three months pay is exacted from the bhuys. 

If any part of the harnefs is loft, the bhuys and 
mayhet forfeit ten or fifteen rupees. 

If a jul is loft, they pay its full price. 

If a female elephant dies through want of care, the 
bhuys pay its price. 

If an elephant-keeper gives an elephant any drug to 
make him vicious, and he dies in confequence thereof, 
he is fubjecr, to capital punifhment, or to have an hand 
cut off, and to be fold for a Have. And if it was a 
khafeh elephant, the bhuys alfo fhall forfeit three 
months pay, and be for one year out of fervice. 

Vol. I. K Alio 



1^0 AYEEN AKBEKY. PAKT I. 

Alfo a fkilful perfon is appointed to examine every 
month into the ftate of the khafeh elephants ; and if he 
finds any one out of flefh, the omrahs are fined, and 
the wages of the bhuys are reduced in proportion to 
their demerits. 

In the feel khaneh an examination is made every four 
months by an ahdy, who makes his report to his ma- 

jefly. 

If an elephant dies, three months wages are taken 
from the bhuys and the mehawet. 

If an elephant breaks a tuik and has the diforder called 
kaly, the darogha pays two-thirds, and the foujdar one- 
third of the eighth of the price of the elephant. The 
kaly is a part of the tuik, which upon being wounded 
fuppurates, and becomes hollow and ufelefs. If a tooth 
is broken without occafioning the kaly, the fine is a fix- 
teenth part of the price of the elephant ; two-thirds from 
the darogha, and one- third from the foujdar. Now, 
only an hundredth part of the price of the elephant is 
fixed for the fine for the feel khaneh; but whenever 
this neglect happens towards one of the khafeh elephants, 
fuch 'punifliment is inflicted as his majefty may pleafc 
to direct. 

THE HORSE STABLES. 

Mis jmajefty being very fond of horfes, merchants 
bring them from the two Jraks, Room, Turkeflan, 
Badakftian, Shirvan, Kherghez, Tibbet, and Cafhmeer ; 
and droves are continually arriving from Turan and 
Iran, fo that at this day there are in his majefty's ftables 
twelve thoufand horfes. And in like manner, as they 
are continually coming, in, io equal, numbers are daily 
going out of the ftables in prelents and for other pur- 
pofes. 

Skilful 



PART U AYEEN AKBERY. I^I 

Skilful pcrfons are appointed to look after the broods ; 
and in a fhort time the hones of Hindoftan will excel 
thofe of Arabia. There are tine horfes bred in every 
par: of the empire, but thofe of Ketch excel, being 
equal to the Arabs. It is faid, a long time ago an Ara- 
bian merchant was fhipwrccked on the coaft of Ketch, 
and 1 hat he had feven choice horfes, which are reported 
to have been the progenitors of the horfes of that place. 
In Penjab are bred horfes r fen. bling irakies, efpecially 
in that part which lies between the rivers Sind and 
Behet, which is alio called Sebahy. 

The following places likewife produce good horfes ; 
Putty Hibetpoor, Bejwareh, Teharch, Agra, Mcwat, 
and the fubah of Ajmeer : and in the northern moun- 
tains of Hindoftan are a hardy breed of fmall horfes 
called gowt : and on the confines of Bengal, near the 
province of Kotch, is a horfe betwixt a tourky and a 
gowt, called tanghian, which is very hardy. 

His majefty, from his regard for this animal, which 
is on many accounts fo valuable to a monarch, has made 
feveral regulations refpecting it. 

Firft, He has directed that a place be fet apart for the 
horfe-merchants, where they may be at eafe, and free 
from moleftation, at the fame time that the crafty may 
be deprived of an opportunity of difpofing of their cat- 
tle to private people. But thofe who are known to be 
upright in their dealings, may keep their horfes where 
they pleafe, and bring them at an appointed time. 

Second, He nominated a perfon to the ofHcc of au- 
meen caravanfa, to keep the merchants in order. 

Third, He appointed a tepukchy, to keep an ac- 
count of the horfes uhat come and thofe that have been 
examined. 

K * Fourth, 



Ij a AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Fourth, He appointed fkilful and trufty peffons to 
fettle the price of the cattle. His majefty, from his ex- 
cefs of goodnefs, in order to fatisfy the fullelt expecta- 
tions of the horfe-dealers, generally gives twenty rupees 
or more above the price that is at firft fixed. 

OF THE RANKS OF HORSES. 

Thefe are two j khafeh, and thofe that are not khafeh. 

The following are khafeh, viz. fix ftables, each con- 
taining forty choice Arabian and Perfian horfes ; the 
(tables belonging to the three fhahzadehs ; the (tables 
of tourky horfes for the road ; and the (tables of horfes 
bred in the royal ftuds ; and each (table has a parti- 
cular name : but, excepting the firft fix (tables, none 
ever coniift of more than thirty horfes. His majefty 
rides upon all the horfes in the fix (tables, and upon 
fome of the others occasionally. 

The (hahzadeh's (tables and thofe of the Hindoftany 
breed are of three kinds, viz. of thirty, or of twenty, or 
of ten horfes. A horfe whofe value does not exceed 
ten mohurs, is put in the ftable of ten. Thofe worth 
from ten to twenty, ftand in the ftable of twenty, and fo 
on; and omrahs and other munfubdars, and great ah - 
dyan are appointed to fuperintend them. Government 
finds corn for all the horfes, 'excepting for the horfe 
which the itakdar of every ftable is allowed for his own 
riding, and which he maintains in corn, grafs, &c. at 
his own expence. 

DAILY ALLOWANCE OF FOOD FOR HORSES. 

Every khafeh horfe was allowed daily eight feers of 
grain, when the feer weighed twenty-eight dams ; and 
now that the feer is fixed at thirty dams, the allowance 
is, in the winter {even feers and a half of mowt or mam 
boiled ; and in the fu miner, icvcn feers and a half of 
nakhud. Out of the above (even feers and a half, two 

kers 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 133 

fccrs are ground into flour. In the winter, before the 
horfe has his flour, they give him a feer and a halt of 
fugar, and half a feer of ghee. Two dams per diem arc 
allowed for grafs, excepting in the feafon of khaweed *, 
when they have no grafs; and then, in (lead of fugar, 
they have molafies without the ghee. During the three 
firft days of their eating khaweed, they are not allowed 
any grain ; afterwards, they have fix feers of grain, and 
two leers of molafies daily. In the iraky and tourky 
ftablcs feven feers and a half of boiled grain are given 
during the cool months : one dam is allowed for boiling 
a maund of grain, and once every week each horfe is 
allowed a quarter of a feer of (alt. At the times that 
ghee and khaweed are allowed, every horfe worth 
rhirty-one mohurs and upwards, has one feer of fugar. 
A horfe from twenty-nine down to twenty- one mohurs, 
has half a feer; and the inferior horfes have none : and 
before eating the khaweed, every horfe worth more 
than twenty mohurs is allowed a maund and ten feers 
of ghee. To each horfe from eleven to twenty mohurs, 
they give twenty feers of ghee, and thofe of lefs value 
have neither ghee, nor molafies, nor khaweed ; but 
every horfe of this laft clafs is allowed the fifth of a dam 
weight of fait. The allowance for grafs for each of the 
iraky and tourky horfes is, for thofe at court four dams, 
and for thofe employed in thepergunnahs, one dam and 
a half per diem. In the winter, inftead of grafs, is given 
a biegah of khaweed, the price of which at court is 
valued at 240 dams, and in the country at two hundred 
dams; alfo, every horfe, during the time he is eating 
the khaweed, has an extra allowance of two maunds of 
molafies, and an equal quantity is lefiened in the grain. 
The officers of the houfehold draw out an eilimate of 
thefe expences, and obtain proper afiignments for the 
payment of them. Whenever a horfe is Tick, every 
necefiary expence is paid by government, upon the 
teftimony of the horfe -doctor. 

* Green wheat. 

K 3 Every 



134- AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Every ftallion to a ftud of mares is allowed the fame 
food as a hoife of the (table. 

The gowt horfes have each five feers and a half of 
grain, and the ufual quantity of fait, and are allowed 
for grafs a dam and a half at court, or one dam and 
three cheetels in the pergunnahs ; but they have neither 
ghee, nor mobiles, nor khaweed. 

The kerak horfes (tanghians> have each four feers 
and a half of grain, and fait as ufual, with one dam for 
grafs ac court, or three quarters of a dam in the per- 



The brood mares have each two feers and three 
quarters of grain, but no allowance for fait, grafs, or 
wood. 

A foal is permitted to fuck its dam for the three firft 
months ; after which, for the next nine months, it is 
allowed the milk of two cows ; and for fix months after 
two feers and three quarters of grain daily ; and every 
iix months from this period, they increafe a feer till it 
be three years old, when it is reckoned a full grown 
horie. 

THE HORSE-FURNITURE. 

It would be tedious to mention all the royal horfe- 
furniture ornamented with jewels, and the coverings of 
filk, &c. 

Befldes thofe, there are allowed yearly one hundred 
and ninety-feven dams and a half, &c. viz. 

For an artek, which is of quilted linen, forty-eight 
dams ; for a yalpofh (a covering for the mane) thirty- 
two dams ; for a woollen-rubber two dams ; for a 
horfe-cloth, the outftde of hair-cloth and the lining 

woollen 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 1^5 

woollen fluff, forty-two dams ; for planks and heel- 
ropes forty dams ; for girths eight dams ; for a mu- 
gefTran (a cow-tail to drive away the flies) three dams ; 
for a kizeh, ropes, &c. fourteen dams ; for a curry- 
comb one dam and a half; for grain-bags fix dams; 
for bafkets for ferving the horfe with grain, one dam, 

A new woollen-rubber is allowed every fix months. 
Half the original price of the artek is taken by govern 
ment upon the delivery of a new onej and for an old 
yalpolh a fixth part of its coft is taken, and the re- 
mainder paid to buy a new one. All the other articles 
are renewed every year, and fifteen dams two cheetels 
and a half are taken for the old ones. 

In the other ftables, as far as twenty-one mohurs, 
there are allowed one hundred and ninety-fix dams and 
a half annually, in the manner before particularized ; 
and in exchange for the old articles twenty-five dams 
and a halt are taken by the ftate. 

In the ftables, from twenty to eleven mohurs are 
allowed one hundred and fifty-five dams and a quarter, 
viz. 

Dams. 



Artek, ~- 
Yalpolh, — 
Saddle-cloth, — 


39* 
27! 

3° 


Girths, — < 


6 


Bridle, &c. -*- 


10 


Heel-ropes, &c. — 
Chowry, — 
Rubber, -r— 


3 2 
2 


Curry-comb, — 
Bafket, — 


1 


Bags, — 


4i 



K 4 Ant] 



I36 AYEEN AKBERY. T MW1 f. 

And in exchange for the old ones the ftate takes 
twenty dams. 

For the (tables often mohurs, and for the tangL- . 
and gowts, are allowed one hundred and twenty-eight 
cams and a quarter, riz. 

Dams. 



Artek, — . 
Yalpofli, — 
Saddle-cloth, — 


37 

24 


Heel-ropes, &c. — 
Bridles, &c — 


20 
8 


Girths, — 


5 


Chowry, — 
Rubber, — 


if 
if 


Curry-comb, — 
Bafkets, — 


1 


Bags, -* 


Ai 




128I 



At the expiration of the year they take twenty dams 
for the old articles, and pay the remainder to buy new. 

Kerah aheny is a veffel for boiling grain for ten 
horfes. It is made of one maund of iron, the price of 
which is 140 dams, including the workmanfhip. 

SetelmiiTy. Ten horfes of the (tables of forty, drink 
out of one of them ; but only one is allowed for each of 
the other (tables. It cofts 140 dams. 

Halter. In the (tables of forty there are three 
halters ; in the (tables of thirty two halters; and in the 
other (tables one for each. Each halter weighs half a 
maund, the hemp of which cofts one hundred and forty 
dams, and the expence of twilling is fixteen dams. 

Every 



PART I. ATEEN AKBERT. 1 37 

Every halter 13 fattened with two iron pins weighing five 
leers, and coding fifteen dams each. 

Teber tehmak, weighing five feers ; in every liable 
there is one to drive the iron pins. 

All the broken copper and iron utenfils in the khafch- 
ftables, if repairable, are repaired by the daroghas ; and 
when they are pad that date their value is eftimated, and 
an afiignment given for the remainder to purchale new. 
In the other ftablcs, every year half the value is taken 
for the old ones, and the remainder is paid for new. 

Horfe-moes. Horfes are fhod twice a year. For- 
merly eight dams were given for afet of fhoes, but now 
ten dams are allowed. 

Kundelan. One is allowed for every ten horfes. 
The price of it is eight rupees and twelve annas. 

OF THE SERVANTS EMPLOYED IN THE STABLES. 

The atbeygy takes care of all the horfes, and orders 
how they mail be managed. This office is always held 
by a munfubdar of high rank : at prefent it is filled by 
the khan khanan. 

Darogha. There is one belonging to each (table ; he 
is appointed out of the munfubdars of fiv- thouiand and 
the great ahdyan. 

The muflireff keeps an account of the number of 
horfes prefent, and of what are received into and fent 
out of the liable ; it is hkewife his duty to fee that fuch 
royal regulations as regard this department are carried 
into execution. He is alfo one of the omrahs. 

Dedahwaran, 



.^3 ATEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Dedahwaran. Previous to the horfes being brought 
to his majefty, fome pcrfons afcertain their qualities, and 
fettle their rank ; an account of which is taken in 
writing by the mufhreff. This office is performed by 
munfubdars and ahdyan. 

The akhfhechy looks after the horfe-furniture, and 
has the horfes fiddled. Many of thefe receive their pay 
amongft the ahdyan. 

The chabukfevvar rides and breaks in the horfes, and 
tries their fpeed, which the mufhreff takes an account 
of. He receives his pay as an ahdy. 

The hada are a number of rajpoots who teach the 
horfes various tricks ; and they are ranked amongft the 
ahdyan. 

The mirdaheh. The mod experienced amongft the- 
fyces is placed at the head of ten, and has this name 
given him : he receives his pay amongft the ahdyan. 
3n the khafeh .ftables his monthly pay is 170 dams ; in 
the ftables of the khanehzad 160 dams; and in the 
other ftables of thirty, 140 dams; in the ftables of 
twenty, 100 dams; and in the ftables of ten horfes, 
thirty dams ; and this laft merdaheh looks after two 
horfes. 

The beitar (horfe-doctor) receives his pay as an ahdy. 

The nekeeb is an officer who reports to the darogha 
and mufhreffthe condition of every (table ; and it is his 
office to have the cattle in readinefs. The two head 
nekeebs are ahdyans, and they have thirty people under 
them, who receive from 100 to 120 dams each per 
men/em* 

The 



Dams 


per Month. 




180 


and 


I38 




I36 
126 




160 




130 




IOO 



TART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 139 

The fyce (groom) one for every two horfes; but 
they are paid differently, viz. 



In the (tables of forty horfes, — 
The elder princes ftables, — 

The other young princes ftables, 
tourky horfes, — — 

Khanehzad, — - — 

In the other ftables of thirty horfes, 
In thofe of twenty, — 

In thole or ten, — — 

JALUDAR AND PYKES. 

Their monthly pay is from 120 to 1200 dams. Some 
of them will run from iifty to 100 cofs in the courfe of 
a day. 

The nalbend (the farriers) are ahdyan and peyadehs. 
Their monthly pay is 160 dams. 

The zeendars are alfo ahdyan and foot-foldiers, and 
they receive the eftabliQied pay. 

In the ftables of forty horfes one faddle is allowed for 
two horfes, in the following manner ; for the firft and 
twenty-firft, for the fecond and twenty-fecond, for the 
third and twenty-third, and fo on to the laft; and if the 
firft horfe is fent out of the ftable, what was the fecond 
horfe becomes the iirft, and the fecond faddle becomes 
the third. 

Water-carriers. Three are allowed in the ftables of 
forty ; the ftables of thirty have two ; and the other 
ftables one each. The monthly pay of each is 100 
dams. 

Ferafh. 



I4O AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Ferafh. There is one in every khafeh liable, who re- 
ceives 103 dams monthly. 

A fependfowz is only allowed in the (tables of forty 
horfes. His monthly pay is 1 00 dams. 

Sweepers. Two are allowed for a ftable of forty 
horfes, and one for a liable of thirty or of twenty horfes. 
The monthly pay of each fweeper is fixty-five dams. 

During a march, if the daroghas of the ftable have a 
fixed allowance for peons, they entertain fome people 
to lead the horfes. In the ftables of thirty horfes fifteen 
men are allowed, and fo on j but thofe who have not 
any fixed allowance have men appointed occafionally by 
government, and each receives two dzmsper diem. 

OF THE BARGEER. 

Many are fit for the cavalry fervice who are not in 
circumftances to keep a horfe. For thefe there are fome 
ieparate ftables, with particular daroghas and mufhreffs. 
Whenever there is a necemty, they furnifh fuch an one 
with a horfe upon a written order from the tepukchy j 
and a man fo mounted is called a bargeer fewar. 

REGULATIONS FOR THE DAGH, OR MARK, 

Formerly they ufed to mark the horfes with the word 
nuzer (fight). Every horfe that was received by go- 
vernment had this mark burnt on the right fide ; and 
thofe that were rejected were marked on the left fide. 
Now the horfes of every ftable are marked with their 
price in numerals. Thus, a horfe often mohurs price 
is marked with the figures ten ; thofe of twenty mohurs 
have the figures twenty, and fo on. 

Regulation 



PART t. AYEEN AKBERY. I4I 

Regulations for keeping up the full Complement of Horfcs 
in the Royal Stables. 

Formerly, whenever there were expended either ten 
horfes from the {tables of forty, or from the {tables ot" 
the horfes bred in the royal ftuds j or there were want- 
ing five tourky horfes, they were replaced in the fol- 
lowing manner : The deficiency in the ftables of forty 
was made up from chofen horfes out of the young 
princes ftables ; and the ftables of the kanehzad * 
were completed from the inferior ftables : if there 
were wanting fifteen horfes in the cldefl fhahzadeh'v 
ftables, they were replaced out of the ftables of his 
brothers : when twenty horfes were wanting to com- 
plete the ftables cf the fecond fhahzadeh, they were 
taken from the ftables of his younger brother, and 
from other inferior ftables : and when twenty-five 
horfes were wanting in the ftables of the your. 
fhahzadeh, they chofe them out of the inferior 
ftables. 

In the thirty-feventh year of his majefty's reign, it 
fas ordered that, for the future there mould be added 
to the number one every year j and thus in the thirty- 
eighth year, they did not begin to make up tire defi- 
ciency in the khafeh ftables till there were wanting 
eleven horfes therein ; and the other ftables are now 
completed as his majelty may fee fit. 

REGULATIONS FOR FINES. 

Formerly, when a khafeh horfe died, they ufed to 
exact from the darogha one rupee, and from the rrafdah 
ten dams, upon every mohur that the horfe was worth ; 
and the fyces paid a fourth part of a month's wages. 
If a horfe was ftolen or blemilhed, the fervants paid 

* The horfes bred in the royal lhxls. 

whatever 



t4- AYfcEN AKBERY. PART I. 

whatever was commanded : and, in the other ftables, 
they exacted for a fingle horfe that died, one rupee 
upon every mohur ; for two horfes, two rupees every 
mohur, in the proportions above mentioned. But 
now, for one, two, or three horfes that die, are taken 
one rupee upon every mohur; for four horfes, two 
rupees upon every mohur; and if five horfes die, the 
fervants pay three rupees per mohur ; and fo on in pro- 
portion. 

If a horfe' s mouth is ipoilt, the merdah is fined ten 
dams upon every mohur ; and he taxes the fyces. 

REGULATIONS FOR THE HORSES IN WAITING. 

There are always kept in waiting two horfes of the 
ftable of forty ; of the (tables of the three fhahzadehs, 
and the khanehzad, three each ; together with two 
road- horfes. Thefe are formed into four divifions, 
and each divifion is called a miffal. 

ift Miffal. One horfe from the ftable of the elded 
fhahzadeh; one from the itable of the fecond fhah- 
zadeh, and one from the ftable of khafeh tourkies 

2d Miffal. One from the ftable of the youngeft 
fhahzadeh ; one from the ftable of the khanehzad ; one 
from the ftable of forty j and one from khafeh tourky. 

3d Miffal. From the ftables of the three fhahza- 
dehs one each ; and one from the khanehzad. 

4th Miffal. From the ftables of the three fhahza- 
dehs one each ; and one of ten mohurs. 

His majefty never v.fed to ride any horfes of the 
fourth miffal till Sultan Morad went to his govern- 
ment, when the horfes of forty mohurs were alfo 
h ought for his majefty's riding. 

REGU- 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY", I4| 

REGULATIONS FOR DONATIONS. 

Whenever his majefty mounts a horfe belonging to 
one of the firft fix khafeh {tables, he gives a fixed do- 
nation. For fome time it was a rule, that whenever 
he mounted, a rupee fhould be given, viz. one dam 
to the atbegy ; two dams to the jelowdar ; and thirty- 
(even dams amongft the fyces, muftireff, nekeeb, 
akhfbegy, and zeendar. Whenever he mounted a 
horfe belonging to the (tables of the eldeft fliahzadeh, 
thirty dams were given ; twenty dams when he rode 
one belonging to the fecond fhahzadeh ; and ten dams 
for one belonging to the yonngeft (hahzadeh, or a 
khanehzad horfe. Nov/, the following are the dona- 
tions : For a horfe of the (table of forty, one rupee; 
for a horfe belonging to the eldeft fhahzadeh, twenty 
dams ; for a horfe belonging to the yonngeft fliahzadeh, 
ten dams ; for a tourky horfe, five dams ; for a kha- 
nehzad horfe, four dams ; and for a horfe of the other 
itables, two dams. 

REGULATIONS FOR THE JF.LWANEH. 

Whenever a horfe is given to any one, he is rated 
ten or twenty mohurs above his value ; and out ot 
every fuch mohur, ten dams are divided amonglt 
the iervants, in the following proportions : 





D. 


c. 


The Atbegy, — — 


5 





The Jelubes;v, — — 


2 


izi 


The MullirefT, — — 


1 


6$ 


The Nekeebs, — — 





10 


The Syces, — — 





6i 


Tefialdar, Zeendar, and Akhlhcchy, 





15 



10 o 

In. 



144 AYEE5I AKBERY. TART I. 

In this country, horfes commonly live to the age of 
thirty years ; aiid their price is from 500 mohurs to two 
rupees. 

THE SKUTER KHANEH, OR CAMEL-STABLE. 

From the encouragement given by his majefty, there 
are now bred in Hindoftan camels that excel thofe of 
Turan and Iran. 

A number of thefe animals are felecled, and always 
kept ready to fight for diverfion. The head khafeh 
camel, named Shah Pufiend (the king's choice), and 
who is a native of Hindoftan, has, for the fpace of 
twelve years, conquered all his antagonifts. Camels 
are bred in the following places : Aimeer, Judehpoor, 
Magore, Bcyganur, Jalmeer, Hetenda, and Tahnefir; 
and, in the fubah of Gujerat, near the province of 
Ketch, are great numbers, and very fine. But in Sind 
is the greatefl abundance ; infomuch that many an in- 
habitant of thofe parts is mailer of 10,000 camels and 
upwards. The fwifteft camels are thofe of Ajmeer ; 
the belt for burden are bred in Tatah. 

Arwaneh is the name of a fpecies of female camel, 
In every country, camels couple in winter. If the male 
has two humps, and which kind of camel is called 
biyeer, the young that it begets, if male, is commonly 
called ner ; and if female, mayeh : but his majefty has 
given to the male of thofe the name of boghdy, and 
to the female that of jemazeh. The boghdy is the 
bell for carrying burdens and for fighting 5 and the 
jemazeh excels in fwiftnefs. There is alfo a kind of 
Indian camel, called look, which, as well as the arwaneh 
aforementioned, is almoft as fwift as the jemazeh. If 
a biyeer couples with a jemazeh, their young, if a. 
male, is called ghoord ; and if female, mayeh ghoord. 
If a jemazeh couples with a boghdy, or a look, the 

young. 



PARTI. AYEEN AKBERY. I45 

young, whether male or female, is named after its fire. 
But if a boghdy or a look couples with an nrvvaneh, 
the young male is named after its lire, and the young: 
female after its dam. 

When camels are loaded and travel, they are formed 
into ketars (or rows) each confiding of five camels ; 
and each ketar has a different name, viz. the firit 
ketar is called peting ; the fecond, pefbwereh ; the 
third, meyaneh ketar ; the fourth, durndeft j and the 
fifth, dumdar. 

THE DAILY ALLOWANCE OF FOOD FOR CAMELS. 

The boghdy is fit for fervice when he is two year* 
and a half ; and the jemazeh as foon as (he is three 
years old. At this period they are each allowed two 
leers of grain daily. 

From three and a half to four years, 5 feers 
After four years to leven, — 9 

And thofe of eight years, — 10 

which allowance is continued. 

The daily allowance for the ghoord, the mayeh 
ghoord, and the look, is the fame as the two firft 
mentioned, till they are four years old ; afcer which, 

Till they are feven years old, they have 7 feers 
At eight years old, — 7! 

at which allowance they remain ever after. 

The above was fixed at the time that the feer was of 
twenty-eight dams weight ; but now Chat it is thirty 
dams, they deduct the difference. When the camels 
are in waiting during the eight dry months, grafs is 
found by government 9 but, in the four rainy months, 

Vol. L L and 



I46 AYEEN AKBERY. PART K 

and during a journey, the camel-drivers carry them 
to graze. 

A camel that is on duty with the guard, within the 
city, has two dams every day for grafs ; and if it is fo 
employed without the city, the allowance is only a dam 
and a half. 

FURNITURE FOR THE KHASEH CAMELS. 

For the khafeh camels are allowed the following 
articles : dum afsar, mehar kathy (fomewhat refem- 
bling a horfe-faddfe, but rather longer) kuchy, ke- 
tarchy, ferenjy, tung, firtung, fheebbund, jilajil, gur- 
denbtmd, firchader (or faddle-cloth) made of broad 
cloth, or of coloured linen, or wax-cloth. The value 
of fuch of the above articles as are inlaid with precious 
Hones and adorned with lilken fluffs, is beyond de- 
icription. 

Five ketars of camels, properly caparifoned, are 
kept ready for riding, together with two ketars for 
carrying mehafchs. The mehafch is a wooden cham- 
ber upon two poles, by which it is fufpended between 
two camels. 

In every ten ketars of camels, three ketars have 
coloured furniture, and the reft plain. For the run- 
geen (or coloured furniture) are allowed, for a boghdy, 
235 dams and three quarters, viz. 

Afsar worked with fhells, — - — 304. dams 

Brafs ring, — — — 1 1 

Iron chain, — — — ■ 4! 

Kathy, — — — 5 

PuQnpozyv ■ — — — 8 

Dum afsar, — — — if 



Carried forward 5 1 

Tegeltu; 



PART U AY.EES" AKBERY. I47 

Brought forward 51 dams 

Tegeltu, (in which are five feers of wool) 8 

Saddle-cloth, — — . — 67 

Jehaz and faddle, — — — 40 

Tung, (heebbund, and guloobund, — 24 
Taken (called alfo Kherwer) a rope"! 2 

for tying on burdens, ^ * 

Balapoalh, — — — 15 

2 35l 

A jemazeh who has coloured furniture is allowed 
two additional articles, viz. a gurdenbund at two dams, 
and a bread-belt at fixtcen dams. 

The fadeh, or thofe with plain furniture, are al- 
lowed, for a bogdhy or a jemazeh, 168 dams and a 
half, viz. 

Afsar worked with fliells, «■•» 10 dams 

Dum afsar, — — — o| 

Jehaz, — — — i6£ 

Saddle-cloth, — — 524.' 

Tung, (heebbund, and Guloobund, 24 

Taken tenab, — — 37 

Balapoaih, — — — ■ 28 



168 



K 



For a look, in the laden divifion, are allowed 143 
dams, viz. afsar, jehaz, and takeh, the fame as al- 
ready mentioned ; the (addle-cloth, thirty-fix dams and 
a half; tung, (heebbund, and guloobund, fourteen 
dams and a half. The rungeen and fadeh, excepting 
the brafs ring and iron chains, have their furniture re- 
newed only once in three years; in confideration of 
the old rungeen furniture of every ketar, fixteen dams, 
and from a ketar of fadeh, fourteen dams are taken by 
government. At the end of every three years they 
draw out an account of the fum allowed for furniture, 

L 2 from 



I4S AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

from the amount of which is deducted a fourth part ; 
and then, after taking one tenth from the remainder, 
an aflignment is given for the reft. 

The alefy, or camels ufed in carrying fodder and 
burdens, have new furniture every year. For a look 
and a khanehzad are allowed fifty-two dams and a half, 
viz. 



Afsar, — ■ 


— 


5 dams 


Saddle-cloth, 


— 


33 


Sirdowr, — 


— 


of 


Tung and fheebbund, 


— 


14 



5*1 

Every year an account is made out, when a fourth 
part is deducted., and an aflignment given for the re- 
mainder. 

Gunney-bags, for giving the camels their grain, 
one for every ketar. Formerly there were allowed for a 
ketar of boghdys and jcmazehs thirty dams and three 
quarters j and for a ketar of looks, twenty-four dams 
and a half; but it being reprefented to his majefty 
that the camel-keepers were lofers by providing at this 
fixed rate, it was ordered, in the fortieth year of the 
reign, that the current price fhould in future be al- 
lowed. 

It is a cuftom, that on every new year's day, the 
farban bafhyan receives a donation upon trimming the 
camels, anointing them with oil, and receiving the 
alefy-furniture, &c. 

RULES FOR ANOINTING THE CAMELS. 

For every boghdy and jemazeh, are allowed annually 
'hree feers and three quarters of fefame-oil, three quar- 
ters 



PART 1. AYEEN AKBERY. xty 

ters of a feer of fulphur, and fix feers and a half of 
butter- milk. Each of the other kind of camels has the 
fame as thofe abovementioned, excepting that of ful- 
phur it has only twelve chattaks. Three feers of the 
oil are ufed in anointing the camel, and the remainder 
is injected up the noftrils. Formerly this allowance was 
quarterly, but now is given once a year only. 

THE RANKS OF THE CAMELS, AND THEIR 
SERVANTS. 

His majefty has formed them into ketars, or rows, 
each of which is committed to the care of a farban. 

The ketars are of three kinds. Firft, Five ketars are 
given in charge to a perfon called biftopunjee, or a 
fuperintendant of twenty-five camels : Second, Ten 
ketars, together with nine farbans, are put under a per- 
fon who is (tiled pinjahee, or a fuperintendant of fifty : 
Third, One hundred ketars, with their farbans, are under 
the orders of a punjfuddy, or a fuperintendant of 500. 
Out of thefe 100 ketars, ten are under the particular care 
of the punjfuddy. Government finds farbans for only 
nine of thefe ketars ; the others being provided by the 
punjfuddy himfelf. The farbans of lifty^ and thofe of 
twenty-five, are included in the number of the five 
hundred, and receive their pay accordingly. 

77/6' Monthly Piiy vf the Servants 



Rate. 


Dams. 


1 _ 


400 


2 


340 


<? — 
3 


23o 


4 ■*- 


[220 



The fuperintendant of twenty-five camels receives 
monthly 720 dams, and has alio one marked Jyaboo 
horfe. The fuperintendant of fifty has a marked 
Jiorfe, and receives monthly 960 dams, At prefent 



feveraj 



150 AYEEN AKEERY. PART I, 

feveral of the punjfuddies are dignified with the rank of 
youzbafhy. 

Out of every ketar, one camel is appropriated for 
the tranfportation of the camp-equipage : there is a 
tepeeckchy for this department : 

Every punjfuddy is under the orders of an emeer. 

A number of foot-foldiers are appointed to this de- 
partment, to report, from time to time, the date 
thereof, in order that there may be no neglect ; and 
every fix months the condition of the camels is fcru- 

tinized. 

From the time that a camel is fit for fervice, and 
has palled rmifter, if it is miffing, the farban, the 
pinjahee, and the punjfuddy, are fined in its full price. 
Or if a camel becomes blind or lame, they are fined 
the fourth of its price. 

Reybary is the name given to a tribe of Hindoos 
who arc ikilful in the management of camels; they 
teach the Hindoo look to travel at a great rate. Al- 
though, for trie fpeedy conveyance of intelligence, poft- 
men are Rationed at every five cofe, from one extre- 
mity of the empire to the other, yet a great number of 
thefe camel-riders are continually in waiting at the pa- 
lace to carry orders. 

Each reybary has the following number of camels 
committed to his care for breeding, viz. fifty arwanehs, 
pne biyecr, and two looks. The biyeer and the look 
have the fame allowance of qxain as before mentioned, 
put nothing for grafs. The fifty arwanehs have neither 
allowance for grain nor grafs. 

The 



JART I. AYEEN AKBERY. I^t 

The following Articles are allowed annwlly. 

Oil. Sulphur. Butter-milk. 
Sr. Ch. Sr. Ch. Sr. Ch. 

A biyeer, a boghdy, or "1 e „ 

jemazeh, J4 ° 3 4 6 8 

A look, an arwaneh, a 'j 

ghoord, or a mayeh- I310 610 68 

ghoord, J 

A bootah, or a dumba- 



leh, which are two 
kinds of camels, who 
carry light burdens, _ 



>2 2 6 8 4 4 



and in the herds of camels, to each that is full grown 
is given every week, half a feer of faltpetre and common 
fait j and to a bootah, a quarter of a feer. 

The monthly pay of a gulahban, or keeper of an 
herd of camels, is 200 dams j and he is, moreover, 
allowed for grazing fifty camels, fix men at two dams 
each per diem. A gulahban of fifty camels is obliged 
to prefent his majefty three anvanehs every year ; and 
on failure, their price is deducted from his falary. 

Formerly the ftate ufed to exact a fourth part of the 
wool fheared from every boghdy and jemazeh, and 
which, upon an average, ufed to amount to four feers 
per head. This cuftom his majefty has abolifhed j and 
in lieu thereof, obliges the farban to furnifh the dun> 
afsar and fome other trifling articles. 

The Prices of Camels. 

A boghdy, from 4 to 1 2 mohurs 
A jemazeh, from 3 to 1 o ditto 
A biyeer, from 4 to 7 ditto 

L 4 A mayeh 



%$t AYEEN AKBEkV, lART t, 

A mayeh biyeer, from 3 to 5 mohurs 

A ghoord, from 3 to 8 ditto 

A mayeh ghoord, or a look, from 3 to 7 ditto 

A lookdokleh, from 8 to 9 ditto 

An Hindoftany or a Belootche look, from 3 to 8 ditto 

An arwaneh, from 2 to 4 ditto 

His majefty has fixed the burdens to be carried by 
each as follows : 

Boghdy, bed kind, — — • 10 maunds 

Ditto, middling, — « — 8 

Jemazeh and look, beft kind, — 8 

Pitto, middling, — — 6 

In this country camels do not live above twenty-four 
years, 

THE GAW KHANEH, OR OX-STABLES. 

Throughout Hindoflan the ox is efteemed lucky, 
a.nd held in great veneration. Every part of the em- 
pire produces good oxen ; but thofe of Gujerat are 
efteemed the beft. ' Thefe will travel thirty-fix miles in 
twenty-four hours ; and they are fwifter than the gene- 
rality of horfes. Sometimes a' pair of them are fold 
for 1 00 mohurs; but they are very common for ten 
and twenty mohurs. There is alfo abundance of 
fine oxen in Bengal and the Deccan, that will kneel 
down to be loaded. Many cows at Dehly give daily 
twenty quarts of milk each ; and are feldom fold for 
more than ten rupees. His majefty has a pair of bul- 
locks which coft him 500 rupees. In the neighbour- 
hood of Tibbet and Cafhmeer are the katafs, which 
are of a very extraordinary appearance. This animal 
feldom lives above twenty-five years. 

His majefty divided the oxen into troops, and com- 
mitted each to the charge of a keeper. 

One 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 1 5 J 

One hundred of the choiceft oxen are made khafeh, 
and called kowtel ; fifty-one others are the half, and 
fifty more the quar-ei -kowtel. If any deficiency hap- 
pens in the kowtel, it is fupplied from the half- kowtel, 
and fo on : and all the three above-mentioned kowtel- 
oxen are khafeh. 

Alfo, from fifty to 100 head of oxen, are formed into 
a troop, with proper fervants ; after which, their ranks 
being determined, they are put into their refpective 
dalles. 

Likcwife others are appointed for drawing chariots 
and carts, and for carrying water. 

And in the fame manner are the cows and milk- 
bufFJoes formed into divilions, and put under the 
charge of proper fervants. 

There is alfo a fpecies of fmall oxen, called gaynee, 
which are well limbed and very beautiful. 

DAILY ALLOWANCE OF FOOD FOR THE OXEN. 

Every head of the three firft khafeh kinds is allowed 
daily fix feers and a quarter of grain, and a dam and 
ill for grafs; together with a maund and nineteen 
of molafies for the whole, which the daroghah 
diftributes rimongfl them as he fees proper. For each 
of the other khafeh kinds, fix feers of grain, and 
grafs as before ; but they have not any mobiles. 

For the others, as follows: 1 ft kind, Six feers of 
grain ; for grafs, if at court, one dam and a half; and 
if on a march, only one dam : 2d kind, Grain, five 
feers j and grafs as before. 

The 



154 AYEEN AKBERY. PART U 

The chariot-bullocks fix feers of grain, and grafs as 
before; the gaynees, firft kind, three leers of grain ; for 
grafs, if at court, one dam ; and if on a march, three 
quarters of a dam. Second kind, grain two feers and 
a half ; grafs, if at court, three quarters of a dam. 
The male buffaloes (called in Hindoflan urneh) eight 
feers of wheat flour boiled up with two feers of ghee, 
and two feers and a half of molafles ; alfo one feer and 
a half of grain ; and two dams are allowed for grafs. 
This animal, when in the vigour of youth, is fo wonder- 
fully brave, and has fuch ftrength, that he will attack a 
Jion and tear him in pieces. When he is old he is 
ufed for carrying water, and is then allowed eight feers 
of grain, and two dams for grafs. 

The other buffaloes that are employed in drawing 
water, are each allowed fix feers of grain, and two dams 
for grafs. 

The beft of the chariot-bullocks have each fix feers 
and a quarter of chenah, and two dams for grafs : the 
reft of thefe have each five feers of grain, and grafs as 
before. Thofe that work in carts formerly had five 
feers of grain, and one dam and a half for grafs, but 
their prefent allowance of grain is a quarter of a feer lefs. 

The milch cows and buffaloes, when at court, have 
grain given them- equal- in weight to their milk. A 
cow gives from one to fifteen quarts of milk, and a 
buffaioe from two quarts to thirty. An eftimate being 
made of the quantity of milk given by each, there are 
demanded two dam's weight of ghec for every quart of 
milk given by each. 

An herd of oxen or buffaloes, is called fthat m the 
Hindovee language. 



SERVANTS 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. l$$ 

SERVANTS EMPLOYED WITH THE OXEN. 

In the khafeh {tables one perfon is allowed to look 
after four head of cattle; and out of fixteen of fuch per- 
fons one has five dams, and the others four dams each 
per diem. The keepers of the other (tables have each 
the fame pay as thofe above mentioned, but then every 
one looks after fix oxen. Some of the charioteers re- 
ceive their pay as ahdyan, and others have from nz 
to 256 dams per men/em. The behul (or chariot) is of 
two forms, chutterdar, or with an umbrella, and thofe 
that are without that enfign of royalty. The behul is 
fometimes drawn by horles, when it is called goher 
behul. 

Formerly, for every ten arabahs, or carts, there were 
twenty arabcheen, or carters, appointed, together with 
a carpenter. The daily pay of the head arabachy was 
five clams, and that of the others four dams each. For 
fome particular behuls are allowed after the rate of 
twenty arabcheean for fifteen behuls, without any car- 
penter. The head arabchy furnifhed repairs; in con- 
sideration of which, he received annually 2200 dams. 

Formerly, as has been faid above, the repairs were 
made at the expence of the daroghahs ; but every day 
that the carriages were ufed there was an allowance of 
half a dam for owng, which is hemp mixed with ghee, 
tmd twifted round the axle-tree of the wheel to pre- 
serve it. 

Afterwards, when the arabcheean had the contract, 
it was agreed that they fhould furniih the carpenter's 
work and the owng. At firft it was cuftomary for the 
cans to carry on marches a quantity of baggage belong- 
ing to the different offices, and afterwards to carry alfo 
whatever fire-wood was required for the kitchen, and to 
tranfport timbers and bricks for the public buildings ; 

but 



l$6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

but now there are allowed 200 carts for the ufe of the 
buildings iolely ; and 600 carry to the kitchen, in the 
courfe often months, 150,000 maunds of wood. When 
the arabcheean had the contract, if a beaft died they 
iound another in his room. 

But it having been reprefented to his majefty that the 
contractors did not fulfil their engagements, he abolifhed 
that mode, and ordered that the oxen mould again be 
given in charge to proper perfons ; and ordered thai 
every cart-bullock fhould have a daily allowance of 
four feers of grain, with one dam and a half for grals, 
excepting in the four rainy months ; when no allowance 
is made for this laft article. There are alfo appointed 
for every eighteen carts twelve men, one of whom is a 
carpenter. Now if a bullock dies, government fupplies 
another in his ftead ; and likewife gives an allowance 
for owng ; and is at the expence of repairs. 

The oxen that are worked are muftered once a year 5 
and thofe that are unemployed every fix months ; when 
the overfeers make a report of the condition in which 
they find them. 

The carters, in confequence of their being exenfed 
from afTi fling in the buildings, and carrying fire-wood, 
are obliged to perform every other fervice that is re- 
quired of them. 

OF MULES. 

A mule is the fpecies between an horfe and an afs, 
produced either by a mare and a male als, or, on the 
contrary, by a fhe-afs and a horfe. His majefty had a 
young afs coupled with a tanghian mare, and they pro- 
duced a very fine mule. 

The excellency of a mule is, that it never forgets the 
road which it has once travelled. No beaft of the fame 

£ze 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY: I57 

fize carries fo heavy a burden ; ir goes better over un- 
even ground, and has eafier paces than any other ani- 
mal. They are not bred in Hindoftan, excepting in 
Pukely and its vicinity. The people of this country 
confidered them as afles, and were alhamed to ride upon 
them ; but his majefty countenancing this animal, has 
removed the diflike. 

iVTules are brought from different parts of Arabia 
and Perfia ; and one of the befl is fold for one thoufand 
rupees. 

Like camels, they are formed into ketars of five, and 
which have the fame names, excepting that of thefe the 
fecond ketar is called berduft. 

A mule frequently lives fifty years. 

THE DAILY ALLOWANCE OF FOOD FOR MULES. 

An Arabian or a Perfian mule is allowed fix feers of 
grain daily ; for grafs, if at court, two dams ; and on a 
journey, or when emploved in the country, one dam and 
a half. 

The Hindy mule has four feers of grain, and is al- 
lowed for grafs one dam and a half if at court, and only 
one dam if employed in the country : and each mule is 
allowed weekly three quarters of a dam for fait. 

FURNITURE FOR MULES. 

For the furniture of each of the Arabian, Perfian, 
and other foreign mules, is allowed annually three 
hundred and fifty-four dams ; and the furniture of art 
Hindy mule, one hundred and fifty-one dams and a 
quarter. 

A mule 



1$$ AYEF.X AKBERY. PART U 

A mule is fhod twice a-year, for which are allowed 
eight dams. 

Every ketar has a perfon to look after it, who is 
called afterban ; if he be a native of Iran or Turan, he 
has monthly from four hundred to one thoufand nine 
hundred and twenty dams; an Hindy afterban has 
from two hundred and forty to two hundred and fifty- 
fix dams. 

All whole monthly wages exceed ten rupees, are 
themfelves at the expence of the grain and grafs. The 
overfeers of this department examine the condition of 
the cattle twice a-year; and the mules are annually 
brought into the royal pretence. 

If a mule becomes blind or lame, the afterban is 
fined a fourth of its price ; and if a mule is loft, half its 
price is exa&ed. 

For carrying burdens and drawing water, there are 
alfo kept affes, each of which is allowed daily three feers 
of grain, and one dam for grafs ; and for furniture the 
fame as the Hindy mule, excepting that the afs has no 
faddle-cloth. For repairing the furniture there is an 
annual allowance of twenty-three dams. Their keeper 
has never more than one hundred and twenty dams 
monthly. 



THE MANNER IN WHICH HIS MAJESTY SPENDS 
HIS TIME. 

On this depends the welfare and happinefs of all ranks 
of people. 

It is his majefty's conftant endeavour to gain and 
fecure the hearts of all men. Amidft a thoufand cares 
and perplexing avocations, he fuffers not his temper to 

be 



FART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 159 

be in any degree difturbed, but is always cheerful. He 
is ever itriving to do that which may be moft accept- 
able to the Deity ; and employs his mind on profound 
and abftracted fpeculations. From his thirft after 
wildom, he is continually labouring to benefit by the 
knowledge of others, while he makes no account of his 
own fagacious adminiftration. He liftens to what every 
one hath to lay, becaufe it may happen that his heart 
may be enlightened by the communication of a jufi 
fentiment, or by the relation of a laudable aft ion ; but 
although a long period has elapfed in this practice, he 
has never met with a perfon whole judgment he could 
prefer to his own. Nay, the moft experienced ftatef- 
men, on beholding this ornament of the throne, bluQi 
at their own inlufficiency, and ftudy anew the arts of 
government. Neverthelels, out of the abundance of 
his lagaciry, he will not fuffer himfelf to quit the paths 
of inquiry. Although he be furrounded with power 
and fplendor, yet he never fuffers himfelf to be led 
away by anger or wrath. Others employ flcry-tellers 
to lull them to fleep, but his majeity, on the contrary, 
liftens to them to keep him awake. From the excefs of 
his righteoufnefs, he exerciles upon himfelf both inward 
and outward aufterities, and pays fome regard to external 
forms, in order that thofe who are attached to eftablifhcd 
cuftoms may not have any caufe for reproach. His life 
is an uninterrupted feries of virtue and found morality, 
God is witnefs that the wife of all ranks are unanimous 
in this declaration. 

He never laughs at nor ridicules any religion or CcS: : 
he never wafles his time, nor omits the performance of 
any duty; fo that, through the bleffing of his upright 
intentions, every action of his life may be confidered as 
an adoration of the Deity. He is continually returning 
thanks unto Providence, and fcrutinizing his own con- 
duel ; but he moft efpecially fo employs himfelf at the 
following ftated times : — & d? v. break, when the fun 

begins 



l6o AYEEN AKEERY. PART I. 

begins to diffufe his rays; at noon, when that grand 
illuminator of the univerfe mines in full refplendence ; 
in the evening, when he difappears from the inhabitants 
of the earth j and again at midnight, when he recom- 
mences his afcent. All thefe grand myfteries are in' 
honour of God ; and if dark-minded, ignorant people 
cannot comprehend their fignification, who is to be 
blamed ? Every one is fenfible that it is indifpenfably 
©ur duty to praife our benefactor, and confequently it is 
incumbent on us to praife this DirTufer of bounty, the 
Fountain of Light ! and more efpecially behoveth it 
princes fo to do, feeing that this Sovereign of the heavens 
fheddeth his benign influence upon the monarchs of the 
earth. His majefty has alfo great veneration for fire in 
general, and for lamps 5 fince they arc to be accounted 
rays of the greater light. 

He is ever fparing of the lives of offenders, wifhing 
to bellow happinefs upon all his fubjects. 

He abflains much from flefh, fo that whole months 
pafs away without his touching any animal food. He 
takes no delight in feniual gratifications ; and in the 
courfe of twenty-four hours never makes more than one 
meal. 

He fpends the whole day and night in the perform- 
ance of his necdlary avocations, excepting the fmali 
portion required for fleep. He takes a little repofe in 
the evening, and again for a fhort time in the morning. 
The greater! part of the night is employed in the 
tranfaciion of bufinefs j to the royal privacy are then 
admitted philofophers and virtuous iofees, who feat 
themfelves, and entertain his majefty with wife dif- 
courfes. On thofe occafions his majefty fathoms the 
depths of knowledge, examines the value of ancient 
inftitutions, and forms new regulations, that the aged 
may ftand corrected in their errors, and the riling gene- 
ration 






TATIT I. AYE EN A K BURY. t6t 

ration be provided with fit rules for governing their con- 
duct. There are alio prelent at theie aflemblies, learned 
hiftorians, who relate the annals of paft times, juft as the 
events occurred, without addition or diminution- A 
confiderable part of the night is fpent in hearing repre- 
fentations of the ftate of the empire, and giving orders 
for whatever is neceilary to be done in every department. 
Three hours before day there are introduced to the pre- 
fence, muficians of all nations, who recreate the aflem- 
bly with vocal and inftrumental melody. But when it 
wants only about an hour of day, his majefty prefers 
filence, and employs himfelfat his devotions. Juft be- 
fore the appearance of day, people of all ranks are in 
waiting ; and foon after day-break are permitted to 
make the koornifh, after the^manner which will pre- 
iently be defcribed. 

Next, the haram are admitted to pay their compli*- 
ments. During this time various other affairs are trans- 
acted ; and when thofe are finifhed, he retires to reft for 
a fhort time. 



THE BAR, OR TIMES OF ADMISSION TO THE 
ROYAL PRESENCE. 

His majefty is vifible to every body twice in the 
courfe of twenty-four hours. Firft, after the perform- 
ance of his morning devotions, he is feen from the ja- 
rokha by people of all ranks, without any moleftation 
from the mace - bearers. This mode of mewing 
himfelf is called Durfun * ; and it frequently happens 
that bufinefs is tranfactcd at this time. The fecond 
time of his being vifible is in the dowlet khaneh. whither 
he generally goes after nine o'clock in the morning, 
when all people are admitted. But this afiembly is 

* Durfun, in the Shaafcrit language, fignines view. 

Vol. I. M bmo- 



l62 AYEEN AKBERY. PART 5. 

fometimes held in the evening, and fometimes at night. 
He alfo frequently appears at a window which opens 
into the dowlet khaneh ; and from thence »he receives 
petitions, without the intervention of any perfon, and 
tries and decides upon them. 

Every officer of government reprefents to his majefty 
his refpedtive wants, and is always inftructed by him 
how to proceed. 

He confiders an equal diftribution of juftice and 
the happinefs of his fubjects as effential to his own fe- 
licity, and never fuffers his temper to be ruffled whild 
he is hearing caufes. 

Whenever his majefty orders a bar (or court) to be 
held, they beat a large kettle-drum, to apprize every 
one thereof. The royal family, the omrahs, and others, 
immediately attend to make the koornifh, each (landing 
in his proper place. The learned and the mechanic 
make their refpeitive reprefentations ; the daroghas and 
tepukchees fet forth their feveral wants ; and the officers 
of juftice give in their reports. During the whole time 
there are exhibitions of gladiators, wreftlers, muli- 
cians, &c. 



THE KOORNISH AND THE TUSLEEM. 

Various are the forms of falutations which have been 
adopted for addreffing monarchs. Thefe bow down 
the head, and thofe bend the knee, whilft others prac- 
tife different modes, in token of fubmiffion. 

His majefty has commanded the palm of the right 
hand to be placed upon the forehead, and the head to 
be bent forwards. This kind of falutation is called 

koornifh, 



t-ART J. AYEEN AKBEP.Y. l5j 

koornifh, /'. e. " the head being placed In the hand of 
iupplication, becomes an offering to the holy aflembly." 

The tufleem is performed after the following man- 
ner : The back of the right hand is placed upon the 
ground, and raifed gently till the perfon (lands erect j 
when he puts the palm of his hand upon the crown of 
his head. His majefiy relates as tollows : (t One day my. 
" father beftowed upon me a royal cap, which I put 
" upon my head, and becaufe it was too large for me, 
M I held it on with my left hand, bowed down my head, 
M and made the tufleem. The king was exceedingly 
" pleafed with this new method, and from that time 
l( it became the mode of performing that obeifance." 
Upon introduction, or on taking leave, or upon receiv- 
ing a munfub, or jageer, or a drefs, or an elephant, or 
an horfe, it is ulual to make three tufleems ; and on oc- 
casions of lefs moment, they perform only one tufleem. 

Formerly the courtiers ufed to add the fijdah to the 
koornilh and tufleem ; but as ignorant and ill-difpofcd 
people viewed this aft ion in the light of impious adora- 
tion, his majefiy ordered it to be difcontinued by all 
ranks of people on public occafions. However, in the 
private affemblies, when any of thole in waiting are or- 
dered to feat themfelves, they on this occalion bow down 
their foreheads to the earth. 

OF SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE. 

By the decrees of God, the G verof wifdom, mankind 
are in general difpofed to applaud their own actions, 
and to condemn thofe of others ; whilft fome, however, 
are never fo happy as when they are aCling to the pre- 
judice of their neighbour : there are others who prefer 
the watchful care of the world to their own perfonal in- 
terests. Thus different bodies of men hold different 
beliefs, and amufe themfelves with their refpeSivc dreams 

M 2 and 



164 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

and Millions. But it now and then happens that a per- 
fon relinquifhes his peculiar habits and cuftoms, in con- 
fequence of a contemplative turn of mind, whereby he 
unravels the warp and woof of the veil of deception, and 
difcovers the beautiful countenance of conliftency and 
truth. But the lamp of wifdom doth not enlighten 
every houfe, neither is every heart capable of receiving 
informal ion ; fo that when a man arrives at fuch a de- 
gree of knowledge, he keeps filence, from the dread of 
lavage beafts in human forms. If, however, in the full- 
nefs of his heart he attempts to reveal his fentiments, the 
ignorant upbraid him with infanity, allow no credit to 
what he fays, brand him with the epithets of infidel and 
blafphemer, and probably deprive him of life. But 
when, through the good fortune of mankind, the fea- 
fbn arrives for the revelation of truth, a perfon is en- 
dowed with this degree ot knowledge, upon whom God 
beftows the robes of royalty, that he may lead men in 
the right way with abibhite dominion ; fuch as is the 
emperor of our time. The aftrologers were apprized 
of this from the hour of his majeily's nativity, and whif- 
pered their exultations to each other. His majefty, 
however, did for fome time caff, a veil over this myftery, 
that it misrht not be known to llrangers. But that 
which the Lord wiileth to have done, who hath power 
to avoid > In his infancy, he involuntarily performed 
fuch actions as aftonUhed the beholders ; and when at 
length, contrary to his inclination, thole wonderful ac- 
tions exceeded all bounds, and became difcemible to 
every one, he confidered it to be the will of the Al- 
mighty, that he (hould lead men in the paths of righte- 
oufnefs, and began to teach 5 thus fatisfying the thirfty 
who were wandering in the wildernefs of enquiry. 
Some he taught agreeably to their willies ; whilft he 
difappointed others in their defires. Many of his difci- 
ples, through the bleffmg of his holy breath, obtain a 
greater degree of knowledge in the courfe of a fingle 
day, than they could gain from the iuftruction of other 

holy 



PART T. AYEF.N AKBERY. 10$ 

holy doctors after a faff, of forty days. Numbers of 
thofe who have bid adieu to the world, fuch as fonnaf- 
fees, calendars, philofophers, and fofees, together with 
a multitude of men of the world, namely, foldiers, mer- 
chants, hufbandmen, and mechanics, have daily their 
eyes opened unto knowledge : and men of all' nations 
and ranks, in order to obtain their defires, invocate his 
majefty, confidering thofe vows as the means of extricat- 
ing themfelvcs from difficulties ; and when they have 
attained their wiihes, they bring to the royal prefence 
the offerings which they had vowed. But many, from 
the remotenefs of their lituation, or to avoid the buttle 
of a court, beftow their vows in charity, and pafs their 
lives in grateful praifes. If his majefty moves from the 
capital, in order to fettle the affairs of the empire, to 
conquer kingdoms, or to enjoy the pleallires of the 
chace, there is not a city, town, or village, that doth 
not fend out crowds of men and women, to prefent him 
the offerings which they had vowed. From this fource 
of the fountain of bounty have been obtained the fol- 
lowing bleflings : Succefs in bulincfs, refloration ol 
health, birth of a fon, reunion of difcontented friends, 
long life, increale of power and wealth ; with the accom- 
plilfiment of many other petitions. He, who knoweth 
what will come to pafs, gives iatisfactory anfwers to 
every one, and applies remedies to their afflictions. 

Not a day palTes but people bring cups of water to 
the palace, befeeching him to breathe upon them. He, 
who is privy to the fecrets of Heaven, reads the decrees 
of fate, and, if tidings of hope arc received, takes the 
water from the fuppliant, places it in the fun's rays, and 
then having beftowed upon it his aufpicious breath, re- 
turns in. Alfo many whofe difeafes are deemed in- 
curable, intreat him to breathe upon them, and art 
thereby reftored to health. 

The mofl finking proof of his miraculous powers is 
ihe following : — A talkative ignorant reclufe faid, " If 

M 3 tc there 



:66 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

" there be any latent good in me, it behoveth you to 
u bring it to perfection ;?! and having ib faid, he fell 
down in a trance at the threfhold of the palace. The 
day was not ended before he obtained his wiih. 

His majefly, cut of his great wifdom, is very back- 
ward in granting this requeft, excufing himfelf by fay- 
ing, " How mall I teach, till I have myfelf been in* 
" ftrucled ?" But if there be in any one evident figns of 
truth, and he is very importunate, he is accepted ; and 
on Sunday, when the fun is in the meridian, obtains his 
heart's defire. And from beholding thefe wonders, 
thoufands of every perfuafion have believed on hi.rPi 

The perfon who wants to be initiated in all righteouf- 
nefs, places his turban in the palm of his hand, and 
putting his head upon his majefty's feet, faith, u I have 
•' call away my prefumption and felfifhnefs, winch were 
iC the cauie of various evils, and am come a fuppliant, 
" vowing to devote the remainder of my life in this 
*f world to the attainment of immortality." Then his 
majefty flretches out the hand of favour, raifes up the 
fuprlicant, replaces his turban upon his head, faying, 
" My prayers are addrefled to Heaven for your fupport, 
*' in order that yourafpiring inclinations may bring you 
from teeming exiflence unfo real exiilence." He then 
gives him the mud, upon which is engraven one of the 
greet names of God, and the words " Allah Akber," 
tha: he may be inflru&ed in the following verfe : 

" The pure fhuft and the pure fight never err." 

His maj fly inftructs others as circumftances may re- 
quire ; and many, according to their capacities, are re-* 
created with fublime difcourfes. 

But this is not the proper place for giving a full ac- 
count of the manner in which he inflru&s mankind, or of 

the 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 167 

the numerous miracles which he has performed. Should 
my life be lengthened fufficiently, and mould I have 
leifure enough, it is my intention to compofe a volume 
on this interesting fubjecT:. 



RULES OF DISCIPLINE. 

When two difciples meet, one fays, " Allah Akber," 
{God is greateft) ; and the other anfwers, " Jillejilale- 
t( hoo," (mighty is his glory*). And this form of 
falutation is appointed merely to the end that they may 
keep the Deity in continual remembrance, by exercifing 
their tongues in hispraife. 

It is alfo ordered by his majefty, that the food which 
is ufually given away after the death of a perfon, (hall 
be prepared by the donor during his life-time. 

Every difciple on the anniverfary of his birth-day, is 
obliged to make a feaft, and to beftow alms. 

He is alfo enjoined to endeavour to abftain from eat- 
ing flefh entirely; and if he is not able to quit it alto- 
gether, he muft at lead refrain at the times appointed 
in the regulations for the Sufyaneh, as alfo during 
the whole of the month in which he was born. He is 
prohibited from eating voluntarily of any animal that 
he hath himfeif flam. Neither is he to eat out of the 
fame dim with butchers, hunters, or bird-catchers ; nor 
is he allowed to have commerce with pregnant or old 
women, or with one who is barren, or with a girl under 
the age of puberty. 

THE MUSTER OF ELEPHANTS. 

This mufter precedes all others. Every day a khafeh, 
elephant, with his houfings and trappings, is brought to 

* Akber's titles were, " Jilaleddeen Mahommed Akbcr, 

M 4 the 



i6S AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

the front df die palace ; and on the firft day of every 
Perfian month, ten elephants are brought ; and on every 
fucceeding day, ten hulkahs often each. On Monday 
ten hulkahs of twenty each are brought to be muftered. 
When an elephant is muftered they afk his name, of 
which each of thefe animals, as well as every horfe, has 
a different one. They alfo require the name of the 
dehydar— how he was obtained — his price — allowance 
of food — age — where bred — at what time he is rank — 
how often he has been fo — how long he ufually continues 
in that ftate — how often he has fought, and with what 
fircefs — how often he has been brought for the royal 
ufe — how often he has been mounted by his majefty — 
when he was admitted amongft the khafeh elephants — 
at what periods he has changed his keepers — when his 
tu.fks were drelied — how often he has been muftered — 
what fervants look after him— the names of the emeer 
and the fuperintendant. All thefe queftions are an- 
frveied by the tcpukchy, 

Refpecting the other elephants, the following quef- 
tions are afLed : The name of thehulkadar — price of the 
elephant — how he was obtained — whether he is fit for 
riding, or for carrying burdens — what is his rank — 
whether he is to continue with his prefent foujdar, or to 
be transferred to another. 

Alfo, every day five new elephants are fent to the 
fuddywa! to have their rank determined ; which being 
done, they are put into their refpective claffes. 

Every Sunday an elephant is brought to the palace to 
be given away to one of the moft deferving fervants - s 
and ibme hulkahs are fet apart for this purpofe. 

Formerly, it was a rule that the elephant firft rode was 
put into the firft clafs, but now it is that which is rode 
ofteneft.' 

According 



PART X. AYEEN AKBERY. 169 

According to the value of the elephant, it is put into 
the firft or kit hulkah. 

When all the elephants have pafled mutter in the 
above-mentioned order, they begin again with the 
khafeh elephants, bringing ten at a time ; and when 
thefe are reviewed, they proceed with thole of the fhah- 
zadehs. 

It is a rule that the fhahzadehs pafs mutter mounted 
on their own particular elephants; and after them 
the other hulkahs pafs before his majefly. 

It being ordered that the elephants mould be formed 
into troops according to their price, the proper officers 
at each mutter pick out any elephant that is mifplaced, 
and put it amongft its equals. 

During the time of mutter thofe men who want to be 
employed in this department ftand together in a row, 
and his majefly appoints them as he thinks proper. 

The hulkahdars whofe elephants are in good condi- 
tion have their number increafed, by lean ones that are 
taken away from thofe who have been negligent in the 
difcharge of their duty. 

The mufhrefF receives orders from his majefty, in 
what rank to place every new elephant that is appro- 
priated to his own particular ufe. 

The elephants of the other omrahs, although not in 
the general rotation, are brought to the prefence occa- 
fionally; and their rank being fixed, are damped with 
the royal mark. 

The merchants alfo bring elephants to the palace, and 
receive their proper price. 

THE 



I7O AYEEN AKBERY. PART St. 



THE MUSTER OF HORSES. 

This begins with the (bbles of forty liorfes ; next, 
thofe of the (hahzadehs and thekhanehzad, coi.tinung 
with the other (tables till all the horfes of ten molars 
have been reviewed. After thefe are muftered the gowt 
and tanghian horfes, and thofe of the bargeers ; they are 
brought according to their price, and if two are equal 
in value, then that which was firft received into the 
itable precedes the other. 

Previous to mufter, fkilful perfons fix the prices of 
the tanghians, &c. anew, and determine whether they 
fliall be of the firft, fecond, or third clafs. Thofe which 
have increafed in value iince thelaft mufter, are put into 
a higher clafs ; and thofe which have fallen off, are 
degraded accordingly. For thofe of the third clafs, are 
appointed feparaie (tables, out of which ordinary people 
receive prefents. 

Every muiter-day the ordinary {tables are completed ; 
and if there be not any deficiency, the furplus horfes 
are put into a feparate (table, for which there is a fuper- 

intenjdant. 

The mufter of this animal ufed to begin on Monday* 
They bring forty horfes the firft day, and on every fuo 
cceding day twenty each. Some horfes, from fixty to 
ten mohurs value, are always in readinefs to be given in. 
prefents, and to mount the cavalry. 

.' The horfes belonging to the dealers are viewed as 
{hey come, and according to the number brought, from 
twenty to an hundred are viewed daily ; but before they 
are brought to his majefty officers appointed for the 
purpofe fettle their price ; which valuation, however, his 
majefty always increafes a little. The horfes of lefs value 

than 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY- 171 

than thirty mohurs have their price fixed, without being 
brought to the royal prefence. 

The treafurer has always money ready in the bargah 
aum, that the dealers may not be kept in painful ex- 
pectation. 

After a horfe is bought, he has the royal mark fiamped 
upon him. 

Duties collected upon Horfes bought from the Dealers. 

Each horfe. 
A foreign mujenefs, or tazee, — 3 Rs. 
A tourky, or a khandahar tazee, — . 2| 
A Kabul, or Hindoftan tazee, — 2 

THE MUSTER OF CAMELS. 

It begins with the khanehzad ; and every day live 
ketars are muttered, excepting on Friday, when there 
are ten ketars, and they are brought in order according 
t.o their value. 



THE MUSTER OF BULLOCKS. 

The mufter of this animal ufed to begin on Wednef- 
ciay, when ten pair were muftered, and every fucceeding 
day the lame number. On the feftival of the Dewalee, 
when the Hindoos pay a particular worfhip to the ox, 
a number are drefled out in elegant trappings, and 
brought to the palace. 

THE MUSTER OF MULES. 

This commenced on Thurfday. Thefe animals are 
muftered only once in the courfe of a year, fix ketars 
daily. 

Formerly 



fJZ AYEEN AKBERY. PART f. 

Formerly the mutters were made in the order above- 
mentioned ; but now the week is employed in the fol- 
lowing; manner : 
v° 

Saturday, Mutter of elephants ; 

Sunday, Ditto of horfes; 

Monday, Ditto of camels, mules, and oxen ; 

Tuefday, . Ditto of foldiers ; 

Wednefday, The Dewan Vizarut ; 

Thurfday, The adminiftration of juttice ; 

Friday, His majelly is in the ruuam. 



THE POW GOSHT. 

His majetty.has adopted an admirable mode for de- 
termining the degree of benefit or injury that an animal 
has received. 

They ettimate the quantity of food allowed, and 
calculate how much flefh it can produce, allowing every 
feer of food to yield fuch a proportion of flefh ; and if 
upon examination they find the animal leaner than he 
ought to be, the officers are fined in the price of the 
food of which they have defrauded the beaft: ; that is, 
fuppofing it evidently appears that the leartnefs proceeds 
from fraudulent practices. And this experiment is 
called pow gofht. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC FIGHTS OF 
ANIMALS. 

His majefty is willing to encourage public fpeclacles, 
as a means of bringing together people of all ranks, 
who, by partaking in the general diveilion, may become 
acquainted, and enter into friendship and good fellow- 
(hip with each other. 



TH! 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 1 73 

THE RATTLES OF DEER. 

There are always one hundred and one khafeh deer, 
each of which has a proper name fignificant of his cha- 
racter j and for every couple or" thefe a keeper is ap- 
pointed. The battles of thefe animals are of three 
kinds : iff, Khafeh deer with khafeh j 2d, Khafeh deer 
with thofe of the lliazadehs j 3d, Khafeh deer with thofc 
of forty-two of the principal courtiers, whom his majefty 
has formed into twenty-one miffals ; being compoied of 
munfubdars of icwen thoufand down to dehbafhees. 

A wager is laid upon every battle, and the money 
depofited j and each battle is from eight rupees to eight 
mohurs. 

It is a rule, that a deer who runs away in three battles 
is turned out of the khafeh rank. A deer who has 
given proofs of courage in battle, is called atkul. Thofe 
who nre fit for fighting but have not yet engaged, arc 
called aneen. 

The above mentioned forty perfons, who are formed 
into twenty-one miffals, are called hovofnakan ; and it 
is they who depofit the bets. 

Every mifTal has alfo for fighting, a buffaloe, a bull, 
a ram, a goat, and a cock ; and when the battles of deer 
are concluded, thefe are fported with. The bet upon 
a buffaloe is from four rupees to four mohurs ; upon a 
bull, a ram, or a goat, from two rupees to two mohurs ; 
and upon a cock, the fame as a buffaloe. Formerlv 
there were not any battles of bulls and rams. 

Thefe battles are fought at night, on the fourteenth 
day of the mooa, in the front of the palace. 

There are alfo other deer, called kowtel and half 
kowtel, each divifion confuting of a fixed number. 

W he never 



174 AYEEN AKBERY. PAR 

Whenever there is a deficiency in the number " afeh 
deer, it is fupplied from the kowtel ; and what is want- 
ing in the kowtel is made up from the half kowtel ; all 
thefe are continually in training, and are made to engage 
with each other for trial of their character. 

The hunters when they take wild deer, bring them 
to the palace, where their prices are fixed ; they are 
formed into four ranks, or degrees of goodnefs, and 
the price is from two rupees to two mohurs each. 



THE DAILY ALLOWANCE OF FOOD. 

The khafeh deer, thofe of the kowtel, and thofe 
belonging to the righting miiTals, have each a daily 
allowance of two fecrs of grain, half a feer of wheatea 
bread, two chattacks of ghee, and half a dam to pur- 
chafe grafs ; but the hovofnak pays for grafs for thofe of 
the miiTals and the kowtcls. 

Each of the khafeh deer, the khanehzad, and the 
kowtel, has a perfon to look after it ; but of thole 
belonging to the miiTals, one perfon looks after a 
couple, and if there be an odd one, a feparate perfon is 
appointed to look alter it j but there is no allowance for 
grafs. 

A deer who is given in charge to a perfon to be 
trained, is allowed daily one feer and three quarters of 
grain, and half a dam for grai's. For every four of thefe 
a keeper is appointed, and if they are fit to be admitted 
into the rank of khafeh, a keeper is appointed for every 
couple. 

The deer kept at a dinance from court, are each al- 
lowed daily one feer and a half of grain, and a man to 
look after it. 

A new* 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERV. 175 

A new-caught deer, for the firft week has not any 
grain given him ; for fifteen days after that, he has half 
a feer of grain daily ; from that period one leer till a 
month and a half are elapfed, when the allowance is one 
fcer and a half. 

The ahoo khaneh, or deer-houfe, is fuperintended by 
munfubdars, ahdyan, and foot foldiers. The pay of a 
ioot-folditr is from eighty to 400 dams per menjem. 
There are now collected together twelve thoutand choice 
deer, which are taught after different manners. There 
are alio numbers of does kept apart for breeding. Of 
the largeft llze of thefe each is allowed daily one feer 
and a half of grain, and half a dam to purchafe grafs. A 
doe-fawn lucks her dam for two months, after which 
period it is allowed daily a quarter of a feer of grain ; 
and this allowance is increased a quarter of a feer every 
two months till it commences its fecond year, when it is 
coniidered as a full grown doe, and allowed one feer and 
a halfp<?r diem : from the commencement of the feventh 
month till the end of the ninth month, it is allowed 
daily a quarter of a dam for grafs, after which the 
allowance is half a dam. 

A buck fawn, after fucking two months, has daily 
fix chattacks of grain ; and this allowance is increafed 
fix chattacks every two months till he commences his 
fecond year, after which the daily allowance is two feers 
and a quarter; for grafs the daily allowance is, from the 
fifth to the eighth month, a quarter of a dam, and after 
that half a dam. 

REGULATIONS FOR BUILDINGS. 

His majefty is continually giving employment to a 
number of hands in erefting fortifications and palaces^ 
coileges, and musjids, and in building ferais through- 
out 



176 AYEEN AKBERY. PART T. 

out the empire for the convenience of travellers, and 
digging reiervoirs of water and wells. 

And, in order to prevent impofition, he has caufed an 
eftimate to be made of the expence of labour, and of 
the prices of the feveral articles ufed in building. 

Prices of Articles ufed in Building. 

Red ftone, which is cut out of the mountains of 
Futtahpoor, in the foubah of Agra, of any dimenfion 
that may be required, three dams per maund. Un- 
fhapen ftones, and uneven fragments, which are broke 
off the mountains, 250 dams per tahry, which is an heap 
three guz in length, two and a half broad, and one in 
height ; and this quantity weighs 172 maunds twenty 
leers. 

Bricks are of three kinds, the Iargeft of which does 
not exceed three feers. 

Firft, baked, — 30 dams per thoufand 
Second, half baked, 20 ditto « 
Third, unbaked, 10 ditto. 

The following eight Kinds of Wood are thofe moflly ufed 
in Building. 

Price of an alahy guz in length, feven tiffuj in 
height, and eight tiffuj in breadth. 

Dams. Cheetels. 
Seefoon, — 15 6 

Nazu (in Hindovee jeedeh) 5 13-^. 

Price of four guz in length, three tiffuj in height, 
and eight tiffuj in breadth. 

Sunk; 



ART I. AYEEN AKBERY. 177 

Dron?. Chcctels. 
Sunk (in Hindovee kurry) 5 17I 

In length four giiz, bread rh and height one tiifuj. 

Dams. Cheetcls. 
Beir, — — 5 17 J 
Mulberry, — 5 2 
Serefs, — 10 4 

Dyal, — — 8 22 i 
Bukayin, — 5 2 

Guteh fhereen, lime which is brought from the pits 
in the vicinity of Behrah : if it is bought from a 
merchant, the price is three maunds per rupee, but if it 
is tranfportcd at the expence of the purchaler, he pays 
only one dam per maund. 

Kulaiy fungeen (flaked (lone-lime) i^cven dams five 
cheetels per maund. Slaked (hell-lime five dams per 
maund. 

Chunah (or lime) is made of kanker, which is a 
fabulous concretion almoft as hard as (lone, two dams 
per maund. 

Iron cramps, if covered with titlj thirteen for?eighteen 
dams ; and if plain, the fame number for fix datris. 

Iron Rings for Doors, ofthelrany and Turany Fcrrt:* 

Largeft fize, — — 8 dams per pair 
Smalleft, — — 4 do. do 

If of ihe Hirdy forms, tinned, 5! do. do 
Do. do. plain, — 4 dams 1 2 cheetels. 

Round iron nails, twelve dams per feer. 

Deenary, a kind of nail, five dams per feer. 

Vol, I. N Kcvckah, 



I78 AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Koivkahifmall nails- tinned. 

1 ft fort, 7 dams per hundred 
2d, — 5 do. do. 
3d, — 4 do. do. 

Hinges for Doors and Chejls. 

Tinned, 1 2 dams per feer 
Plain, 8 do. do. 

Bells for Doors. 

Tinned, 12 dams per feer 
Plain, 4 do. do. 

Tiles, one Cubit long and fix Fingers broad y iifed for 
covering the Houfes of poor People. 

Plain, — ■ 86 dams per thoufand 

Coloured, — 3 for a dam 
Earthen fpouts, 3 for two dams. 

Bamboes. 

id fort, 15 dams per fcore 
2d do. 12 do. do. 
3d do. 10 do. do. 

Some bamboos that are ufed for palakces are very 
hi°h priced, being frequently fold for eight mohurs 
each ; but the ordinary ones for this purpofe are bought 
for one rupee. . 

Puttel is a kind of mat, made of the reed ufed for 
pens, and with which they cover houfes. 

1 ft fort, if dam per fquare guz 
2d do. 1 do. do. 
3d do. 174- cheetals do* 

Seerkee, 



PART I. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



I 79 



Scerkce, another kind of mat made of the above reed, 
and applied to the fame Life as the puttel; one guz and 
a half in length, and a guz in breadth, for twenty-five 
dams. 

Khefs bnyah is the root of a grafs that grows on the 
banks of rivers ; in fu miner fhey make apartments of 
it, which, when fprinkled with water, becomes very 
cold and odoriferous j one rupee and a half per maund. 

Grafs for thatches is made up into bundles of about 
one feer each, which in the Hindovcc language is called 
poolah j ten bundles per dam. 



Dams. 



Bhoos (wheat draw) which is ufed in 

mud buildings, — — 

Dubah, a kind of grafs ufed for thatch 



»ng» 



> 3 per maund 

atch- 1 , 

> 1 do. 



Moonj is the bark of the reed before -j 

mentioned, of which is made twine I 20 ^0. 

ufed in thatching, — — J 

Hemp, of which they make large ropes, 3 do. 
Gum, an inferior kind ufed in plaftet ing, 70 do. 
Sereeln kahy (a kind of vegetable glue) ") /» 

ufed alfo in plaftering, — j 4 P 

Look is the ear of the reed of which 

they make common mats, it burns 

like a candle, and is ufed in build- 
ing along with lime, — 
Sungil is a white greafy clay ufed in ") 

plaftering, — — J 

Red clay, called in Hindovee geyroo, "] 

which is dug out of the mountains \ 1 do. 

ofGualiar, •*— — J 

Glafs for glazing windows, — x| feer per R. 



1 rupee per 
do. 



do* 



N2 



Rates 



l8o AYEEN AKBERY. PART I. 

Rates of Pay for Workmen, 

Bricklayers are paid after four rates : 

Rate i ft, 7 dams per diem 
2d, 6 

4th, 4 

A ftone-mafon, who carves ftones with flowers, is 
paid fix dams per guz. 

One who works plain has five dams per guz. 

Stone-breakers, twenty-two cheetels per maund. 

Carpenters are paid after five rates : 

Rate 1 ft, 7 dams per dim 
2d, 6 

3 d > 4 
4th, 3 

5th, 2 

If they contract for the work, they have for a guz of 
plain work after three degrees : 

D. C. 
]ft, — I 17 
2d, — 16 
3d, — o 21 

Lattice- makers in wood, have from twelve to forty- 
eight dams per fquare guz. 

Sawyers, for a fquare guz of 

Seefoon, iX- dams 
Nazu, 2 

or two dams per day, if paid for their time. Some faws 
are worked by two men, and others require three. 

Bildars 



PART I. AYE£N AKBERY. 1 3 1 

Bildars (pioneers) : 

i ft rate, — 3I dams per diem 
2d ditto, — 3 ditto. 

If they are employed in finifhing the upper works of 
fortifications, they are paid four dams per guz ; and 
when they work below, have two dams and a half per 
guz. If employed on other walls, or in digging 
ditches, half a dam per guz. The guz ufed in this 
meafurement confifts of thirty-two tefujes. 



IT'ell-Diggers. 

Rate 1 ft, — 2 dams per guz 
2d, — if ditto 
3d, — 1 \ ditto. 

The divers, who bring mud out of wells, are paid 
in the winter four dams, and in the fummer three dams 
per diem : or, if they contract, they have two rupees 
for every guz that they defcend. 

r Brick-cutters have eight dams for chipping ioo 
bricks. 

Brick-duft-beaters, one dam and a half for a mea- 
fure of eight maunds. 

Tabdantraih (lattice-makers) in ftone or brick, 100 
dams per guz. 

Bamboo-cutters, two dams per <//>;/z. 

Thatchers, three dams per diem ; or, if they contract, 
twenty-four dams per ioo guz. 

N 3 Pmtelbund 



1#2 ' AYtEK AKBERY. PART I. 

Puttelbund (one who covers houfes with mats) four 
guz per dam. 

Lackerers varnlm reed, bamboo, &c. with prepa- 
rations of lack, and receive two dams per diem. 

Water-carriers, firft rate, three dams ; and the fecond 
rate two dams per diem. 

Labourers who carry earth, water, Sec. for build? 
ings, two dams per diem, 

QUANTITY OF MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING. 

In twelve guz of ftone building are expended one 
tahry of ftone, and feventy-five maunds of lime ; and 
if it be faced with red ftone, it will require the addi- 
tion of three maunds of lime. 

For brick-building, every guz requires 250 bricks 
of three feers each, with eight maunds of lime, and 
two maunds twenty-feven feers of brick-duft. 

For a guz of mud-work are required 300 bricks ; 
and every brick takes one feer of earth, and half a 
feer of water. 

For the firft coat of plafter, each guz requires one 
maund of quick, and ten feers of flaked lime, fourteen 
feers of brick-duft, and a quarter of a feer of hemp. 
]f the fecend coat is to be of a red colour, each guz 
requires feven feers of flaked lime, and three feers 
of brick-duft. For a guz of outer coat of white 
plaftering, ten feers of flaked lime. For the firft coat 
of plafter of a guz of ceiling, or infide walls, ten 
s of ftone-lime. For lining rooms with China-tiles, 
fix feers of ftone-lime per guz. For plaftering fmoke- 
vents, ten feers of flaked lime for every guz. 

A window 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERY. I S3 

A window requires two feers and a half of glafs, 
twenty-four feers of Hone-lime, and a quarter of a ieer 
of fereefh kahy. 

Plafter made of clay and Jiraw. One maund of 
draw and twenty maunds of earth will plafter fourteen 
guz of outer wall; or ten guz of the roof or floor; 
or fifteen guz of ceiling or infide wall. 

Lacker for colouring a guz Gf wood red, four feers 
of lack, and one feer of vermillion; yellow, four feers 
of lack, and one feer of arfenic ; green, a quarter of a. 
ieer of indigo is added to the above ; blue, lack as be- 
fore, and one feer of indigo. 



24 Zerrehs 
24 Kam 
24 Tilwafeh 
24 Tefuj 



> n < 

o 
p 



Of felling Timbers, 



Kam 

Tifwafeh 

Tefuj 

Guz, ufed in meafuring timbers. 



For timber ufed in building, they reckon, .that from 
the time of felling to its being fhaped for ufe, it is 
reduced in weight onerhalf. 



The Weight of a Cubic Guz of fevertly-tivo different 
Kinds of Wood, being thofe which are ufed 



in 



building. 










Md. 


Sr. 


Ch. T. 


Khunjeh, — — 


2 5 


14 





Tamarind, — — 


2 + 


8 


12 25 


Olive and oak - — — 


22 


2 4 





Khire, of which cuteh (improperly ■ 


) 






railed Japan earth) is a prepa- 


11 


*.$' 





ration. 


1 






Khernee, — . — 


do. 


do. 




N 4 




Pi 


irfidueh , 



1 84 


A.YEES AKBERY, 






V ART I. 








Md. 


Sr. 


Ch. 


T. 


Purfiddeh, 


Urn 


— - 


20 


J 4 








Ebony, 




— 


2.0 


9 








Sein, 


— 


— 


1 9 


21 








Bacam (a kind of logwood) 


— .. 


1 9 


21 


8 


10 


Kherher, 


— 


— 


l 9 


II 


4 


2 5 


Mehwa, 


— 


I — . 


IT 


3 Z 


8 


2 


Chundenee and p 


loolahy, 


— 


IS 


20 


8 


10 


Red fandal-wood 


[called in 


the >i 










Hindovee Ian 


guage rakt- | 


\% 


4 


8 


10 


chundun) 














Chumery, 


— 


— 


18 


2 





7* 


Chumermumree, 


— 


— 


n 


16 


4 





Jejubes, 


— 


— 


J 7 


* 
s 





4 


SelToon-puttung, 


— 


— 


*7 


i 


12 


2 7 


Sandun, 




— . 


*7 


i 





28 


Box, — 


— 


— 


16 


iS 





2 5 


Dho, — 


— 


— 


16 


i 





10 


Myrobalans, 


— 


— 


16 


I 


8 


1 


Kereel, — 


— 


i — . 


16 


I 





10 


White fandal, 


— 


— 


i5 


*7 





20 


Sawl, 


— 


— 


IS 


4 


12 


7 


Plumtree, 


— 


— 


14 


36 


8 


10 


Cherrytree, 


— 


— 


H 


35 


8 





Neib, — 


— 


— 


14 


3 2 


4 


3i 


Darhird, 


,}_ 












Mine, and baboo] 




14 


32 


4 


J 9 


Sagown, — 




. — 


*4 


10 





20 


Bejyfar, and "1 
Peloo, j 


— 


— 


\S 


34 








Mulberry, 


— 


— 


*3 


2 5 





20 


Banbarafs, 


— 


- — 


J 3 


9 


13 





Serefs, — 


i — 


■ — \ 


12 


3B 





21 


Seefoon, — 


— 


— 


12 


34 


4 


5 


Findek (filbert) 


— 


— 


12 


2$ 





4 


Johker, and doodhee, 


— 1 


12 


*7 


8 


22 


Huldee, ■ — i 


— 


— 


12 


*3 


8 


22 


JCiym, « — • 


• — ' 


— 


12 


12 


8 


30 



Ferafs, 



PART I. AYEEN AKBERYi 185 

Md. Sr- Ch. T. 

Ferafs, and jomun, — 12 8 o 22 

Bur, — — — 12 3 4 25 

Khundee and chenar, (poplar) n 29 o o 

Walnut and champah, — 11 9 4 J 7 
Beir, — — — 11400 

Mangoe and papree, — 11 2 o 20 

Deyar and bede, (willow) — 10 20 o o 

Kum-bheir and cheedeh, — 10 19 8 22 
Peepul. (This tree is held in 1 

great veneration by the Brah- > 10 10 4 21 

mins) J 

Kuthul* and goordeen, — 10 7 8 34 

Rohiera, — — — 1070 30 

Palais, — — — 9 34 o o 

Soorkhbede, — — 8 25 o 20 

Awk, — — — 8 19 4 25 

Sembul, (the cotton-tree) — ■ 8 13 o 34 

Bekayin, — — — 8 9 o 30 

Lahfora (febeften) and pudmakh, 8 9 o 20 

Und, — — — 7 7 o 31 

Sefeidar, (the white poplar) — 6 6 o 22 

* Vulgarly called jack by Europeans. 
Tht Seer is here reckoned at twenty -eight dams. 



EN'D OF THE FIRST PART. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART II. 



CONTAINING 



REGULATIONS FOR THE MILITARY 
DEPARTMENT. 



THE ARMY. 



IS majefty has formed this immenfe multitude into 
different ranks ; fome are iolely under his own imme- 
diate orders, and are excufed from the performance of 
many duties that are required of others. Likewife a 
number of the inhabitants of the wilds and lefs civilized 
parts of the empire, are, by proper difcipline, made to 
be ufeful. The zemeendary troops alone, are in number 
upwards of four millions and four hundred thoufand, 
as will hereafter be particularized. 

Some of the cavalry have their horfes marked, and 
a defcription is taken in writing of the peribns of the 
men. Other cavalry are put under the command of an 
officer, who is ftyled ahdy. Others, according to their 

merit 



iSS AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

merit and capacity, are appointed to higher commands. 
Many are entertained for the cavalry fervice without 
having their horfes marked, and have tunkhas (or 
aflignments) for rheir pa}-. Thofe who are natives of 
Iran and Turan,have twenty-five rupees ; and the In- 
dian, twenty rupees each per men/em. A horfeman who 
is entertained for the duties of the khalfeh (or exchequer) 
has fifteen rupees per menfem. Thofe who have not 
marked horfes are called birawoordy (or not included 
in the munfubs). Such of the munfubdars as are not 
able to furnifh men themfelves, are fupplied with 
troopers mounted on marked horfes ; and thefe men are 
called dakhely (or included in the munfubs). In the 
munfubs of eight thoufand, no munfubdar under the 
rank of eight hundred is admitted j the munlubs of 
feven thoufand include none lower than feven hundred ; 
cor in thofe of five thoufand are any inferior to five 
hundred ; and in the munfubs of five hundred there are 
none lefs than one hundred. Some troops are levied 
occafionally to ftrengthen the munfubs, and they are 
called kummeky (or auxiliaries). At prefent mod of 
the cavalry are mounted on marked horfes. The 
trooper mounted on a marked horfe takes rank of one 
whole horfe is not marked, as more dependence can be 
had upon the former, becaufe he cannot lend or ex- 
change his horfe ; and moreover, fince his majefty has 
mtredt.-ced the cherehneveefy (or the cuftom of taking 
a defcriprion in writing) he cannot receive pay till he 
has paflfed mufter. 

REGULATIONS FOR THE CATTLE. 

Horfes were firfl marked in the eighteenth year of 
the reign, at which time the ranks of cattle were deter- 
mined, and efli mates made of what was recjuifite for 
each ; and the prices of articles being taken into con- 
federation, a medium rate was agreed upon to be ufed in 
computations. 

HORSES 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERT. 1 S9 

WORSES. 

They were divided into feven kinds, viz. 

Arab, Irakee, Mejennefs, Tourky, Yabu, Tazee, and 
Jungeleh ; and the following rates fixed of each : — 

ift, The Arab, which is a very fine horfe, bred in 
different parts or Arabia. The monthly pay for one of 
rhofe was fixed at 720 dams, including all charges, which 
were computed at 479 dams. When his majefty took 
into confideration the eale and good difcipline of his 
troops, he at firlt mack an addition of eighty-one dams, 
at the time that the rupee palled current at thirty-five 
dams ; and when it was raifed to forty dams, he in- 
creafed the pay, excepting the Jungelehs, eighty dams 
more, altogether making 720 dams. 

2d, The Irakee, which is bred in the Perfian Irak, is 
a beautiful animal, and equally powerful with the Arab. 
He is allowed 608 dams monthly, including all charges. 
Incrcafes : — Firit, iixty-two dams; fecond, feventy-five 
dams; third, eighty dams. 

3d, The Mojennes refembles the Irakee, and is a 
mixture of the Tourky and the Irakee. The monthly 
pay is 560 dams, including all expences. Increales : — 
Firlt, feventy-two dams ; fecond, fifty dams ; third, 
eighty dams. 

4th, The Tourky is bred in Turan : although he is 
very flrong and of a good height, yet he is inferior to 
the Mojennefs. Monthly pay 480 dams, including all 
expences, Increafes : — Firlt, fifty-two dams ; fecond, 
fifty dams ; third, eighty dams. 

5th, Yabu is alfo a native of Turan, but lefs power- 
ful and fmailer than the Tourky. Monthly pay 400 

dams, 



19O AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

dams, including all expences. Increafes : — Firft, forty- 
one dams; fecond, forty dams ; third, eighty dams. 

6th and 7th are the Tazee and the Jungeleh. Thofe 
are moftly bred in Hindoftan. The beft is called 
tazee, the middling kind jungeleh, and the worft tat- 
too. Tanghens are greatly improved by being crofted 
with tazees. The monthly pay of a tazee is 320 dams, 
including all charges, Increafes: — Firft, twenty-two 
dams ; fecond, thirty dams ; third, eighty dams. The 
monthly pay of a jungeleh is 240 dams, including all 
charges. Increafes : — Firft, twenty-nine dams and a 
half; fecond, twenty-five dams; third, forty dams. 
A tatoo was formerly allowed 140 dams ; but now he is 
not employed. 

ELEPHANTS. 

Thefe are alfo of feven kinds, viz. 

Muft, fheergeer, fadeh, menjholeh, kerheh, bender- 
keeah, and mukel. There is more method and exacV 
nefs obferved in this department than in any other. 

Formerly elephants ufed to be marked, but now they 
are only divided into kinds. 





Monthly Pay, includ- 


Increafe 




ing 


all expences 


included. 


Kinds of Elephants. 




Dams. 


Dams. 


Muft, — 


— 


1320 — 


120 


Sheergeer, — 


i — 


I (OO 


no 


Sadeh, — 


— 


Soo — ■ 


5° 


Menjholeh, — 


— 


600 ' — ' 


90 


Kerheh, — 


— 


420 — 


60 


Benderkeeah, — 


— 


300 — 


. 60 


Mukel (formerly this kind 


was") 


280 — 




not entertained) 





The 



?ART II. AYEEN AKBERY. IQI 

The tunkhas, for defraying the expences of this de- 
partment, are always drawn in dams, and not in rupees, 
in order that there may not be any deductions. 



MULES. 



For a mule is paid monthly 240 dams, including all 
charges. Increafes : — Firft, fifty-fix dams ; fecond, 
forty dams j third, twenty dams. 



OXEN. 



For each head is allowed monthly 1 20 dams, includ- 
ing all charges. Increafe : — Firft, thirty-eight dams; 
fecond, ten dams. 



CARTS. 



For each cart there are allowed monthly 600 dams, 



including all charges. 



MUNSUBDARS. 

The Almighty, for the benefit of mankind, fele&s 
from amongit them one whom he makes a king, and 
iupports with his divine grace and favour. But fince 
the abilities of a fingle man are not equal to the duties 
of every department, the monarch wifely makes choice 
of fome of his mod worthy fubjecb to affift him : and 
for this purpofe nominates them to command others. 
With this view his majefty eftabliflied munfubs from a 
dehbafhy (or commander of ten) to a dehhezary (or a 
commander of 10,000.) But only the king's fons have 
munfubs above 5000. The number of thefe munfubs 
being fixty-fix, thofe fkilled in the numerical value of 
letters * have difcovered that their ium is expreffed by 

* Abjed is an Arabic arithmetical verfe, containing all the letters 
in the alphabet which have different powers, from 1 to 1000. 

the 



1$Z AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

the word jilaleh (or the moft glorious God) which 
they confider as an indication of their perpetuity. 

His majefty difcovers the merit of fome at the firft 
interview, and exalts them to greatnefs at one ftep. 
Sometimes the munfub is increafed, whilft the number 
of cavalry is diminifhed. 

Great care is taken in determining the value of the 
horfes provided by each munfubdar, and their pay is 
fixed accordingly. Thofe who have cavalry equal to 
their munfub, are of the firft rank. Thofe who have 
not the full number, but not lefs than half, are of the 
tecond rank. The third rank is compofed of thofe who 
have lefs than half of the full complement of cavalry ; 
as will be found upon confulting the annexed tables. 

The youzbafhgees (or commanders of ioo) are of 
eleven ranks : — Firft, Him of ioo, whofe monthly pay 
is 700 rupees. The eleventh has not any cavalry, the 
greateft part of thefe being amongft the number of dak- 
helee troopers ; his pay is 500 rupees. The nine inter- 
mediate ones have twenty rupees in addition for every 
ten horfes. 

From the munfubdar of forty, neither the elephant, 
nor the Tourky-horfe, nor the jungeleh are exacted. 
The teerkufhbund (who has the rank of a commander 
of thirty) and the bifty, or munfubdar of twenty, are ex- 
cufed from providing the mojennefs and the yabu. 

The following tables exhibit the proportion of cattle 
and carts provided by each munfubdar, together with 
their monthly pay. 



The 



PART II. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



193 



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PART IT. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



195 



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AYEF.N AKBERY. 



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AYEEN AKBERY. 



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03 



A LIST 



ic>3' 



AVEEN AKBERY. 



PART II, 



A LIST OF THE MUNSUBDARS. 



Munfubdar of ioooo. 

Sultan Selim, his majef- 
ty's eldefl ion. 

Mwifubdar of Zooo. 
Shah Morad, his majef- 
ty's fecond fon. 

Munfubdar of 7000. 

Sultan Daniel, his majef- 
ry's third fon. 

Munfubdar s of 5000. 

Sulian Khofru, eldeft fon 

of Sultan Selim. 
Mirza Soliman. 
Mirza Ibrahim. 
Mirza Shah Rokh. 
Mirza Mozuffer Huf- 

fain. 
Mirza Ruftarn. 
Biram Khan. 
Menem Khan. 
Terdy Beg Khan. 
Khan Zeman. 
Abdullah Khan. 
£nkeh Khan. 
Khan Kellan. 
Mirza Qherfeddeen Huf- 

fkin. 
YufefMahommedKhan 
Adhem Khan. " 
Peer Mahomme'* Khan. 
Khan Azem Mirza Ko 

keh. 
Bahader Khan. 



Rajah Bahrehmull. 
Khan Jehan. 
Syed Khan. 
Shaheb Khan. 
Rajah Baghwan Dofs. 
Kotebeddeen Khan. 
Khan Khanan Abdul Ra- 

heem. 
Rajah Manfing. 
Mahommed Kuly Khan. 
Terfoon Khan. 
Kya Khan. 

Munfubdars of 4500. 

Zyin Khan. 
Mirza Yufef Khan. 

Munfubdars of 4000. 

Coffim Khan Mehedy. 
Mozuffer Khan. 
SyefKhan Kokeh. 
Rajah Tudermull. 
Mahomed Coilem Khan. 
Vizier Khan. 
KelyKhan. , 
Sadek Khan. 
Roy Roy ling. 

Munfubdat s 0/3500. 

Shah Kuly Khan Mo- 
ll errem. 
I (mail Kuly Khan. 

Munfubdars of 3000. 
Mirza Jany Beg. 
Ifcander Khan. 

Afof 



FART II. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



I99 



Afof Khan Abdulme- 

jeed. 
Mejnoon Khan. 
Shiijahut Khan. 
Shah Bedai Khan. 
Huflain Khan. 
Morad Khan. 
Hajy MahommedKhan. 
Afzel Khan. 
Shah Beg Khan. 
Khan Alum, the title of 

Alum Beg. 
Coflem Khan Meer Behr. 
Baky Khan. 
Meer Moezul Mulk. 
Meer Aly Akber. 
Sherif Khan. 

Munfubdars of 2 500. 

Ibrahim Khan. 

Khajeh Jilaleddeen Ma- 

hommed. 
Hyder MahommedKhan 
Ytimad Khan. 
Pyinder Khan. 
Jaggenaut. 
Mekhfoos Khan. 
Abulfazel (the author of 

this book) 

Munfubdars of ic 00. 

Ifmail Kuly Khan. 
Meer Baboos. 
AihrefKhan. 
Syed Mahmood, 
Abdullah Khan. 
Sheikh Mahommed. 
Syed Ahmed. 
Ruftam Khan. 

O 



Shahbaz Khan. 
Derveifh Mahommed. 
Shaikh Ibrahim. 
Abdulmottaleb Khan. 
YtibarKhan, an eunuch 

of the palace. 
Ekhlafs Khan. 
Rajah Beerbull. 
Bahar Khan. 
Shah Fckhreddeen. 
Rajah Ramchund. 
Lulhker Khan. 
Syed Ahmed. 
Aly Khan Kaher. 
Roy Kelyanmull. 
Tayr Khan Meer Fera- 

ghet. 
Shah Mahommed Khan. 
Roy Serjen. 
Shahhem Khan. 
Alof Khan for Jaafer Beg. 

Munfubdars of 1500. 

Sheikh Ferid. 
Semanjy Khan. 
TerdyKhan, ibnofKya 

Khan. 
Mehtee Khan Aneefs. 
Roy Durga. 
Madhu Sing. 
Syed Coflim. 

Mmfubdars of 1250. 
Royfal Durbary. 

Munfubdars of 1000 

Moheb Aly Khan. 
Sultan Rajah, commonly 

called Abdul Azem. 
Khajeh Abdullah. 

Khajeh 



2 OP 



AYEEN AKBE3.Y. 



PART II. 



Khajeh jehan, called alfo 

Tatar Khan. 
Hakeem Abulfettah. 
Sheik Jemal. 
Jaafer Khan. 
Shah Feniey. 
Afedullah Khan. 
Sadet Ali Khan. 
Roopfy Byragy. 
Ytiraad Khan. 
Baz Bahadre. 
Mooteh Rajah (the fat 
Rajah) Oude Sing. 

Shah Manfoor. 
Kecelek Kadem Khan. 
Aly Khan. 

Adel Khan. 

Ghiafleddeen Khan. 

Ferokh Huffain Khan. 

Mayin Khan. 

Mahommed Kuly. 

Mehr Aly Khan. 

Khajeh Ibrahim. 

Selim Khan. 

Hebib Aly Khan. 

Jegmull. 
.Ulugh Khan Hebfliy. 

Mukfood Aly Khan. 

Kebool Khan. 

Aly Khan, the younger. 

Sebdel Khan. 

Syed Mahommed Meer 
Adel. 

Rezvvy Khan, alfo called 
Mirza Meerek. 

Mirza Nijat Khan. 
Syed Halhem. 



Ghazy Khan. 

Fernet Khan Mehter Se- 

kaiy. 
Roomy Khan. 
Semanjy Khan. 
Shah Beg Khan. 
Mirza Haffan. 
Hakeem Zembul. 
Khodavend Khan. 
Mirza Aly Khan. 
Saadit Mirza. 
Shemal Khan. 
Fazel Khan. 
Mafoom Khan. 
Toolek Khan. 
Khajeh Shemfeddeen. 
Juggut Sing. 
Nekeeb Khan. 
Meer Morteza. 

Shemfy. 

Meer Jemaleddeen Huf- 
fain. 

Syed Rajoo. 

Meer Sherif. 

Huffain Beg. 

S her u yah Khan. 

Neterby. 

Jelal Khan. 

Mobarec Khan. 

Tafli Beg Khan. 

Sheikh Abdullah. 

Rajah Rajling. 

Roy Bohj. 

Munfubdars of 8oc. 

Sheer Khajeh. 
Mirza Khorem. 



Munfubdars 



PART II. 



AYEEII AKBERY. 



20I 



Manful Jars of J oo. 

Coreifh Sultan. 
Cara Bahadre. 
MozefferHuflain Mirza. 
Koondowk Khan. 
Sultan Abdullah. 
Mirza Abdolrahman. 
Kya Khan. 
Durbar Khan, called alio 

Anayit Khan, 
Abdalrahman. 
Coffim Aly Khan. 
Baz Bahadre. 
Syed Abdullah Khan. 
Dahroo. 
Ahmed Beg. 
Hakeem Aly. 
Goojer Khan. 
Sudder Jehan. 
Tekhteli Beg. 
Roy Tuperdofs. 
Sheik Abdalraheem. 
Midney Roy. 
Abul Coflim. 
Vizier Beg. 
Tahyr. 
Baboo. 
Mongely. 

Munfitbdars of 600. 

Mahommed Kuly. 
Bukluiar Beg. 
Hakeem Hemam. 
Mirza Anwer. 

Munfuhdars of 500. 
Baltoo Khan. 
Meerek Bahadre. 



Laal Khan. 

Sheik Ahmed. 

Ifcander Beg. 

Nooreen Khan Beg. 

Jelal Khan. 

Permanund. 

Timur Khan. 

Sany Khan. 

Syed Jemaleddeen. 

Jugmall. 

Hullain Beg. 

Huffain Khan. 

Syed Jhejoo. 

MunfebKhan, common- 
ly called Sultan Ma- 
hommed. 

Cazy Aly. 

Hajy YufefKhan. 

Rawelbeehm. 

Hafhem Beg. 

Mirza Feridun. 

YufefKhan. 

Noor Kelej. 

Meer Abdulhy. 

Shah Kuly Khan. 

Ferokh Khan. 

Shad man. 

Hakeem Ain-ul Mulk. 

Janilh Bahadre. 

Meer Taher. 

Mirza Aly Beg. 

Rofs-Dam. 

Mahommed Khan. 

Abulmozeffer. 

Khajagy Mahommed 
Huifain, Meer Ber. 

Abul Caffem. 

Kemir Khan. 

Durjen 



202 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART II, 



Durjen Singh. 
Sebel Singh. 
Muftafa. 
Nezir Khan. 
Ramchund. 
Rajah Meketmull. 
Rajah Ramchund. 
Syed Abul Coflim. 
Dulput. 

Munfiibdars of 400. 
Sheikh Fizy. 
Hakeem Mifry. 
Irej. 

Suket Singh. 
Abdullah. 
Aly Mahommed. 
Mirza Mahommed. 
Sheikh Baized. 
Ghezny Khan. 
Khajeh Ketchek. 
Sheer Khan. . 
Fettahullah. 
Roy Menoher. 
Khajeh Abdulfemed 

Shereen Kalem. 
Selhedy. 
Ramchund. 
Bahadre Khan Kowrdar, 

mailer of the kowr. 
Bank?.. 

Munfiibdars of 350. 

Mirza Abufyed. 
Mirza Senjer. 
Aly Merdan. 
Reza Kuly. 
Sheikh Khuboo. 



Zea ul Mulk. 

Hemzah Beg-. 

Mokhtar Beg. 

Hyder Aly. 

Beyfheru Khan. 

Cazy Harlan. 

Mcer Morad. 

Meer Coflnn. 

Band Aly. 

Khajehgee Feuahullaru 

Zahid. 

Doit, 

Eyar. 

Ezetullah. 

Altoon Keleej. 

Jan Keleej. 

Syefullah. 

HufTain Keleej. 

Abulfettah Atalik. 

Syed Baized. 

Belbedher. 

Abul Maaly. 

Baker. 

Baized Beg. 

Sheikh Dovvlet. 

HufTain. 

Keyfo Dofs. 

Mirza Khan, 

Mozeffer. 

Tulfy Dofs. 

Rhamet Khan. 

Ahmed Coflim. 

Bahadre. 

Dowlec Khan. 

Shah Mahommed. 

Harlan Khan. 

Tahr Beg. 

Ki llxcn- Dofs. 

Man 



PART II. 

Man Sing. 
Meer Gediey. 
Coffim Cokeh. 
Nad Aly. 
Neelkunth. 
Ghiafs Bes;. 
Khajeh AihrefT. 
Sheref Beg. 
Ibrahim Kuly. 



Munfubdars 0/250. 

Abulfettah. 
Beg Mahommed. 
Imam Kuly. 
Sefder Be°\ 
Khajeh Soliman. 
Berkhoordar. 
Meer Maafoom. 
Khajeh Malk Aly, Meer 

S'heb. 
Roy Ram Dofs Dewan. 
Shah Mahommed. 
Rahim Kuly. 
Sheer Beg, Yefawel 

Bamy. 

'Munfubda rs of zoo, 

Iftekhar Beg. 
Pertaub Singh. 
Haffan Khan. 
Jyardgar Huffain. 
Kamran Beg. 
Mahommed Khan. 
Nezameddeen Amcd. 
Seket Singh. 
Amadul Mulk. 
Sherif. 
Cara Behreh. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



203 



Tatar Beg. 

Khajeh Moheb Aly. 

Hakeem Mozeffer. 

Abdul Subhan. 

Coffim Beg. 

Sherif. 

Nekya. 

Khajeh Abdul Semed. 

Hakeem Lutefullah. 

Sheer Afken. 

Amanullah. 

Selim Kuly. 

Keleel Kuly, 

Vely Beg. 

Beg Mahommed. 

Meer Khan, Yefawel. 

Sermeft Khan. 

Syed Abdul Haffan. 

Syed Abdulwahed. 

Shajeh Beg Mirza. 

Sekra. 

Shady Beg. 

Baky Beg. 

Yunan Beg. 

Sheikh Kebeer. 

Mirza Khajeh. 

Mirza Sherif. 

Shuckerullah. 

Meer Abdulmomin. 

Lefhkery. 

Aca Mulla. 

Mahommed Aly. 

Muhtra Dofs. 

Suhtra Dofs. 

Meer Morad. 

Kela. 

Syed Dervyfli. 

Jenyd. 

Syed Abu Ifliac. 

Fettah 



204 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART II. 



Fettah Khan, Cheeteh 

Ban. 
Mokeem Khan. 
Lakh. 
Yufef. 

Hebby, Yefawel. 
Kyder Doft. 
Doll Mahommed. 
Shahrokh. 
Sheer Mohammed. 
Aly Kuly. • 
Shah Mohammed. 
Sanvval Dofs. 
Khajeh Zehireddten. 
Meer Abul Coffim. 
Haice Mahommed. 



Mahommed Khan, 
Khajeh Mokeim. 
Kader Kuly. 
Firozeh. 
Taj Khan. 
Zyneddeen A! v. 
Meer Sherif. 
Bahar Khan. 
Kyfu Dofs. 
Syed Lad. 
Nefleer. 
Sankeh. 
Kabii.- 
Adovvnd. 
Sunder. 
Nu rem. 



THE AHDY. 

There are numbers of brave active men on whom, 
although his majefly does not beftow a munfub, yet, 
being accounted khafs, or particular fervants, they are 
freed from being under the orders of any one, and thus 
dignitied by their independence. Such an officer is 
called an ahdy. They have a feparate devvan and 
hukhlhy, and a great emeer is appointed their chief. A 
fit perfon is appointed to receive thofe who wifli to be 
entertained in this capacity, and he brings fuch every 
day to the palace without demanding any fee ; when they 
arc examined and approved by his majefty. The 
yadafht * and the taleckeh * being made our, a de- 
icription of the ahdy's perfon is taken ; then the bura- 
woord is prepared, when che'bukhfhy takes fecurity, and 
brings the ahdy a fecond time to the palace, where his 
pay is always fomewhat increafed, fometimes a fourth 



* Thefe are fully explained under the head Dagh or Mark. 



or 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 205 

or a half, but frequently from ten to fcvcnty rupees. 
Some receive upwards of 500 rupees per men/fat. 
After he has been a fecond time before his majefly, his 
horle is marked with the figure 9. At firft, each ahdy 
was allowed to have as many as eight horfes, but now he 
has never more than five. Upon producing the fikhut 
he receives a perwancheh, which ferves for ever after. 
Every four months he goes to have the identity of his 
perfon afcertained, which being authenticated by the 
dewan and bukhfhy of this department, the mumrefTof 
the treafury draws out a kubz (or receipt) which is 
ratified by the fignatures of the minifters of Itate, when 
the treafurer takes it and pays the amount. Before the 
expiration of each quarter they receive one month's pay 
in advance. In the courfe of the year, ten months 
(alary is paid in ready money, and two months pay are 
flopped on account of his horfe and other expences ; and 
out of the ten months there is a farther ftoppage of a 
twentieth part. On entering the fervice he finds himfelf 
a horfe, and when that dies he is mounted by govern- 
ment ; when his horfe dies, proper officers make out a 
certificate thereof, which is called a faketnameh, in order 
that his pay may be regulated accordingly, for until he 
has found another horfe, he ceafes to draw any pay for 
one; and if he neglects to obtain the certificate, he is 
not allowed any thing from the time of the lad: mutter. 
Thofe who are in want of horfes Conflantly attend at the 
palace. A' great number of horfes are thus bellowed, 
half the price of which is accounted as a prefent, and 
half is paid for in quarterly lloppages, or, if he is in 
debt, in two years. 

THE OTHER CAVALRY. 

The akachundely fettles the value and rank of the 
horfe, when he is fcrutinized by the bukhfhees, and 
then a defcription of the man is taken down in writing. 
A trooper who has more than one horfe, has a camel or 

an 



206 AYEEN AKBERY, PARI 

an ox added to his eftablifhment, for which he has an 
additional allowance of half the fum allowed for cattle, 
as before mentioned : if he is well mounted, or if his 
horfes are of inferior rank, only two-fifths addition. 
Single horfemen are paid after the following rates : 

Irakee, man and horfe, — ■ 90 Rs. per men/. 

Mojennefs, do. — — 25 

Tourky, do. — 28 

Yabu, — — 18 

Tazee, — — 15 

Jungeleh, — — 12 
A horfeman employed by the"! 

khalfeh, had formerly j -* 

Has now — ■ — 1$ 

Formerly, horfemen had as far as four marked 
horfes -, now, no one is allowed more than three ; for- 
merly, every dehbailiy had two troopers of five horfes, 
three troopers of two horfes, and two troopers of one 
horfe each, and the other munfubdars in proportion ; 
now, the proportion is, three troopers of three horfes, 
four of two horfes, and three of one horfe each. 

THE INFANTRY. 

His majefty has formed thefe into different ranks, 
with feparate regulations for each. 

THE BUNDOOKCHEECAN. 

There are twelve thoufand of thefe employed about 
the royal perfon. To thefe are appointed a treafurer, 
a daroghah, and tepukchees, which, although diftincl 
offices, have all been occafionally executed by one 
perfon. The pay of the bundookcheecan has already 
been particularized. 

DURBANAN, 



PART If. AYEEN AKBERY. 20"] 



DURBANAN, OR PORTERS. 

A thonfand of thefe active and vigilant men guard 
the palace. The mirdehahs of thefe are paid after five 
rates, viz. 300, 160, 140, 130, and 1S0 dams; and 
the other porters from no to 120 dams/nv men/cm. 



THE KIIIDMUTTEEAil. 

A thonfand of thefe alfo guard the environs of the 
palace. A firdar, or chief of twenty, has monthly from 
fifty to two hundred dams; a dehbafhy from 140 to 
180 dams ; and of the inferior, 120, no, or too dams 
each. This tribe was formerly notorious for cunning 
arid roguery ; and former monarchs deemed them in- 
corrigible ; but now, by his majefly's difcipline, thev 
are famous for their good order and honefty : formerly 
they were called mavy ; now they are ilyled khidmut- 
teeah (or fervants) ; and their chief, or rajah, has the 
title of khidmut roy, and is an obedient fubjecr. of the 
empire. 

MEW RAH. 

Thefe are natives of Mewat, who are admirable for 
carrying meffages that require difpatch, and bringing: 
money from diftant places ; are excellent fpies, and will 
engage in the molt difficult undertakings. They are a 
thouland in number, and have the fame pay as the 
khidtnutteeah. 

SIIUMSIIMERBAZ, OR GLADIATORS. 

Tins tribe is of various kinds, and perform won- 
derful feats ; fighting and jumping with great art and 
agility. 

Some 



208 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

Some fight with fhields, and others engage with 
cudgels : thefe laft are called in the Hindovee language, 
lakrayit. Others have no defence, and make ufe of one 
hand only, and are thence called in Hindoftan, ekhateh. 
Thofe who come from the eaftern parts of Hindoftan 
ufe a fmall fhield, which they call chorwah. Thofe of 
the northern provinces have fhields of fuch a magnitude 
as to cover a man and horfe ; and this kind of fhield 
is called tilvvah. Others, who are called pehrayit, ufe a 
fhield fomewhat lefs than the height of a man, and one 
guz in breadth. Others, called banayit, have a long 
[word, whofe handle meafures a guz in length, which 
they manage very dexteroufly. There is another famous 
tribe, called bungolee, who have not any fhield, but 
make ufe of a lingular kind of fword, with a crooked 
hilt, which they handle with great dexterity. Others 
are very fkilful in fighting with daggers and knives of 
various forms ; and of thefe there are upwards of one 
hundred thoufand, the choiceft of whom are entertained 
by his majefty. The Cuddy, or firdar of an hundred 
ihumfheerbaz, is at leaft of the rank of ahdy. His 
pay is from eighty to fix hundred dams^r metifem. 

The pehluwan, are wreftlers and boxers of Iran and 
Turan. There are alfo expert (lingers of Gujerat and 
other parts of Hindoftan, who are called mul, numbers 
of whom are in his majefty 's fervice. Their monthly 
pay is from feventy to four hundred and fifty dams ; 
and every .day fome of the above combat together, and 
receive various rewards. 

THE CHEELAH. 

His majefty does not approve of giving to thefe un- 
fortunate men the opprobrious name of Have, but calls 
them cheelah ; which word in the Hindovee language 
fignifies one who relies on another. 
6 Of 



.PART it. AYEEN AKBERY. 200. 

Of thefe there are feveral kinds: ift, Thofe who 
are confidered as common flaves, being infidels taken 
in battle ; and they are bought and fold. 2d, Thofe 
who of themfelves fubmit to bondage. 3d, The 
children born of (laves. 4th, A thief, who becomes 
the flave of the owner of the flolen goods. 5th, He 
who is fold for the price of blood. 

The daily pay of a cheelah is from one dam to one 
rupee ; they are formed into divifions, and committed 
to the care of fkilful perfons to be inftrucTed in various 
acts and occupations. 

His majefty, out of his humanity and difcernment, 
promotes thefe and other inferior claffes of people ac- 
cording to their merits ; fo that it is not uncommon to 
fee a foot-foldier raited to the dignity of an emeer of the 
empire. 

KAHARS, OR BEARERS. 

Thefe are natives of Hindoftan, who carry aftonifh- 
ing burdens upon their fhoulders over the mod uneven 
ground. They alfo carry palekees, fukhafens, chow- 
dowles, and doolees, with.fuch an even pace, that the 
rider is hardly fenfible of the motion. The bed are 
thofe of the Deccan and Bengal ; and there arc alfo many 
good ones in the northern foobahs. Several thoufands 
do fervice at the palace. A firdar, or head-bearer of a 
let, receives monthly from one hundred and ninety- 
two to three hundred and eighty-four dams; and a 
common bearer has from one hundred and twenty to 
one hundred and fixty dams. 

THE PYADEH DAKHELY. 

The foot-foldiers fo called, are under the command 

of the omrahs, but receive their pay from the date. 

Vol. I. P Every 



21© AYEEN AKBERY. PART 11'. 

Every munfubdar has, in addition to the complement 
of his cavalry, half the number of infantry, defcriptions 
of whofe perfons are taken down in writing by his aka 
or munfubdar. Of thefe infantry one-fourth are bun- 
dookcheean, and the reft archers, excepting a few who 
are carpenters, blackfmiths, water-carriers, and pioneers. 
The pay of the bundookcheean has already been par- 
ticularized. Of the archers, the mirdehah has from 
180, and the others from j 00 to 120 dams. Of the 
artificers who are paid as foot-foldiers, fomething has 
already been faid in the firft part of the work. 

OF THE DAGH, OR MARK. 

When the rank of the man, together with the number 
and qualities of his hories, are fettled by particular 
officers, another takes a defcription of his perfon in 
writing, with an account of his age, country, and reli- 
gion. There is alio a daro&hah, whofe bufinefs it is to 
iee that the men do not meet with any vexatious delays, 
and that they do not fuffer from bribery or any other 
artifices. 

Firft, the daroghah brings the recruit to his majefty, 
in whofe pretence his rank is fettled, and a taleekeh 
is given him accordingly, unlefs he be of the number 
of dakhely ; in which cafe the munfubdar furnifrSes 
him with a certificate. Next, he is carried before five 
officers whom his majefty has appointed to examine the 
men and cattle, and to fix the pay of each ; and upon 
his producing to them the defcription of himfelf and 
his cattle, the order for his monthly pay is written at the 
bottom of the paper, to which they affix their feals to 
prevent any alteration ; then thole officers fend the 
above paper to the dewan nazir, who again brings the 
recruit to the pretence, in order that his pay may be 
ultimately determined. His majefty is an excellent 
phyliognomilt,' and can eaiily dilcover the refpe&ive 

merits 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY: 211 

merits of each. When the certificate is ratified, the 
wakyahnavees puts his fignature to it, and the meer arz 
and the fardar of the kufhek add their feals. Upon this 
funnud being produced, the daroghah marks the horfes. 

When the mark was firft introduced, it was made in 
the fhape of the head of the Perfian letter feen, and was 
put upon the left fide of the horfe's neck. Next, it was 
made with two alifs in the fhape of a crofs on one of the 
horfe's thighs ; after that, it was for fome time in the 
form of a bow without a firing ; and at lad it was made 
in numerals, and on the left buttock. Upon the intro- 
duction of numerals, it had the firft time the figure i ; 
and on the fecond time of marking, the figure 2, and Co 
on ; but now that every department has a particular 
figure, the fame is repeated as often as the horfe is 
marked. The cuflom of marking was firil introduced, 
that the daroghas might know for certain when a horfe 
died, or was exchanged ; and thus be able to determine 
what pay was due to the troops. 

Many of the tepukchies, and other fervants employed 
about the palace, who have not leifure to attend to the 
bufinefs of a jageer, receive their falaries in ready monev, 
and have the dagh or mark renewed every eighteen 
months. The omrahs, who are ftationed at a great 
diftancefrom court, have the dagh renewed only once in 
twelve years, but then fix years after the tuft marking, 
ten per cent, is leflened in their euablifhment. When 
the munfub of any one is increafed three years after the 
dagh has been performed, he for the prefent receives 
only a tunkhah for hirnfelf ; and the additional men do 
not receive theirs until their horfes are marked. 

On the renewal of the dagh, if any one brings a better 
horfe to be exchanged for the one he then rides, it is to 
be fent to his majefty for his examination and appro- 
bation. 

V 2 the 



212 AYEEN AKBERY, PART 11. 



THE KUSHEK, OR MILITARY COMMANDS. 

Thefe, which are alfo called the chowkees, are of 
three kinds : ift, The munfubdars, ahdeean, cavalry 
and infantry, are formed into feven divifions, and each 
appointed to do duty on a particular day of the week, 
under the command of one of the principal omrahs. 
A perfon who is perfectly converfant in the military 
ufages and regulations, is appointed to the office of meer 
arz of the kufhek, through whom and the emeer, all the 
royal orders for this department are iilued, and they are 
continually in waiting near the palace to receive his 
majefty's commands. Every afternoon the principal 
officers of the guard carry the kowr to the public hall ot 
the palace, and there arrange themfelves in a row on 
the left hand of the monarch, the others placing them- 
felves in like manner on the right. His majefly is 
perfonally acquainted with every one, and immediately 
difcovers if there be any abfentees. When both ranks 
have made the tufleem, they take leave and retire. If 
his majefly happens to be employed upon fome other 
bufineis, one of his fons officiates here in his ftead. 

If any one abfents himfelf from guard through 
frivolous pretences, he is fined a week's pay, and fome- 
times is alfo reprimanded. 

2d, The vvhole army is formed into twelve divifions., 
each of which is appointed for the duty of a particular 
month. Every perfon is obliged to take his tour of 
duty, excepting thole employed on the frontiers of the 
empire, or on fpecial fervice ; but even they muft make a 
reprefentation of their particular fituation previous to 
the arrival of their tour of duty, that they may receive 
the royal orders thereon in due time, determining 
whether they are to remain where they are or not. On 
the firft day of every folar. month the guard at the 

palace 






PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 213 

palace attend and make the tufleem, in the manner 
already defcribed, and are on this occafion diftinguilhed 
by prefents, and other royal marks of favour. 

3d, The whole army is again formed into twelve 
divifions, and each divifion does a year's duty in 
rotation. 

THE OFFICE OF WAKYAHNAVEES. 

This is an admirable inftitution, and abfolutely 
necefTary for the well conducting of the affairs of an 
empire. Although the name of the office exifted in 
former reigns, yet it was never applied to any ufeful 
purpofe till his majefly's acceffion to the throne. For 
executing the offices of this department there are ap- 
pointed fourteen able tepukchees, ten of whom do duty 
daily in rotation. Some others are alfo added as iu- 
pernumeraries, one of whom attends every day j and if 
it happens that one of the fourteen firft mentioned is 
abfent upon a matter of neceffity, this additional perfon 
officiates in his room. Thefe fupernumeraries are called 
kowtel. 

Tt is the bufinefs of the wakyahnavees to take in 
writing an account of the following occurrences : What- 
ever his majefty does himfelf, and the orders that he 
iflues — what representations are made him by the 
minifters of (late — what he eats and drinks — when he 
fleeps, and when he rifec — and what time he fits on his 
throne — how long he continues in the haram — when he 
goes to the bargah khafs, or to the bargah aum — in 
what manner he hunts — what game he kills — when he 
marches, and when he halts— what offerings are pre- 
lented — what books are read to him — what alms and 
donations are beftowed — what grants are made of fey- 
urghal — what accidental increafe or deduction may 

P 3 happen. 



2T4 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

happen in the revenue — what contracts are concluded 
— what given in' farm — what is bought — what is com- 
mitted to the charge of any one — what peiihcufh and 
remittances of revenue are received — what firmans are 
irTued under the royal feal — the arrival, introduction, or 
departure of any perfon of confequence — what petitions 
are received, and what anfwers given — what period is 
fixed for the execution of any particular order — who is 
abfent from his guard — what battles are fought, and 
with what fuccefs — when peace is concluded, and upon 
what terms — the death of any perfon of rank — what 
battles of animals have been exhibited, and who won 
the bets — what cattle die — what rewards are beflowed, 
or punifhments inflicted — now long his majefty fat in 
public — what marriages and births happen — when his 
majefty plays at any game — of 'public calamities — and 
what harvefts are produced. 

The account of the occurrences being read to his 
majefty, and approved by him, the daroghah puts his 
feal upon it, after which it is carried to the perwanchee 
and the meer arz for their refpective feals. The paper 
when thus authenticated is called a yadafht ; then a 
perfon who writes a clear ftyle and a fair character, takes 
the yadafht and makes an abridgment of it, and having 
pnr his feal to it, gives it in exchange for the yadafht. 
To this abridgment are added the feals of the wakyah- 
navees, the mter arz, and the daroghah of this depart- 
ment. This abridgment is called the taleekeh, and the 
writer thereof the taleekehnavees. Laftly, it is au- 
thenticated by the feal of the perwanchee. 

OF SUNNUDS, OR GRANTS. 

A paper authenticated by proper fignatures is called a 
a funnud j and the dufter (or regifter) is the book in 
which the funnuds are entered, 

is 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 21^ 

His majefty is particularly circumfpedt regarding 
this department, and takes care that none but parfons 
of the ftricteft integrity are appointed to officiate in it. 

The dufters (or regifters) are of three kinds : ift, The 
abwabulmal, which contains the accounts of the re- 
venues, the increafe or deficiency therein. 2d, The 
abwabultahaweel, being the accounts of the receipts 
and difburfements of the houfehold, with thofe of the 
different treafurers. 3d, The towjee, which exhibits 
the eflimates of the demands for the military eftablifli- 
ments, with the means for fatisfying them. 

Some funnuds have nothing but the royal feal ; 
others are firft authenticated by the feals and fignatures 
of the minifters of ftate, and afterwards are ratified 
by affixing the royal feal 5 and fome have only the 
feals and fignatures of the miniflers, without the royal 
feal. 

A firman fubtee has the fignatures of the miniflers, 
together with the royal feal, and is iffued on appoint- 
ment to any of the following employments : a munfub- 
dary, vakalet, fepahfelahry, etaleeky (or the office of 
preceptor; to any of the king's fons, the emeer ul 
omraiy, the nahayutty, the vizarut, the bukhfheegurry, 
and the fuddarut. Alio, for the grant of a jageer fir, 
or tun, for confirming the falaries of officers in con- 
quered territories, for granting a meelkeeyet, for a 
grant of feyurghal, and for fupplies for repairing re- 
ligious buildings. 

When the taleekeh, before defcribed, is fettled, the 
dewan of the jagcers draws out upon it an eflimate of 
the tunkhah ; and if it contains an order for the dagh. 
(or marking the cattle) it is fent to the bukhfhees for a 
fecond revifal, after which his majefty writes naveefund 
(let them write it). Then the bukhfhees write down 

P4 the. 



21 6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

the number of men, and the proper officers acid the 
defcriptions of their perfons ; and when the dagh is 
completed, one of the principal bukhfhees takes the 
taleekeh, and gives in exchange an eftimate of the 
monthly pay under his leal and fignature. This paper, 
which is commonly called the firkhut, is authenticated 
in the offices of the other bukhfhees by fome particular 
marks. The dewan keeps this firkhut, and draws out 
an eftimate of the pay monthly and yearly, which he 
prefents to his majefty, who, if there be an order for a 
jageer, writes at the top the following words : taleekeh 
tun kalemy nem&ywd (let them write the taleekeh for the 
tunkhah). The tepuckchees keep this as a voucher 
for themfelvcs, and deliver a copy of it. Then this 
new paper is prepared in the following manner ; Firft 
the dewan writes upon it held nemayend (let them enroll 
it) j after which the dewan hukhfhee and the mufhreff 
dewan put their feals and lignatures to it. Next, his 
majefty commands the berat to be ifilied. Then the 
writer of the towjee keeps the above mentioned copy 
of the firkhut, and writes the particulars at the bottom 
of the berat ; and the muftofy, after he has examined it, 
affixes his fignature and feal, after which the following 
officers do the fame : the nazir, the other bukhfhees, 
the dewan kull, the mufhreffs, the vakeel, the dewan 
of the houfehold, and the khanfaman. Orders for 
ready money payments undergo the fame forms as 
above defcribed, after which a calculation of the 
monthly pay of the men and the munfubdafs feparate 
allowance are added at the foot thereof. Orders re- 
garding the offices, matters of transfer, or committing 
to the truft of any one, or for the wages of the infe- 
rior fervants, have alfo berats ; and it is a rule, that 
the mufhreff of each department makes out berats 
every three months ; one from the Perfian month 
Ferverdeen * to Sheriyur -j~ ; and the fecond from 

* March. f Auguft. 

Mehr 






TART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 2IJ 

Mehr* to Isfendiar -f . Some of the inferior fervants 
have their defcriptions taken in writing, being included 
in the rolls of the army, whilft others are only known 
by their offices ; amongft which laft are the fervants of 
the ftables. The berat is prepared in the following 
manner : Firft is drawn out an eftimate of the allow- 
ances for grain, grafs, &c. as paid in ready money, or 
kind, together with an account of the monthly pay of 
the fervants of that department ; then the dewan of 
the offices examines it, and, if it is right, lie gives a 
tunkhah or aflignment for it, and writes on the margin 
the following words : berat ?iaveefund (let them write 
the berat) ; upon which the mumreff writes the berat, 
and then prepares the kubz (or receipt) and affixes to it 
his feal and. iignature. If the berat is for ready money, 
a fourth part of the amount is deducled, for which a 
feparate receipt is given. After it has gone through all 
thefe forms the dewan of the office writes fubtnemayend 
(let it be confirmed). Then the mumreff and officers 
of the towjee, the muftofy, the nazir, the dewan of 
the offices, the dewan kull, the khanfaman, the mufh- 
reff dewan, and the vakeel, affix their feals and fig- 
natures to the berat and kubz, the eftimate having 
been previously carried to each of thefe officers for their 
infpeclion. When all the officers have affixed their 
feals and Signatures, it is ratified by the royal feal. 
Then at the back of the kubz, are written the particular 
fpecies of coin in which it is to be paid, at the current 
value, and in the following proportions : Mohurs, one- 
fourth : rupees, one-half j dams, one-fourth. 

The firman for a munfub is prepared in like manner, 
excepting that it has not the Signatures of the officers 
of the houSehold. The firman for the feyurghal differs 
only in that, after the dewan kull, the fudder puts on his 
feal. In the firmans that are written in the Toghrah 

September* f February. _ 

character, 



£l8 AYEEi; AKBERY. PART II, 

character, the two firft lines are the fhorteft. This 
kind of firman is called a perwancheh ; and it is ufed 
tor the following purpofes : For the falaries of the be- 
gums, and of the king's fons, and the penfions of the 
learned ; for the monthly pay of the ahdyan and the 
cheelah, and of fome particular fervants of the houfe- 
hold, and for the allowance of food for the bargecr 
horfes. The treafnrers do not require a new funnud 
every year, but pay the money upon the kubz being 
produced with the proper official fignatures. The kubz 
is prepared after the following manner : The mufhrefV 
draws it out, when the perlon who is to receive the 
amount puts his feal to it, after which the dewan writes 
jubtnamayend (let it be confirmed), when the dewan 
kull and the khanfaman add their refpective feals and 
iignatures. The perwanchehs for the ahdyan have the 
lignatures and feals of the muftofy, the dewan, the 
bukhfhee, and the ahdybaihy : and as the king's feal 
is not required for a kubz, neither is it ufed for the firk- 
hut, nor for deeds of fale, nor for the aruznameh (or 
particulars of receipts of revenue) nor for the kerar- 
nameh (or the collector's agreements with the farmers 
and hufbandmen) nor for the mokafa (or the mufiofee's 
examination of the treafurer's accounts.) 



THE RANKS OF SEALS. 

The firman, the perwanehah, and the berat are 
made into feveral folds, beginning from the bottom. 
On the back of the firft fold from the bottom, which 
is neccfTarily the fmaileft, and towards the right corner, 
which is always cut off, is the feal of the vakeel ; and, 
oppofite to it, but a little below, is the feal of the 
mufhreff, put in fuch a manner that half of it goes 
to the fecond fold ; and in like manner, at a fmall 
diftance is the feal of the (udder ; but Sheikh Abdul 
Neby, and Sultan Khajeh ufed to affix their feals in a 

line 



*ART II. AYEEN AKBERV. Hy 

line with that of the vakeel. In the middle of the firft 
fold is the place of the perfon who is nearelt in rank 
to the vakeel ; fuch as Oungeh Khan, in the time of 
Munem Khan, and Adhum Khan. In the fecond 
fold the meer mal, the khanfaman, the perwanchee, 
and fuch like, put their feals in the upper part ; and 
in the lower part of the fame fold, the devvan and the 
bukhfhec kull. In the third fold are the feals and 
(ignaturcs of the bukhfhee juz and the dewan of the 
houfehold. The muftofees lign and feal in the fourth 
fold j and the writer of the towjee in the fifth fold. 
The royal feal is affixed in the front above the Togra 
writing. On the taleekeh, one of the king's fons affixes 
his feal at the top. 



THE FIRMAN BYAZEE. 

Some of the royal mandates require difpatch in the 
execution, and are not to be known to every one : fuch 
an order has only the royal fignet, and is called a firman 
byazee. It is made up into a number of folds, after 
which it is doubled in the middle, fo that the extre- 
mities meet together, and a flip of paper is tied over 
it in a knot, and then fealed up. The knot is fattened 
with vifcous juice of the bur, the peepul, or fome 
other tree, which, like wax, cannot be diffolved in 
water, nor be opened without the application of fire. 
This firman is enclofed in a purfe, made of cloth of 
gold, and given in charge to a munfubdar, an ahdy, 
or a foot-foldier, according to the nature of its con- 
tents. The perfon to whom it is fent, having proceeded 
a proper diftance to meet it, performs various acts of 
obeifance, and putting it upon the crown of his head, 
makes the fijdah; and rewards the meffenger according 
to his rank. His majefty has ordered, that every 
written reprefentation that is fent to him (hall be en- 
clofed in fuch a bag or purfe as above defer i bed. 

THE 



220 .WEEN AKBERV. PART II, 



THE MANNER OF RECEIVING PAY. 

When any one is entertained as a feepah (or foldier) 
and the dagh is performed, he obtains his funnud with- 
out any expence or delay. And although, in the fun- 
nud, the pay is fpecified in dams, yet at the time of 
making out the eflimate, half is in rupees, formerly 
rated at forty-eight dams each ; a quarter in mohurs of 
nine rupees each ; and the remaining quarter in dams. 
Now the value of the rupee is reduced to forty dams. 
His majefly, out of his juflice, has ordered that the 
rupee fhall be iffued to the troops at that rate. Out of 
a year's pay one month is flopped for the horfe and 
accoutrements. The horfe is valued ten or fifteen 
rupees above the prime cod. However, as by his 
majefly 's prudent management they are purchafed at 
very cheap rates, they fuffer no lofs by this trifling ad- 
vance. The ahdyan are always employed in executing 
the royal orders of moment, and if they behave with 
propriety, are allowed all that they receive as prefents, 
otherwife a part thereof is reckoned in their pay. If 
an ahdy neglecls to attend guard, he is paid fifteen 
days, and the other officers and loldicrs a week's pay. 
The munfubdars are authorized to flop a twentieth part 
out of the pay of their men, for various expences. 



MUSA-ADET, OR AIDS GRANTED TO MILITARY 
OFFICERS. 

Thofe who are paid by tunkhah, as well as they 
i\uo receive ready money allowances, and who are not 
of fuch an inferior rank as admits of their receiving a 
donation, being fubject to temporary difficulties for 
want of money, his majefly, who wifhes to gain the 
nfTeclion of all his fervants, has appointed a feparate 
treafurer- and meer arz, that thofe who want a loan may 

obtain 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 221 

obtain it without any injury to their reputation, or by 
being expofed to difficulty or delay. For the firft year 
no intereft is required ; the (econd year a fixteenth 
part is added ; the third year an eighth ; the fourth 
year a fourth ; and, from the fifth year to the feventh, 
fifteen per cent. ; from the eighth to the tenth year, 
feventeen per cent. ; and after ten years, double the 
principal, beyond which there is no increafe. This 
has proved a wholefome leifon to exorbitant ufurers, 
who now lend their money on moderate terms. 



DONATIONS. 

His majefty beftows prefents of money after differ- 
ent ways, according to the various ranks of men, giv- 
ing to fome publicly, and rewarding others in private. 
To fome he apparently gives a loan, but never receives 
repayment of it : and there are daily given away ele- 
phants, horfes, and many valuable articles to an afto- 
niihing amount. Every day the bukhfhees read over 
the names of the guard and others, and point out 
thofe upon whom horfes have not been beftowed ; 
but after a perfon has received a horfe, his name is not 
read again for a year. 



OF ALMS. 

His majefty beftows upon the poor and needy, money 
and neceffaries of every kind, gladdening the hearts 
of all in public or private. Many are allowed daily, 
monthly, or annual penfions, which they receive regu-* 
larly, without any delay or deduction. Befides thelc 
ettablifhments, the fums that are daily bellowed upon 
particular perfons, in confequence of reprefentations 
made in their favour, as well as the food and necef- 
faries conftantly diftributed amongft the indigent, are 

beyond 



222 AYEEK AKBERV. PART II. 

beyond defcription. There is a treafurer always in 
waiting in the prefence for this purpofe ; and every 
needy perfon who prefents himfelf before his majefty, 
has his neceffities inftantly relieved. 



THE CEREMONY OF WEIGHING THE ROYAL 
PERSON. 

As a means of bellowing a largefs upon the indigent, 
the royal perfon is weighed twice a year, various 
articles being put into the oppofite fcale. The firft 
time of performing this ceremony is on the firft day 
of the Perfian month Aban *, which is the folar anni- 
verfary of his majefty's birtli-day. He is then weighed 
twelve times, againft the following articles : gold, 
quickfilver, raw fiJk, artificial perfumes, muflt, rooh- 
tooteea, intoxicating drugs, ghee-}-, iron, rice-milk, 
eight kinds of grain, and fait. And, at the fame 
time, according to the years that his majefty has lived, 
there are given away a like number of flieep, of goats, 
and of fowls, to people who keep thefe animals for 
the purpofe of breeding. A great number of wild 
birds of all kinds are alio let at liberty on this 
occafion. 

The fecond time of performing this ceremony is on 
the fifth of the Arabian month Rejib, when he is 
tveighed eight times, againft the following things : 
Silver, tin, linen cloths, lead, dried fruits, fofame- 
oil, and pot-herbs : and, on this occafion, the fefti- 
val of Salgeerah is celebrated ; and donations are be- 
itowcd upon people of all ranks. The king's fons and 
grandfons are weighed once a year, on the lolar anni- 
verfary of their refpective nativities, againft leven or 
eight things, and fome as far as twelve ; which number 

* October. t Melted bntter. 

thcv 



TART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 22$ 

they never exceed : and according to their refpe&ive 
ages, fuch a number of beads and fowls are given away, 
and let at liberty. There are appointed for this cere- 
mony a feparate treafurer and mufhreff. 



OF THE SEYURGHAL. 

Our wife monarch beftows different favours upon 
men according to their rank and fituation in life. Four 
claffes of men have land and penfions granted them for 
their iublillence. i ft, The learned and their fcholars; 
2d, f hofe who have bade adieu to the world ; 3d, The 
needy who arc not able to help themfelves ; 4th, the 
defendants of great families, who, from a falfe fhame, 
will not fubmit to follow any occupation for their fup- 
port. When a ready-money allowance is given to thofe, 
it is called wezeefeh ; and land fb beftowed is named 
meelk, and muddulmafh : and after thofe feveral ways 
crores are given away. In order that the conditions of 
men, and their refpective neceihties, may be properly 
afcertained, a perfon of known impartiality, humanitv, 
and diligence, is dignified with the office of fudder, for 
the purpofe of inveftigating thofe points. The cazy 
and the meer adel are under his orders. There is alfo 
an able tepuckchee appointed, to keep a regifter of every 
traniadion in this department; and he is called the. 
dewan iaadet. His majefty has alfo directed the nobilkv 
to bring to his prefence all fit objects of charity, who 
never fail of obtaining their heart's content. 

When his majefty firfl began to give fome attention 
to this department, it was difcovered that the fudder had 
been guilty of various illicit practices ; on which account: 
Sheikh Abdul Neby was appointed to this office. The 
feyurghal of the Afghans and Chowdrees were annexed 
to the khalfeh, or exchequer, and the reft left to his 
management and difcretion. Some time after this, it 

was 



224 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

was rcprefented to his majefty, that thofe who pofTeffed 
feyurghal had not their land in one place, but fcattered 
in different parts ; whereby the weak, whofe grounds 
lay contiguous to the khalfch, or to jageer lands, fuf- 
fered material injury and vexation. It was therefore 
commanded, that all the tunkhahs fhould be granted 
upon places that lay contiguous to each other : and ac- 
cordingly particular villages were fet apart and appro- 
priated to this purpofe ; which regulation afforded great 
relief. But of this fudder alfo there were unfavourable 
reports ; upon which an order was iiilied, that no one 
mould poffefs five hundred beegahs and upwards till 
he had been brought to the royal prefence, and there 
obtained his grant. But even this regulation was not 
found fufficient to prevent difhonefty ; wherefore it was 
ordered, that every hundred beegahs, which had not 
yet been feparated, being divided into five parts, three 
thereof fhould be annexed to the khalfeh, excepting the 
lands granted to the Irany and Turany women. In con- 
fequenceof the above regulation refpecting die feyurghal 
not included in the appropriated villages, the artful and 
avaricious quitted fuch parts of their old lands as were 
bad, and took other places in the appropriated villages 
in exchange : upon which it was determined, that any 
perfon relinquilhing his former land for other, fhould 
have a fourth part deducted, and a tunkhah granted ac- 
cordingly. When the coliufive practices of the cazees 
in general were detected and fully proved, his majefty 
refolved to place no further reliance upon men who 
carry a fair appearance with the world, but are inwardly 
bale and corrupt. He examined this matter to the bot- 
tom, and finding fome exceptions in favour of the cazees 
who had been appointed under the fuddarut of Sultan 
Khajeh, he confirmed them in their offices, but degraded 
all the reft. The frany and Turany women were alfo 
convicted of collufion ; upon which it was ordered, that 
fuch of them as pofTeffed more than one hundred beegahs, 
fhould be obliged to apply for a new grant. In the 

fuddarut 



t ART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 225 

fuddarut of Azeded Dowleh the following further regu- 
lations were enacted : — Whenever two or more peribns 
hold feyurghal in partnerfliip, without its being fo fpe- 
cified at the bottom of the grant, if one of them dies. 
the fudder fhall of his own authority divide the land; 
and the (hare that was poileiied by the defunct, fhall be 
annexed to the khalfah till the heirs make and eftabliOi 
their claim. This fudder was permitted to grant of his 
own authority as far as fifteen beegahs. It frequently 
happened that the poiieflbrs of feyurghal planted their 
grounds with fruit-trees, which yielded them a confi- 
derable profit ; upon which the officers of government, 
wifhing to benefit the ftate, required a revenue from 
them. His majefty was greatly difpleafed at the con- 
duct of his officers in this reflect, and commanded that 
no fuch requilition fhould be made. It being difcovered 
that thole who held one hundred beegahs, and even 
lefs than that quantity, were alio guilty of dilhoneft 
practices, his majefty commanded Meer Sudder Jehan 
to bring all of them to the prefence to have their grants 
fcrutinized. Afterwards it was directed, that the fudder 
fhould lefTen or increafe the feyurghal, in fuch manner 
as the author of this work might think advifeable. The 
following are regulations now efiablifhed : The feyur- 
ghal land, when granted, fhall be half arable; and the 
other half capable of being brought into circulation : of, 
if the whole be arable, a fourth part mould be deducted 
from the 'grant, and a tankhah iilued for three-fourths 
only. The revenue of a beegah differs in every village, 
but is never lefs than one rupee. His majefty, out of 
his righteoufnefs, is conftantly attentive to this depart- 
ment, and is careful to appoint diiinterefted people to 
the offices of fuddarut juz and kull. 

OF MACHINES. 

His majefty has with great fkill conftructed a cart, 

containing a corn -mill, which is woiked by the mo- 

Vol. 1. Q^ tion 



226 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

tion of the carriage. He has alfo contrived a car- 
riage of luch a magnitude as to contain feveral apart- 
ments, with a hot bath ; and it is drawn by a fingle 
elephant. This moveable bath is extremely uieful, and 
refrefhening on a journey. Other carriages for the con- . 
venience of travelling, are drawn by camels, horfes, or 
oxen. 

He has alfo invented feveral hydraulic machines, 
which are worked by oxen. The pulleys and wheels of 
ibme of them are fo adjufted, that a fingle ox will at 
once draw water out of two wells, and at the fame time 
turn a mill-flone. 

OF THE TEN SEERS OF GRAIN EXACTED FROM 
EVERY BEEGAH OF LAND. 

His majefty, in return for the cares of royalty, exacts 
an annual tribute of ten feers of grain from every bee- 
gah of cultivated land throughout the empire ; and 
granaries are erected in different parts of the kingdom, 
from whence the cattle employed by the flate are pro- 
vided with fubfiftence. They are alfo applied to the 
relief of indigent hufbandmen ; and in time of fcarcity 
the grain is fold at a low price, but the quantity is 
proportioned to the abfolute neceflities of the purchafer. 
jLikewife, throughout the empire, a great quantity of 
food is drc-fTed daily for the iupport of the poor and 
needy. Proper officers are appointed to the charge 
of the granaries, and to keep the accounts of the receipts 
and expenditures. 

OF FESTIVALS. 

His majefty, who knows what degree of regard is 
due to approved cultoms of antiquity, is continually 
endeavouring to make himfelf acquainted with them; 
and then, regardlefs of who was the inftitutor, he adopts 
fuch as appear proper, and rejects whatever difpleafes 

him. 



PART Ilk AYEEN AKBEkW 227 

him. After having adopted a particular cuftom or 
ceremony, he next confiders how to make it of mod 
general advantage, feeking for opportunities of benefit- 
ing mankind, and embracing every occafion of beftow- 
ing largefles upon his people. With this view he 
adopted the feftival of Gemfhid, and other feafts of 
the ancient Perfians, which are ufed as the means of 
bellowing donations. 

Firft is the feftival of Nowroz or the now year, when 
the fun enters the fign Aries. This is celebrated with 
feafting for nineteen fucceffive days, during which time 
immenfe fums of money and valuable articles are dis- 
tributed. It commences on the firft of the Perfun 
month Ferverdeen *, and continues till the end of the 
nineteenth. With the ancient Perfians, the day which 
bears the fame name with the month was alio a feftival ; 
and his majefty his ordered them to be kept in the 
following order : The 1 9th day of the month Ferver- 
deen (March] — the 3d of Ardebehefhc (April) — the 
6th of Khordad (May) — the 13th of Tcer (June] — the 
7th of Amerdad (July) — the 4th of Sheriyur (Auguft) 
—the. 1 6th of Mehr (September) — the 10th of A ban 
(October) — the 9th of Azer (November) — the 8th, 
15th, and 23d of Dey (December) — the 2d of Bahman 
(January) — the 5th of Isfendiar (February) : — and on 
every feftival many public as well as private benefits are 
bellowed. On thofe days a kettle drum is beat every 
three hours, accompanied by mufical inftruments. Oa 
the feftival of the new year there are public illumina- 
tions for three nights fucceffively ; and again on the 
nineteenth night of the fame month. Many particulars 
relative to thefe ancient ceremonies are related in the 
firft volume of the Akbernameh. 

* Marth. 

Q2 THE 



223 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 



THE KHUSHROZ, OR DAYS OF DIVERSION. 

His majefty gives this name to the ninth day after 
the feftival of each month, and thereon affembles his 
court. Upon this occafion the wives of merchants hold 
a market, where they expofe to fale the manufactures of 
every country at their refpective fhops. The women 
of the haram, and others of character, refort thither, 
and carry on a large traffic, to the mutual fatisfaclion of 
all parties *. His majefty is alfo there in difguife, by 
which means he learns the prices of different articles of 
merchandize, and hear3 what is faid of the ftate of the 
empire, and the characters of the officers of govern- 
ment. When the female fair is over, another is fet on 
foot for the men ; when his majefty and the courtiers 
come and make purchafes : and at this time every 
man may reprefent his particular grievances, without 
the intervention of any one; when the injured never 
fail of obtaining redrefs, and the offenders are punifhed. 
There are alfo a treafurer and a mufhreff appointed to 
this department, that the merchants may receive im- 
mediate payment for the things that are purchafed from 
them. 



OF MARRIAGES. 

This grand union of the fexes, is not only beneficial 
In the procreation of the fpecies, but is a check upon 
inordinate* defires, and preferves the domeftic peace of 
families. 

• His majefty, who is ever feeking to do good by 
watching over the interefts of all his fubjects, does not 
admit, in this inftance, of a difregard to difference in 
religion, nor to the unfuitablenefs of the difpofitions of 

• This fair is held in the fquarc of the haram. 

the 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 229 

the parties towards each other, nor difparity of rank; 
and he holds it finful for marriages to be contracted 
under the age of puberty, becaufe, if upon their arrival 
at years of diicretion, they mould not be fatisfied with 
each other, it muft be a continual fource of family-dif- 
cord. He confiders the confent of the bride and bride- 
groom to be equally neceflary with that of their parents. 
He thinks it improper that thofe of near affinity in blood 
mould be married together ; and fays, " Adam would 
■■ not fuffer marriages to take place between his fons 
<e and daughters who were twins ; which consideration 
«' ought to iilence thofe who draw an inference from the 
" letter and not from the fpirit of the Mahommedan 
6C law, which is made by them to admit of inter- 
u marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, bc- 
" caufe it does not poiitively prohibit fuch an union." 
He difapproves of excefiive kabeens •, or marriage - 
fettlements, which probably were inftituted to increale 
the dread of feparation. He does not approve of a 
man's having more than one wife, nor of a young man's 
marrying an old woman. He has appointed two dif- 
interefted perfons, one to afcertain the condition of the 
men, and the other to inform himfelf of the rank of the 
women. They are both called towee beghy; and 
ibmetimes both offices are executed by the fame perfon. 
They levy a fmall tax upon marriages for the u-fe of the 
crown, which is collected from each party according to 
the rank of their fathers, in the following proportions ; 

From the fon or the daughter of a mun- 1 ^ 

r ua c . 10 mohurs 

lubdar or 5000 to 1000, — 

Ditto of 900 to 500, — — 4 do. 

Ditto of 700 to ioo, — — 2 do. 

Ditto of eighty to twenty, — 1 do. 

* The kabeen is the marriage-portion or fettlement which a 
huibaud is obliged to pay to his wife, if he divorces her without 
fufficient caufe. 

Q^3 From 



2$0 AYEEN AKEERY. PART II. 

From the Ton or daughter of a munfnbdan 

of thirty to ten, and other people Y 4 rupees 
of condition, — — J 

Middling people, -~~ — 1 do. 

Common people, — — 1 dam. 

REGULATIONS FOR TEACHING IN THE PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS. 

All civilized nations have fchools for the education 
of youth ; bat H in do [fan is particularly famous for its 
feminaries. 

The boys are firft taught to read, the letters of the 
Perfian alphabet feparately, with th<^ different accent?, 
or marks of pronunciation : and his majefty has or- 
dered, that as foon as they have a perfect knowledge 
of the alphabet, which is generally acquired in two 
days, they (hall be exercifed in combinations of two 
letters ; and after they have learnt thofe for a week, 
there is given to them a fhort line of profe or verfe, 
containing a religious or moral fentiment, wherein thofv 
combinations continually occur. They muft ftrive to 
read this themfelves, with a little occafional affiflance 
from the teacher. For fome days the mafter proceeds 
with teaching a riew'hemiftich or diftich ; and in a very 
fhort time the boys learn to read with fluency. The 
teacher gives the young fcholar four exercifes daily, z-iz. 
the alphabet, the combinations, a new hemiftich or 
diftich, and a repetition of what he has read before. 
By this method, what ui'ed to take up years, is now 
accomplished in a'few months, to the altonifhment of 
every one. The fciences are taught in the following 
order : Morality, arithmetic,, accounts, agriculture, 
geometry, longimetry, aftronomy, geomancy, cccono- 
ruics, the art of government, phylic., logic, natural 
philofophy, abftradt mathematics, divinity, and hiitory. 
The Hindoos read the following books on their fub- 
je&s of learning : Beakern, Bedant, and the Patanjol ; 

every 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 231 

every one being educated according to his circum- 
ftances, or particular views in life. From thefe regula- 
tions the fchools have obtained a new form, and the 
colleges are become the lights and ornaments of the 
empire. 

THE OFFICE OF MEER BEHRY, OR ADMIRALTY. 

Water-carriage tends to the fuccefs of military opera- 
tions, furnifhes the hufbandman with the means of 
difpofing of the produce of his lands, and fupplies re- 
ciprocally the wants of mankind in general. His 
majefty, in making the regulations for this department 
has kept four objcfts in view. 

ift, The building of fhips and boats for the purpofe 
of inland navigation. There are boats built for the 
tranfportation of elephants : fome are of fuch con- 
ftruclion as to be employed in fieges, and others arc 
made convenient for the conveyance of merchandize. 
Ships, to thofe who are ufed to them, ferve for con- 
venient habitations, whilft they are failing from one 
place to another, particularly throughout the Turkifli 
empire, in Africa, and in the lands of the Chriftians 
Every part of the empire abounds in boats ; but in 
Bengal, Cafhmeer, and Tata, they are the centre upon 
which all commerce moves. His majefty has had fome 
pleafu re- boats built with convenient apartments, and 
the head of each is made to refemble fome animal ; on 
others are floating-markets and flower-gardens. In the 
maritime provinces fhips are built of a ilze for fea- 
voyages. And alio at Allahabad and Lahoor (hips are 
conftrucled, and fent from both places to the ocean. 
In Cafhmeer there was made a model of a fhip that 
aftonifhed every one who faw it. 

2d, The giving employment to experienced mariners, 
who are verfed in the nature of tides, know the depths 

<U of 



2#2 AYLEK AKBERY. .PART II. 

of channels, and what coafts are to be avoided ; are 
acquainted with the winds which blow in particular 
ieafons; are fkilful fwimmers, and capable of under- 
going hard(hips and fatigaes. Men of thefe characters 
are not to be collected without much encouragement 
and enquiry. The greateft part of them come from the 
coafl of Malabar. Their number is regulated by the 
fize of the (hip. lfl, The nokhada, or commander of 
the vefTel, who directs what courfe the fhip (hall (leer. 
2d, The maullim (the mate) who is acquainted with 
the foundings, and, by his knowledge of the fituation 
of the ftars, prevents the fhip from running into danger, 
and guides her to her place of deflination. 3d, The 
tundeil is the chief of the khelaffes, or failors. 4th, The 
nakheda khefheb provides fuel for the people, and 
affifls in lading and unlading the (hip. £th, The 
iirheng, whole buiinefs it is to iuperintend the docking 
and launching of the fhip ; and he frequently officiates 
as a maullim. 6th, The bundaree, who has charge of 
the (hip's flores. 7th, The keranee, or fhip's clerk t 
who keeps the accounts, and ferves out water to the 
people. 8th, The fukangeer (helmfman). Of thefe 
there are fometimes twenty in a fhip ; they fleer the fhip 
according to the orders of the maullim. 9th, The 
punjeree, who looks out from the top of the maft, and 
gives notice when he fees land or a fhip, or difcovers a 
florin rifing, or any other object worth obferving. 
10th, The goomtee arc thofe particular khelaffes who 
throw the water out of the fhip. nth, The gunners, 
who differ in number according to the fize of the fhip. 
1 2th, The kherwah (or common feamen) are many, 
and they are employed in fetting and furling the fails, 
and in flopping leaks ; and if the anchor flicks faft in 
the ground, they go to the bottom of the water to fet it 
free. For every voyage, which in the language of thofe 
people is called kowfh, different rates of monthly wages 
are given. Jn the bunder of Satgong, the nakhoda 
(or captain) has 400 rupees pay, befides being per- 
mitted 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 233 

mitted to fill four bulechs with whatever commodities 
he pleafes for his own profit. A (hip is conftructed 
with feparate divifions, part being appropriated for the 
accommodation of the people, and the reft for the 
(towage of goods ; and each of thefe divifions is called 
a buleeh. A tundeil has 120 rupees per menfem\ the 
keranee fifty rupees and one buleeh ; the nakhoda 
khefheb thirty rupees; the firheng twenty-five rupees; 
the fukangeer, the punjeree, and the bundaree, fifteen 
rupees each ; a goomtee ten rupees ; a common feaman 
torty rupees ; a cook twelve rupees. In Cambayit the 
nakhoda has 800 rupees, and the reft in proportion ; in 
Lahry the nakhoda has 300 rupees, and the reft in 
proportion; in Atchee (Achin) he has 500 rupees; in 
the fouthern parts of the empire, and in Portugal, 300 
rupees and fomething more; in Malacca, 400 rupees; 
in Peigu and Dehnaferry, fomething more than C40 
rupees. But thefe rates vary according to the danger 
and length of the voyage. The watermen employed in 
navigating boats in rivers have never leis than 100 nor 
more than 500 dams each per metifem. 

3d, An active refolute man is appointed to watch 
the rivers. He fettles every thing relative to the ferries, 
regulates the tonnage, and provides travellers with boats 
at the fhorteft notice. Thofe who are not able to pay 
at the ferries are paiTed over gratis ; but no one is per- 
mitted to fwim acrols a river. It is alio his duty to 
hinder boats from travelling in the night, unlefs in cafes 
of neceffity ; nor is he to allow goods to be landed any- 
where but at the public wharfs. 

4th, Remiflion of duties. His majefty, from the 
excefs of his beneficence, has remitted duties in this 
department that equalled the revenues of a kingdom. 
Nothing is now exacted upon exports and imports, 
excepting a trifle taken at the bunders (or ports) and 
which never exceeds two and a half per cent. ; and this 

demand 



234 AYEEN AKBERV. PA5T IT. 

demand is fo inconfiderable, that merchants account 
this reduction a perfect remifTion. If a boat and peo- 
ple are hired, the rate for ever}" thoufand maunds is one 
rupee per cofe. If only the boat is found by the owner, 
and the hirer pays the boatmen, it is only one rupee for 
two cofe and a half. 



For CroJJing at the Ferries, 

An elephant, — — 2 dams 

A cart loaded, — ■ — 4 

.Ditto empty, — — 2 

A camel loaded, — — 1 

Ditto without a load, — § 

A horfe or an ox loaded, — . § 

An ox without a load, — i 

An afs or a yabu loaded, — | 

A man, — — 1 1 cheetel. 



And at many ferries a man pafles free. 



OF HUNTING. 

The generality of people confider hunting merely as 
a diverfion, but thole who look into confequcnccs dif- 
cover it to be of real utility, His majefty is exceed- 
ingly fond of this fport. When he intends to hunt, 
the bundookcheean furround the fpot that contains the 
game, at the diilance of four or five cofe from which is 
the llation of the kowr, and beyond that are the omrah, 
and others of rank ; the whole being incloied by the 
guards. In the fpace between the bundookcheean and 
die kowr, is the ftation of the meer-toozeh ; and behind 
him, at the diflance of a cofe, are fome of the principal 
attendants with the khidmutteeah. In the inclofure 
where the game is, fome particular omrahs and fervants 
move about gently in queft of fport, and when they 

difcover. 






PART II. AYEEK AKBERY. 1^$ 

difcover any, point it out to his majefly. Some remain 
with his majefly, and others difperfe themfelves on all 
fides. When his majefly choofes to take reft, the 
courtiers are ready to attend him. — Having given a 
fhort account of the manner of furrounding the place 
where the game is, fomething fhall be laid of the 
different ways of hunting. 

DIFFERENT WAYS OF HUNTING THE LION. 

They make a large cage, flrengthened with iron, into 
which they put a kid in fuch a lituation that the lion 
cannot come at it without entering by the door, which 
is left open. The cage is put in the place which the 
lion frequents, and when he enters to feize the kid, the 
door fhuts upon him and he is taken ; or an arrow is 
fet in a bow of a green colour, which is faftened to a 
bough of a tree, and when the lion pafles under it, the 
motion difcharges the arrow and kills him. Or they 
faften a fheep to the fpot which he frequents, and 
{unround it with flraw worked up with fome glutinous 
fubflance, fo that when the lion attempts to feize the 
iheep, his claws become entangled in the ftraw ; upon 
which the hunters, iiiuing from their covert, either kill 
him, or take him alive and tame him. But his majefly 
has ordered that they ihould always be deftroyed. 

Sometimes a bold refolute fellow feats himfelf upon 
the back of a male buffaloe, and makes him attack the 
lion, and tofs him with his horns till he kills him. It 
is not pomble for any one who has not feen this fight 
to form an adequate idea of the fport it affords, nor to 
conceive the boldnefs of the man, who feats himfelf erect 
like a pillar, notwithftanding the violent motions of 
the buffaloe during the bloody conflict. And now I 
will fay fomething of his majefty's exploits, for the 
iatisfaftion of the uninformed. Once on a hunting- 
party, advice being brought that a lion had made his 

appearance 



236 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

appearance in a thicket near a town, his majefty went 
in queft of him. The lion flruck his claws into the 
forehead of his majefty 's elephant and pinned him to the 
ground, till the king put the lion to death, to the 
aftonifhment of every fpectator. Another time, being 
hunting near Toodah, a lion feized one of his train, 
when he fmote the beaft with an arrow, and delivered the 
man from his clutches. Another time a large lion 
fprung up near his majefty, who fmote him with an 
arrow in the forehead. Another time a lion had feized 
a foot-foldier, and every one defpaired of his life ; but 
his majefty fet him free by killing the lion with a 
matchlock. On another occafion, in the wilds, a lion 
moved towards him in fuch a terrible rage, that Shu- 
jahut Khan, who had advanced before his majefty, loft 
his refolution, but the king flood firm, holding the 
lion at de6ance, when the animal, through inftinct., 
becoming frightened at the fight of Heaven's favourite, 
turned about to efcape, but was ipeedily killed with an 
arrow. But it is impoffible for me, in my barbarous 
Hindu dialed:, to deicribe in fit terms the actions of 
this inimitable monarch. 

THE MANNER OF TAKING ELEPHANTS. 

This is done after feveral ways. One method is 
that which they call kehdeh ; wherein cavalry and in- 
fantry are employed. In the fummer fcafon they beat 
drums and blow trumpets in the place where the ele- 
phants refort to feed. The unwieldy animals are 
frightened, and run about till their ftrength is quite 
exhaufted, and in fearch of reft take fheker under the 
(hade of a tree, when fkilful perfbns throw ropes over 
them, and faften them to the trunk. Here they are 
brought acquainted with tame elephants, and fami- 
liarized by degrees, and taught to be obedient. The 
people who take the elephant are paid the fourth of its 
value. There is another method, called choorkehdeh, 

which 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 237 

which is this : They carry a tame elephant to the place 
where the wild ones feed, the driver fitting upon htm 
in fuch a manner as not to be perceived ; when the 
two elephants begin fighting, the driver throws a rope 
over the wild animal. Another way is called gedd ; 
they dig a deep ditch in the path which the wild ele- 
phant ufually paries, and cover it with grais. When he 
comes near the pit-fall, the people who are inambuOi 
make a great noife ; from the dread of which the ele- 
phant precipitates himfelf into the excavation. Here, 
being kept fhort of provifions, he is tamed by degrees. 
Another method is what they call barferakh : they 
indole with a ditch the place where the wild elephants 
ufually alfemble at a particular feafon, leaving only one 
entrance, to which they fix a door with ropes, in fuch 
a manner, that upon (lipping the ropes it fnuts fall. 
Next, they fcatter food in and about the inclofure, 
which entices the elephants to enter, when the people 
come out of their hiding-place, flip the ropes, and fhut 
the door. Sometimes elephants in their rage attempt 
to break open the door, when the people light fires and 
make a noife, during which time the elephants keep 
running about till their ftrength is quite exhaufted. 
The tame elephants are faftened round the inclofure, 
and the wild ones are kept fhort of food till they be- 
come docile. Thefe were the eld ways of taking 
elephants ; but his majeily has invented a new method. 
A herd of male elephants are faftened to one fpot in 
the form of a circle, and the females are brought into 
fight in another quarter ; and men making a fhout on 
all tides, the wild elephants run together, in order to 
join the others. Upon this the female elephants, who 
are trained to the practice, enter the inclofure which. 
is conflrudled for this purpofe ; a number of wild 
elephants follow them, and are then taken without any 
trouble. 



t :. B 



2^8 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

THE MANNER OF HUNTING THE YUZ, 
OR LEOPARD. 

This animal, who is remarkable for his provident 
and circumfpeft conduct, is an inhabitant of the wilds, 
and has three different places of refort. They feed* in 
one place, reft in another, and fport in another, which 
is their mod frequent refort. This is generally under 
the fhade of a tree, the circuit of which they keep very 
clean, and inclofe it with their dung. Their dung in 
the Hindovee language is called akhir. 

o o 

Formerly, a large pit ufcd to be dug, and covered 
with grafs. This pit was called ordee. When the yuz 
Hepped upon the grafs he fell into the pit 5 but it fre- 
quently happened that by the fall he broke a limb, or 
was bruifed, and fometimes he jumped or climbed out; 
and feldom more than one was taken at a time. His 
majefly has introduced a new method. They dig a 
pit not more than two or three guz deep, and place 
Over it a trap- door, which admits the yuz as foon as he 
fets his foot upon it, and then clofes upon him, without 
doing him any injury. In this manner feveral are 
frequently taken together. Once in the rutting feafon, 
a female yuz entered the trap, and being followed by 
four males, they were all taken. Sometimes his majefly 
purfues a yuz on horfeback till he is quite fatigued, 
and then lays hold of him, to the aftonimment of the 
fpeftators. The following is alfo a method of taking 
them : They hang a number of iron rings with fnares 
upon the tree under which they commonly refort, and 
when they rub and fcratch themfelves againft the tree, 
they arc entangled in the rings. The yuz is caught 
within forty cole of the city of Agra; but they are in the 
greateft abundance at Bary, Dehly, Allahpoor, Hiflar, 
Mufnon, Buttendeh, Takniflir, Putten, Punjah, Meerut, 
Jelmeer, and other diftant places. In the diftrict of 

Agra, 



JART II. AYEEN AKEERY. 2 ;q 

"Agra, whenever a yuz gets into a trap, his majefty goes 
into the pit and takes him out himfelf. He frequently, 
when fatigued after a long journey, upon receiving 
intelligence of a yuz being entrapped, mounts his 
horfe again and gallops to the fpot. Formerly, it re- 
quired two or three months to tame the yuz fufficiently 
to fet him loofe after game; but now, by the attention 
of his majefty, it is effected in eighteen days. Some- 
times he trains them himfelf. What is very aftonifhing, 
it once happened that a new-caught yuz hunted imme- 
diately upon his fignifying his pleafure to it, and feized 
the game like one who had been trained. On this 
occafion, the eyes of many were opened, and the}' be- 
lieved in his fupernarural endowments. He had alio 
a yuz who ufed to follow him without a collar or 
chain, and was as fenfible and obedient as a human 
being. 

Hunting game with this animal affords excellent 
/port. Two hundred people of rank are appointed to 
this department. 

THE FOOD ALLOWED FOR THE LEOPARDS, 

They are divided into eight ciafies, and have each 
from two feers and three quarters to three feecs of flefh, 
which is given them all at once. On Saturdays they 
receive a double allowance, becaufe that no animals are 
•allowed to be killed on that day. Formerly, every fix 
months they weie anointed with four feers of ghee and 
one leer and a half of chattack of brimllone, ground up 
together, to prclerve them from the mange ; now they 
are anointed only once a year. Four people were al- 
lowed for training and keeping each yuz ; but now that 
they are provided with carriages, hoxfes, and doolees, 
only two people are entertained. Their monthly pay 
is from five to thirty rupees, and they attend the car- 
riage. There are allowed for the leopards coverings of 

rich 



24O AYEEN AKBERY. PART IT. 

rich brocades, and collars and chains of gold, inlaid 
with precious (tones, with filk and woollen carpets. A 
great emeer is appointed to fuperintend this depart- 
ment. Every leopard has a name fuitable to his cha- 
racter. They are formed into divifions of ten, each of 
which is called miflel and turef, and has a different 
rank affigned to it. A thoufand of thefe leopards ac- 
company his majefty to the chace, and alone form a 
large encampment. Three miflels of the firft rank, 
which are all khafeh, and two miflels of the fecond rank, 
making altogether five miflels, are always ready at the 
palace. Two mehafehs are flung on the oppolite fides 
of an elephant, with a yuz in each, who are carried in 
this manner that they may the more eafily defcry the 
game. Some are put upon the backs of horfes and 
mules ; and others are tranfported on carriages, or in 
doolies, carried by bearers. Semendmanick, the chief 
leopard, is carried on a chowdole, and is treated with 
great refpect, having iervants appointed to attend him 
when he travels ; and a kettle-drum is beat before him. 
Another kind of dooly is fufpended upon the necks of 
two horfes. Some particular leopards have a dooly 
and a cart, and others only a dooly each. The dooly 
is carried by three bearers. The yuz hunts belt againft 
the wind, as in that fituation he difcovers the game by 
the fcent. There are three ways of hunting with this 
animal. 

1 ft, Oopurghuttee, when they place the yuz on the 
right fide of the game. 2d, Reghnee, when they take 
off his chain and (hew him the game at a diftance, 
whilit himfelf is in a covert, and he creeps along and 
jumps upon the game by furprife. 3d, Meharee, when 
they put the yuz in a covert, and drive his carnage 
towards the deer, who being frightened at the appear- 
ance of it, flies to the quarter where the yuz is hidden, 
who fprings upon the game and feizes it. It is im- 
poflible to deicribe the activity and fubtle artifices of 

this 



?ART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 24I 

this animal. Sometimes he raifes fuch a dud with his 
feet that he is entirely hidden under it ; and he can bend 
himfelf Co clofe to the ground, as to be fcarcely above 
the furface. Formerly, they did not hunt with them 
more than three kinds of game, but now they take 
twelve different forts. Hismajefty ordered a fkreen to 
be made, which is called chuttermundel, and it f rves 
as a hiding-place for the ynz ; the hunters fct up a 
nOife and drive the deer towards the fkreen, from behind 
which the yuz fprings out upon it. His majefly li- 
berally rewards the fervants of this department who 
may merit encouragement, and there are alfo particular 
marks of favour bellowed upon the leopards, the rela- 
tion of which would run me into prolixity. The fol- 
lowing aftonifhing incident occurred under this au- 
fpicious reign : — A deer contracted an intimacy with a 
leopard, and they lived and fported together ; but this 
particular attachment did not prevent the leopard from 
hunting other deer. Formerly, they did not venture 
to let the leopard loofe in the evening, for fear of his 
being untraceable, or taking refuge in the woods j now 
he is fo well trained, that he will hunt as well during 
night as in the day-time. They ufed alfo to cover their 
eyes till it was time to fet them at the game, from the 
apprehenfion that they would druggie to get loofe im- 
mediately upon feeing it ; but they are now taught to 
remain perfectly quiet with their eyes open. The 
omrahs lay bets upon every forty leopards ; and him 
whofe animal feizes firft, wins the wager. Alfo the 
dooreah (or leader) whofe leopard firit kills twenty 
game, takes five rupees from his brethren. Syed Ahmed 
Barah, who is at the head of this department, takes a 
mohur from each perfon who wins a bet ; from whence 
he acquires a confiderable income. When an emeef' 
prefents his majefly with twenty pair of antelopes horns, 
he receives a mohur from each of the other thirty-nine 
omrahs. The bundookcheean, and keepers of the 
miffels, have alfo their refpective bets. His majefty 
Vol. I. R never 



242 AYEEN AKBERY. PART IT. 

never hunts on Friday, in confequence of a vow that 
he made upon the birth of his elded fon. 

THE SYAGOSH. 

Formerly, this animal hunted only hares and foxes, 
but now he is taught to feize an antelope. He is al- 
lowed a feer of fklh every day. Each of thefe animals 
has a keeper, at 1 00 rupees per men/cm. 

DOGS. 

His majefty has a great affection for this faithful ani- 
mal, and is collecting them from all countries. The 
bed are thofe of Cabuliflan, efpecially thofe bred in the 
icts of Hezereh and Tefheen, where they crofs 
the breed with leopards ; which fpecies has a particular 
name. There are various ways of hunting with dogs, 
fome of whom are fo brave, that they will attack a lion. 
— Each khafeh dog is allowed two feers of flefh, and 
the others one feer and a quarter, daily. Every pair 
of greyhounds has a keeper, at 100 dams per menfertu 

. THE MANNER OF HUNTING DEER WITH DEER. 

They fatten a fnare about a tame deer, fo that when 
a wild one engages him, he is entangled by the horns 
or ears ; upon which the hunters iffue from their co- 
vert and feize him. If the tame deer is overpowered, 
or the fnare breaks, he returns to his keeper. Sultan 
Firoze Kuljie had fome idea of this manner of hunt- 
ing ; but it is only now brought to perfection. They 
will now hunt in the night j and if a wild deer runs 
• away, or the fnare breaks, the tame one obeys the 
orders of his keeper, and comes or goes juft as he 
directs. Formerly they were afraid to lend out a tame 
deer at nighr ; and whenever one was let loofe, it had 
a clog fattened to one of its legs ; but now no fucli 

precaution 






Part ir. ayeen akbery. 243 

precaution is ufed. Some time ago, a tame deer ran 
away, in the wilds of the (oobah of Allahabad, and, 
after pah ng many rivers and towns, travelled to his 
native country Punjab, and there joined his former 
keeper. Formerly only two or three people partook of 
this fport; and, for fear of frightening tne wild deer, 
ufed to difguife their perfons, or hide themfelves in 
the grafs : but his majefty has introduced a method 
whereby upwards of four hundred people may go to- 
gether. Forty oxen are taught to move flowly, and 
in fuch a manner as to conceal the people who are be- 
hind them. Alfo does are taught to entice the bucks 
into fnares. A decoy-deer enfnared a yuz, and they 
were brought together to Gujerat. 

Ghuntaheerah is the name of another manner of 
hunting. A man takes in his hand a fhield or bafket, 
fo as to cover a lamp ; then, with his other hand, he 
rings a little bell : the animals running towards the 
light and the noife, are (hot with arrows by thofe who 
lie in covert. There is another way of afiemblino- the 
game together, by a perion's ringing an incantation ; 
but his majefty, considering both thefe methods to be 
nefarious, has ordered them to be difcontinucd. 

Taghnee. A perfon fhows himfelf to the deer ftark 
naked, making a number of foolifh geftures; upon 
which, the deer, taking him for a madman, come 
near and ftare at him with aitoniftiment, when the 
archers from their covert fmite them with arrows. 

Another way, called lowkareh. Some archers hide 
themfelves in the grafs, in the wind's eye, whilft 
others hold up a large theet like a wall, and the deer 
being driven towards the meet, are there (hot with 
arrows. 

Deddavoen is much like that laft mentioned. 

R 2 Jfjarek 



244 AYEEN AK3ERY. PART II, 

Ajarek is when the archers cover themrelves with 
green foliage, fo that nothing of the human form ap- 
pears, and that their bows and arrows are concealed. 
Another way : The hunter hides himfelf in a tree, and 
from thence makes a noife like a deer, which brings 
them to that quarter, when he difcharges his arrows 
upon them. 



THE MANNER OF HUNTING THE BUFFALOE. 

In the ground which he frequents they fatten an 
iron ring with two ropes ; and near this^fpot they tic 
a female buffaloe : an active refolute fellow lies in am- 
bu(h, and when the wild buffaloe comes to the female, 
he binds him with the ropes : but it frequently happens 
that the man is killed in making the attempt. The 
following is another way : They place fnares on the 
banks of a pool of water whither the wild buffaloes 
refort ; then the people, mounted on tame buffaloes 
and armed with fpears, go into the water and attack 
them, and if any efcape out of the pool, they are taken 
in the (nares. 



OF HAWKING. 

His majefty fometimes hunts with the baz, the 
fhaheen, the fliunkar, the fhabbaz, and the purkut; 
but he is fondeft of the baftierah ; and each of this lad 
kind has a particular name. In the mid-fpring all the 
falcons are lent into the country to moult, and when 
that feafon is over, they are brought to the royal pre- 
fence to be reviewed. The moolcheen is a green bird 
no bigger than a fparrow ; but, like the royal falcon, 
he will bring down a crane. It is faid, that with his 
talons he tears out the crane's eyes ; but neither the 
truth of this, nor the ftory of his cutting off the crane's 

wings 



PART II. AYEEM AKBERY. 245 

wings whilft he is flying, have yet been afcertained. 
The zodehpeer, which is brought from Cammeer, is a 
green bird, fhmller than a parrot, with a flraight red 
bill and a long tail : he feizes fmall birds in the air, and 
brings them to the fowler. Many other birds may be 
taught to hunt. The crow may be taught to feize the 
fparrow, the beodeneh, and the far. It would be 
tedious to fay more upon this fubjecl, Munfubdars, 
ahdees, and other cavalry are appointed to this depart- 
ment. The foot-fold iers, who are natives of Calhmeer 
and Hindoftan, are paid after two rates. 

Rs. Rs. 

Cafhmeereean, ift rate, per men/em, 4$ to 7I 

Ditto, 2d do. do. 4 to 5 

Indian, ift do. do. 3! to 4$ 

Ditto, 2d do. dcu 3 to 3 1 



ALLOWANCE OF FOOD FOR THE HAWKS. 

The Cafhmeereean, and many Indian falconers, give 
their birds flefli only once a day ; but, in the royal 
aviary, they are allowed it twice a day in the following 
proportions. 

Names of Birds. Daily Allowance of Flefh. 

A baz, — "~ 7 dams weight 

A jurah, — . — 6 ditto 

A behry, a lacheen, and a bafheh, 5 ditto 
A chippuck bafheh, a fhickreh, a -^ 

beyierah, a dhonee, and fuch [ 2 ditto, 

like, each, — % J 

In the latter part of the afternoon they let all thefe 
birds loofe upon fparrows. A baz, a jurah, and a 
behry, are each allowed to catch and eat feven. A 
lacheen is permitted to have five ; a balheh three ; and 

R 3 the 



246 AYEEN AKBERY. P ART II. 

the other kinds two each. The chergh and the luckeh 
have flefh given them at this time. The fhahbaz, the 
fhunkar, and the purkut are each allowed a feer of" flefh 
daily. Frequently they feed them with the game that 
they take. 

PRICES OF FALCONS. 

Frequently men, through eagernefs to poffefs a par- 
ticular bird, or from ignorance of its worth, paying 
much beyond their proper value, his majefty has en- 
quired out the prices of each kind, in order that the 
buyer may not be impofed upon, nor the feller be de- 
prived of a r.eafonable profit. 

Prices. 

A baz, — ' — from 

A bafheh, — — 

A fhaheen, — — 

A behry, a jurah, or a"l t 

behry butcheh, J 

A kehleh, — ■ — 

A chergh, . — — 

A chippuck bafheh, — 

Shikreh, — — 

A bey fe rah, — — 

A chippuck lucker, — 

And each of the above are of three kinds, viz. id, 

Thofe that have moulted once fince taken ; 2d, 

Chieks who have not yet caff, their feathers ; 3d, 
Thofe who had moulted before they were taken. 

The mafler falconers are rewarded according to the 
number of game that their ' birds take. The fettled 
rewards are, from a dam to a mohur. If they bring a 
bird alive, they are paid according to its fize and 
value. Half the reward goes to the bazdar, or him 

who 



5 rs - 


to 


12 mrs 


5 do - 


— 


3 do - 


3 do - 


— 


1 do. 


1 mr. 


— 


2 do. 


1 do. 


— 


1 do. 


if rs. 


— 


i\ rs. 


1 do. 


— 


1 do. 


| do. 


— 


if do. 


| do. 


— 


2 do. 


i do. 


— 


1 do. 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 247 

who holds the falcon ; and when he brings the game to 
the preience, he has a further donation of a twentieth 
part of the whole. If a falcon is fent in a prefent. to 
his majefty, the koflibeghy and the mulhrefT receive as 
follows : 

Names of the Birds. Kofhbeghy's Fee. Mulhreff's Fee. 

Baz, — — if — i rupee 

Surah, — — 1 chern, 1 chern 

Bameh, — • — do. 1 afhet 

Chergh, lacheen, chcrgoleh ] fl < d „ 

kheleh, or berry butcheh, J ' * 

A chippuck, — 1 defieh, 1 fuky. 

In the royal aviary there are never lefs than twenty 
bazees, and the like number of fhaheens, thirty jurahs, 
one hundred N bafhehs ; behrehs and cherghs, twenty 
each ; luckers and fhikras, twelve each ; but it is im- 
pofiible to fay how many more there may be. 

THE MANNER OF CATCHING WATER-FOWL. 

This is done after fcveral ways ; but the mod cu- 
rious is the following : They make an artificial bird 
with the fkin and feathers of a water-fowl, the body qf 
which is holiovv, fo that a man may put his head into 
it ; and two apertures are made for him to fee through : 
The man having put his head therein, (lands in the 
water up to his neck, and, getting among the birds, 
pulls them very dexteroufly under the water by the 
legs ; but fometimes they are cunning enough to 
efcape. In Cafhmeer they teach a hawk to feize the 
birds whilft fwimming, and to bring them to the man, 
who attends in a little boat : thofe that are too large 
for the hawk to carry, be fits upon till the boat comes 
to him. 

* 

R 4 THE 



%4% AYEEN AKBERY. I»ART II. 



THE MANNER OF CATCHING PARTRIDGES. 

This is alfo done after various ways ; but the fol* 
lowing is the moft extraordinary : Tame partridges are 
taught, at the ringing of a little bell, to fight with 
wild ones ; during which the fowler throws a net over 
them. They are alfo put in a cage, which is hung 
round with fnares of horfe-hair, and, upon a fignal 
given them by the fowler, they call the wild ones to 
them, who are taken in the fnares. 

THE MANNER OF CATCHING THE BOODENEH. 

In the night they take an earthen vefTel with a nar- 
row neck, and, blowing into it, make a noife like an 
owl ,* the boodenehs, frightened by the noife, afTemble 
together, when another man fets fire to fome draw, the 
light of which dazzles their eyes ; then the fowlers take 
them one by one, and put them in a cage, or elfe throw 
a net over them. 

THE MANNER OF TAKING THE LUCKER. 

This bird is about the fize of the chergh, but in 
plumage refembles the jurah. They fix fnares about 
his body, and nil his claws with feathers ; when the 
other birds of prey, thinking he has caught fome game, 
come to feize it from him, and, being entangled in the 
fnares, they ftruggle and come tumbling together to 
the ground. 

THE MANNER OF CATCHING THE GHOWGHIEY. 

They fatten together upon a crofs-rtick a ghowghiey 
and an owl, furrounding them with fnares ; both the 
birds being Tightened, fe-t up a noife, and the wild 
owls ana' ghowghies coming to their affiftance, ai;e taken 
in the fnares. 

It 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 249 

It would nm me into prolixity to defcribe all the 
different methods of hunting and fowling j I (hall 
therefore pafs on to another i'ubject. 

OF GAMES. 

His majefty, who is an excellent judge of mankind, 
ufes thefe fports as a latent means of difcovering their 
merits. They are of various kinds, of which a few 
particulars (hall here be given. 

THE GAME OF CHOWGAN. 

Thofe who confult only appearances confider this 
merely as a piece of diverfion ; but the wife, reflecting 
upon the great exertions that it requires, regard it as 
the touchftone of a man's ftrength and courage, and 
efteem it an excellent method of exercifing and training 
for action both the man and his horfe. When his 
majefty enters the lifts at this game, he pitches upon a 
fit perfon to be his adverfary, and ten others are felected, 
and then divided into pairs by the caft of the die. 
Each couple play together for twenty-five minutes con- 
tinuance. This game is played after feveral ways. 
Firft, one of the parties places the ball in the hollow of 
his bat, and trundles it gently towards the chal or pit. 
This manner of ejecting the ball is called in the Hin- 
dovee language rowl. Then the adverfary, with great 
fkill and activity, catches up the ball in his bat, and 
flings it forcibly away before the other caa come up 
with him. This found motion is called in the Hin- 
dovee language beyleh. It is performed feveral ways, 
either by throwing the ball towards the right or to the 
left ; and the other frequently matches it from between 
his horfe's legs or from under his belly ; and fometimes 
when it comes in front, he catches it upon the fpike of 
of his bat. His majefty performs all thefe feats with 
great addrefs, frequently catching the ball in the air. 

When 



1$0 AYEEN AKEERY. PART II* 

When the ball is flung into the pit, a kettle-drum is 
beat to apprize every one of the game being concluded. 
In order to increafe the ardour of the combatants, the 
players lay bets upon the game. Whoever throws the 
ball into the pit wins the game. Iftheballis caught 
on the fpike of the bat, it is called a forced game ; and 
when one is going to catch the ball upon the fpike, all 
the others crowd about him, driving who fhall carry it 
off; and in this conteft sftonifhing feats of dexterity are 
exhibited. His majefty is fo dexterous, that he will 
catch the ball upon the fpike in a dark night. For 
playing at night they ufe balls of pakfs ; which wood 
burns for a confiderable time, and is not heavy. The 
ends of the bats are ornamented with rings of gold and 

o o 

fiver, and whenever they break off, whoever can catch, 
them has them. 



THE MANNER OF TRAINING PIGEONS. 

His majeily is very fond of this amufement, and has 
brought pigeons into high efteem. The monarchs of 
Iran and Turan have Cent him fome very rare kinds; 
and the merchants alfo bring capital collections. A 
very fine green pigeon, named meheneh, that belonged 
to Kookultafh Khan, having fallen into his majefty's 
hands, became the chief of the royal pigeons, and from 
him defcended afhky, pereezad, almas, and lhahowdee, 
who were the progenitors of the choiceft pigeons in the 
world. The pigeon-houfes of Omar Sheikh Mirza 
and Sultan Huflein Mirza, are now forgotten; and 
iuch improvements have been made in the art of train- 
ing pigeons, as aftoniih the pigeon- trainers of Iran and 
Turan. His majefty, by eroding the breeds, which 
method was never pradlifed before, has improved them 
aitonifhingly. The hen generally lays her eggs from 
twelve to twenty days after coupling ; but fome who are 

weak 



T>ART II. AYEEN AKEERY. 2$l 

weak and fickly couple in the month of Mehr *, and do 
not depofit their eggs before Ferverdeen -f. The cock 
fits upon the eggs in the day-time, and the hen during 
the night. In winter they incubate twenty days, or if the 
weather be remarkably temperate, leventeen or eighteen 
days. For the firfr. fix days the pigeons feed their 
young with fuleh, which is grain macerated in their 
crops till it almoli refembles water ; from that period 
till the expiration of a month, they feed them from their 
crops with grain half digefted ; after which they arc 
themfelves able to eat raw grain, when they are taken 
away from their clams and given to the pigeon-trainers. 
At firft the triiners give them only a fourth of their 
allowance of grain, till they have taken forty flights ; 
then they are taught to make circular flights, and to 
tumble in the air. In the royal pigeon-huufes each 
pigeon before he receives his full allowance of grain, 
performs fifteen circular flights and feventy tumbles; and 
they are alfo taught to do this, and to fly to a great height 
in the night. On a journey or a march they fly the 
whole way, bearers carrying their houfes; and when 
the birds are fatigued they refl themfelves for a fliort 
time, and then purfue their flight. There are never 
lefs than twenty thoufand pigeons with the court, out 
of which live hundred are khafeh. Formerly, they did 
not know how to judge of pigeons by twifting their 
feet, or flitting their eye-lids, or opening their noftrils ; 
but his majefty has difcovered thefe and other infallible 
criterions. He has appointed feparate fervants to this 
department, and has fixed the prices of pigeons after 
nine rates. 

* September. f March. 

CLASSES. 



25 2 AY.EEN AKBERY. PART II. 

CLASSES. 

Prices per Pair. 
Oafs i has no determinate price. 

2 — — 3 rupees 

3 — — 2| 

4 — 2 

5 — ~ i£ 

6 — — i 

7 — — I 



8 



— - 3 afhets. 



When the pigeons are brought to be reviewed by his 
majefty, they begin with the ftock of meheneh j then 
follow the afhky, which, although they be alfo of the 
offspring of meheneh, are conlidered as a diftinct fpecies. 
Next, come thofe called charjelhee, being of the ftock 
of a pigeon that belonged to Hajee Aly of Samarcand, 
which coupled with an Oodee hen. After thefe, they 
are brought in tribes, according to their number or 
time of being bred. The following are the names of 
the colours of the khafeh pigeons : Zurreen, emera, 
zomiera, cheenee, nuftee, fhefekee, oodee, furmaiy, 
kilhmifhee, hulvvaiy, fundely, jiggery, nebaty, doghee, 
ufhkee, hullanee, neluferree, kooreh, azruk, atcfhee, 
fliuftaloo, gul gugger, kagheezee, aguree, mohrekee, 
and khezree. There are alfo many other beautiful 
pigeons, which, although they neither wheel nor tumble 
in the air, yet perform many pleafing tricks. Amongft 
them are the following : The kovvkh, which feems to 
fay the word yakroo — the luckeh, whofe cooing is very 
agreeable, and he carries his head with aftonifhing 
pride and ftatelinefs. — the lovvtun, who, upon being 
fhaken and then put upon the ground, jumps about 
with ftrange convulfive motions — the kchrnee, who has 
fuch amazing affection for its hen, that when he has flown 
out of fight, if (he is expofed in a cage, he inftantly 

drops 



PART II. AYEEN AKBEP.Y. 253 

drops down upon it. They defcend either with both 
wings fpread, or with one open, or elie with both fhur. 
The ruhteh is a pigeon famous for carrying letters; 
but any pigeon may be taught to do this. The nefh- 
waree afcends in the air till he is out of fight, and 
remains fo for a day or two, after which he alights on 
the ground. There are alfo many other kinds that are 
valuable only on account of their beauty ; fuch as the 
merazee, the (hufhtree, the fhafhenu, the jougeeah, the 
rezchdehn, the muggefTee, the komeree, and the gow- 
lah. This lad is a wild pigeon, of whom if a few are 
taken, they are fpecdily joined by a thoufand others of 
their kind. There are people who obtain a livelihood 
by fending thefe pigeons to feed abroad and making 
them vomit up the grain, by giving them water flrongly 
impregnated with fait. A pigeon is faid to live to the 
age of thirty years. One hundred flying pigeons re- 
quire for their daily allowance four feers of arzen. The 
others are fed with a mixture of the feven following 
grains, viz. rice, fplit vetches, moung, arzen, korer, 
lehdereh, and jewar. 

The fervants of this department are on the rolls of the 
army, and receive their pay accordingly. A foot- 
foldier has from two rupees to fixty dams per menfenu 

THE GAME OF CHOWPER. 

This is a very ancient Hindoftany game. There are 
fixteen pieces of one form, but of four different colours, 
and they all move in the fame direction. Frequently 
four people fit down together at this game, each having 
his refpective adverfary, and playing with four pieces 
of the fame colour. There are three dice, having on 
one fide one fpot, on another two, on the third five, and 
on the fourth fide fix fpots. 

The 



254 AYEEN AKBERY. PART IT, 

The table is compofed of two parallelograms, inter- 
jecting each other at right angles ; and each of the four 
fides of this crofs is divided into twenty-four equal 
parts, a fquare fpace being left in the centre of the 
whole, as is (hewn in the following figure. 



L 
l- 






D 



Each player places a piece on the fixth, and another 
on the feventh fquare of the middle line of the divifion 
which fronts him; and one piece on the feventh, and 
another on the eighth fquare of the lower line of the 
divifion on his right. The pieces begin moving to the 
right, and proceed all round the table on the outer 
line till they come to the middle line again. When 
the pieces are brought round to the fixth and feventh 
fquares of the middle line, it is called a fure game, and 
from that fituation he muft throw the number that will 

exactly 



PART II. AYEEN AKBERY. 255 

exa&ly carry his pieces into the fpace in the centre, 
which concludes the game. 



CHUNDEL MTJNDEL. 

This game was invented by his majefty. The table 
refembles that for chovvper, only that it is circular, and 
has fixteen fides for as many people to play at. There 
are four dice, and the pieces move the fame as in the 
game of chowper. Whoever gets his pieces up firft, is 
paid by the other fifteen players, and the next by four- 
teen, and fo on till the laft, who pays every one. 



CARDS. 

This is a well-known game. At firft the pack con- 
fided of twelve kings, with eleven cards dependent 
upon each, in the following order : — 

1 ft, Afhweput, the king of the horfes. He is painted 
on horfeback, like the king of Dehly, with the emitter, 
the alum, and other enfigns of royalty. On another card 
is his vezeer mounted on horfeback ; and the other 
cards of this fuit have representations of horfes, from 
one to ten each. 2d, Gujput, the king of the ele- 
phants, is mounted on an elephant, like the king of 
OrifTa. His vezeer is alfo on an elephant, and on the 
ten other cards are elephants. 3d, Nurput, the king 
of men. Like the king of Beijahpoor, he is feated on 
a throne, and has different kinds of foldiers attending 
him on foot. The vezeer is feated on a fendely (or 
chair) ; and the ten other cards have foot-foldiers, from 
one to ten each. 4th, Gurhpnt, the king of the caftles. 
tie is fitting on a throne on the top of a caftle ; his 
vezeer on a fendely ; and the other cards have caftles. 
5th, Dehnput, the king of the treafures. Under his 
throne are bags of gold and filver coins. His vezeer is 

feated 



2$6 AYEEN AKBERY. PART II. 

feated on a fendely in like manner ; and on the other 
ten cards are vafes of gold and filver. 6th, Dulphut, 
the king of the warriors. He is feated on his throne 
clad in armour, and furrounded by foldiers in coats of 
mail. His vezeer is in armour on a fendely ; and the 
other ten cards have men in armour. 7th, Newaput, 
the king of the boats. He is feated on a throne in a 
boat ; his vezeer in like manner on a fendely j and the 
ten other cards have figures of boats. 8th, Typut is 
the figure of a queen feated on a throne, and furrounded 
by her handmaids. Her vezeerefs is on a fendely ; and 
the other cards have the figures of women. 9th, Surput, 
the king of the dewtahs (or celeflials) whom they call 
Inder, feated on a throne. His vezeer on a fendely j 
and on the ten other cards are figures of dewtahs. 
10th, AiTurput, the king of the genii, is reprefented by 
Solomon the fon of David, feated on a throne. The 
vezeer is on a fendely ; and on the other ten cards are 
figures of genii. nth, Bunput, king of the wild 
beafts, is the figure of a lion, with other beads of prey. 
His vezeer is reprefented by a tiger ; and on the other 
ten cards are different kinds of wild beafts. 1 2th, Input, 
the king of the fnakes, is a large make riding upon a 
dragon. The vezeer is a fnake mounted on another of 
its kind ; and on the other ten cards are fnakes. Of 
thefe twelve fuits the firft fix are called beefhbur, and 
the laft fix kumbur. His majefly has made confiderable 
alterations and improvements in this game. The pack 
of cards now confifts of eight fuits. ift, The king of 
the gold coins is depicted in fuch a manner, that he 
feems to be beftowing the money upon thofe who ftand 
round the throne. His vezeer is feated on a fendely 
looking at the treafure; and on the other ten cards are 
reprefented the different officers of the mint. 2d, The 
king of the berats (or grants) is feated on a throne, 
with his attendants prefenting grants of different kinds 
for his ratification. The vezeer is feated on a fendely 
with a regifter-book before him; and on the other ten 

cards 



PART II. AYEEN AKEERY. 257 

cards are the officers who are employed in draw- 
ing out thefe papers. 3d, The king of the manu- 
factures is looking at a katafs-ox loaded with raw iilk 
and filken fluffs. The vezeer, on a fendely, is ex- 
amining what goods are in (lore ; and on the other ten 
cards are different animals loaded with goods. 4th, The 
king of the chung, or harp, is liltening to a concert. 
The vezeer, on a fendely, is trying the abilities of fome 
muficians ; and on the other ten cards are different kinds 
of mufical performers. 5th, The king of the filver 
coins is giving away rupees and other pieces of filver. 
The vezeer, on a fendely, is examining the coins ; and 
on the other ten cards are the officers employed in the 
filver coinage. 6th, The king of the fwords is trying 
the temper of a blade. His vezeer is examining the 
arfenalj and on the other ten cards are different artificers 
employed in working iron. 7th, The king of the 
diadems is beftowing a crown. His vezeer is preparing 
a crown ; and on the other ten cards are taylors, and 
fuch like. 8th, The king of the Haves is mounted on 
an elephant. His vezeer is in a chariot ; and on the 
other ten cards are different kinds of ilaves, fome fitting, 
others falling dovvn, fome drunk, and others fober. 
Thefe, with the ordinary kinds of cards, chefs, and 
other delightful games, fcrve to recreate the paradifical 
aflembly. 



END OF THE SECOND PART, 



Vol. I. 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



PART III. 



C0NTAINIX6 



REGULATIONS FOR THE REVENUE 
DEPARTMENT. 



OF yERAS. 

JjAVING given a fummary account of his majefty's 
new arrangements in the houiehold, and in the military 
department, I (hall now fay fomething of the manage- 
ment of the revenues, beginning with aeras, all public 
tranfa&ions being regulated thereby. 

Every nation forms an sera from fome memorable 
event; fuch as a change in religion ; the acceffion of one 
family to the throne upon the extinction or expulfion of 
another; a great earthquake, or a flood. But as a 
multiplicity of seras occafions confufion in public trans- 
actions, his majefty in the twenty-ninth year of his 
reign, ordered that all old dates fhould be difcontinued, 
and fubftituted a new one in their ftead, as will be 
hereafter particularly explained. 

Si By 



l6o AVEEN AKBERY. PART Iir. 

By the joint exertions of the ancient philofophers, 
wonderful obfervatories have been erected, from whence, 
with the affiftance of aftrcnomical initruments, they 
afcertained the Situations and motions of the heavenly 
bodies, and determined the latitudes and longitudes of 
places, with many other ufeful difcoveries. But theie 
grand objects cannot be obtained iblely by means of the 
wealth of individuals, they require alfo the patronage 
and encouragement of monarchs, and moreover de- 
mand thirty years obfervation to be informed of the 
revolutions of the planets. So that the more time and 
the greater pains are beftowed upon th-jfe fcudies, the 
more effectually will they be brought to perfection. 
Numbers, by their fkilland afiiduity in theie refearches, 
have Jeft their names to pofteiiry, 

Down to this prefent year, which is the fortieth of the 
reign, the following fpaces of time have elapfed from 
the periods in which the mod famous obfervatories 
were conftructed. 



j 1769 



OBSERVATORIES. 

Year? fincc. 

Thofe of Archimedes, Araftarcus, and Aberk- 

hus, in Egypt, — - — ■ — 

That of Ptolemy in Alexandria, — ■ 1410 

That of the Khalif Mamoon in Baghdad, 79S 

That of Syed Ben Aly ? and Khaled Ben Ab- "I . 

dulmalek, at Pamafcus, — — J 

That of Nebatee in Raca, — — 654 

That of Naifereddeen Toufee, which was 1 , 

erected in Maragha, — — J ° 

That of Mirza. Ulugh Beg in Sumerkund, 1 , 

and which is efleemed the beft of all, J " 

There are different aftronomical tables, to the num- 
ber of two hundred and upwards. Whatever particular 

motions 



frART IU. JVYEEN AKBERY. z6l 

motions happen to the heavenly bodies in thecourfe of 
a year, being collected toother, are called an almanac. 
The almanac contains the diir:rvi progreffion of the 
planets from the time of the lun's enteiing the fgn 
Aries till his return to that point of the zodiac. The 
Hindoos call fuch an ' .. ic .puitereh. 

The fages of Hindofian fay, that the fcience of 
aftronomy is from divine revelation; for that when a 
man is endowed with purity and fanctity of character, he 
js made acquainted with the various forms of cxiftence 
in the iupcrior and in the lower regions, and becomes 
privy to whatever has happened or that will come to 
pals ; and all thefe mylteries are written in a book called 
Sedhant. They have at this day nine fuch books : 
ill, Brahma Sedhant, dictated by Brahma. 2d, Soorej 
Sedhant, dictated by the fun. 3d, Soam Sedhant, 
dictated by the moon. 4th, Berifput Sedhant, dictated 
by the planet Jupiter. And the revelation of thefe 
four is placed at an immenfe diftance of time. The 
other rive they -confider as having been dictated by 
mortals. 5th, Gurg Sedhant. 6th, Narud Sedhant, 
7th, Parafer Sedhant. 8th, Pooiult Setlhant, 9th, Bee- 
fhilhteh Sedhant. 

AH nations compute time by clays and n"gh:s. The 
Natural day in Turan and in Lvopc, is commuted from 
noon to noon. In China and Chinefe Tartary, they 
reckon it from midnight to midnight 5 but the generality 
of people reckon from funfet to funfet. According to 
the Hindoo philofophers, the natural day is thus com- 
puted. In Jumkote, which they make to be the 
eattern extremity of the globe, from funrife to fy.nrife-— 
in Roomak, the weftern extremity, from funfet to fun- 
fet — in Lunka, the fouthern extremity, from midnigt : 
to midnight; and in Dchly they yjfo ~crkc:. t 
manner — in SuddapocT, the northern 
noon to noon. The - :on(i&s of a c< 

rev 



l6z AYEEN AKSERY. PART lit' 

revolution of the fun round the earth, without making 
any allowance for its retrograde motion. Summarily, 
all nations, for the eafe of calculation, reckon by artifi- 
cial days, which they divide into equal parts. In the 
aftronomical tables of Nebatee, the difference between 
a natural and an artificial day is made to be fifty-nine 
minutes, eight feconds, eight thirds, and forty-fix 
fourths. The Ilkhanian tables make the differ- 
ence the fame in the minutes and feconds, but fay 
nineteen thirds, forty-four fourths, two- fifths, and 
thirty-feven fixths. UlughBegand Naffereddeen agree 
with Ilkhan in minutes, feconds, and thirds, but make 
forty-feven fourths, and forty-three fifths. In Ptolemy's 
tables, and in his Almageftum, the minutes and feconds 
are the fame as thofe ; but he fays feventeen thirds, 
twelve fifths, and thirty-one fixths. Thefe difagree- 
ments muft have arifen from the difference of fkill, or 
the defects of inflruments. 

The year and the feafons are computed from the 
fun's revolution round the zodiac. From his quitting 
one paint till his return to the fame again, is a year. The 
time that he remains in one fign is called a folar month. 
The time that the moon takes in going from one con- 
junction with the fun to another, or from one oppofition 
to another, or fuch like, is called a lunar month. 
Twelve monthly revolutions of the moon being nearly 
equal to one annual revolution of the fun, twelve lunar 
months -are called a lunar year. Thus both the year 
and month are folar and lunar, natural and artificial. 

The natural year and month, are when the revolution 
is complete ; and the artificial is when the computation 
is made in days, and not in revolutions. 

The Hindovee aflronomers divide the year into four 
parts, allotting each for a particular purpofe. 

Having 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 25? 

Having now given a general idea of years, months, 
and days, I ihall proceed to fay fomething of ancient 
seras. 



THE ALRA OF THE HINDOOS. 

The epocha of this sera is the creation of Brahma, 
and every one of his days is the commencement of a 
new sera. Every one of his days confifts of fourteen 
munoos, or fons of his will, who are his coadjutors in 
the works of creation. Every munoo comprifes feventy 
kulebs, each containing four jowgs, or forty-three lacks 
and twenty thoufand years. On this, which is the firft 
day of the fifty-firft year of the age of Brahma, there 
have been fix munoos ; and of the leventh munoo there 
have elapled twenty-feven kulebs, and three jow<*s of 
the twenty-eighth kuleb, and four thoufand fieven 
hundred years of the fourth jowg. 

tn the beginning of the fourth, or prefent jowg, 
Rajah Joodilnter was univerfal monarch, and the com- 
mencement of his reign became the epocha of an sera, 
of which to this time (being the fortieth year of the 
reign) there have elapled 4696 years. Aft?r him 
Bickermajeet reckoned from his own acceffion to the 
throne, and reigned 135 years. Of this sera there have 
clapfed 1652 years. It is faid, that a youth named 
Salbahin made war upon Bickermajeet, and, after 
having taken him prifoner in battle, afked him what 
boon he had to requeft ? Bickermajeet anfwered, <c My 
" only defire is, :hat my aefa may not l>2 difcontinued 
" in public tranlactions." Salbahin granted his re- 
queft, but at the fame time made ufe of another sera 
Irom his own acceffion. Of the aera of Salbahin there 
have elapfed 15 17 years. The Hindoos believe that 
this sera will continue in ufe for the fpace of 18000 
years, after which they fay that Rajah Bidjeeabundun 

S4 will 



264 AYEEN AKBERY. PART IIT, 

will introduce a new sera from his own acceffion to the 
throne, which will laft 10000 years. Then Nake Arjen 
will fit on the throne and eftablifh another sera, which 
will continue for four lacks of years. And laftly, Kal- 
kec Otar will inftitute an sera, which will remain in ufe 
for 821 years. And all the fix seras now mentioned, 
excepting that of Bickermajeet, are metaphorically 
called by them Saka, and held in the greateft veneration. 
Befides thefe fix, there are many others, including that 
of Bickermajeet, and which they call Sumbut. The 
sera of Bickermajeet was changed from faka into fum- 
but upon the invafion of Salbahin. After the expira- 
tion of thefe fix asras the fut jowg will commence, and 
give rife to a new sera. The Hindoo aftronomers reckon 
the months and years after four kinds : ill, Soormafs, 
which is the time that the fun is in one fign of the 
zodiac, and this year confifls of 365 days fifteen 
ghurries thirty puis and twenty-two bepuls and a half. 
2d, Chundermafs, which is computed from Purwa to 
Amavus, and its year confifts of 354 days twenty -two 
ghurries and one pul. They reckon the commence- 
ment of the year from the fun's entering the fign Aries. 
This month confifts of thirty fiffo, each containing 
twelve degrees of the moon's circuit, reckoning from her 
conjunction with the fun ; and according to the quicknefs 
orilownefsof the moon's progrefs, the tifhs differ in the 
number of ghurries ; but no tlfh is of more than fixty- 
five ghurries, nor lefs than fifty-four ghurries. The 
firft tith is called Purwa— the fecond Dooj — the third 
Teej — the fourth Chowt'h — the fifth Funchomee — the 
fixth Chut'h — the feventh Sutmeen — the eighth Afli- 
tomeen — the ninth Nowmeen — the tenth Dufmeen — 
the eleventh EkadulTy — the twelfth DuadufTy — the thir- 
teenth Teroduify — the fourteenth Chowdufs — the fif- 
. teenth Pooran Maflee (or full moon) ; and from the 
fixteenth to the twenty-ninth, the fame names are ufed, 
excepting for the thirtieth, which is called Amavus. 
The firft half of this month is called Shookulputch, 

and 



TART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 265 

and the laft half Kifhenputch ; and they begin the 
month from Kiflienputch. In mod of their almanacs 
the year is folar, and the months lunar. 

The artificial lunar year is lefs than the folar by tea 
days fifty-three ghurries twenty-nine puis and two bepuls 
and a half; and this difference in the courfe of two 
folar years eight months and fifteen days, amounts to 
one month. And according to the calculations in the 
ephemerifes, this difference happens in the courfe of 
three years, or in two years and one month. After the 
firft method of calculation, in every twelve months 
there is this excels j and in the year when it amounts to 
one month, they reckon one month twice. According 
to the fecond way, the folar month, wherein there arc 
two conjunctions of the fun and moon, is reckoned 
twice ; and this double calculation never happens but 
from Chyte to Kenwar or AlTin. This intercalary- 
month the aftronomers call Adhick Mafs, and the 
vulgar Lound. The third kind of month is that which 
they call Sawon Mafs. This they begin at any day 
they pleafe, and make the months to confifl of thirty 
days each, or the year of 360 days. The fourth kind, 
Ncchutter Mafs, is reckoned from the moon's quitting 
any maniion till her return to it again. This month 
confiits of twenty-feven days, and the year of 324 days. 

The Hindoos reckon fix feafons, each of which they 
call Rittoo. The firft, called BuiTunt, is the time that 
the fun is in the figns Pifces and Aries ; and this is the 
temperate fealon. Second, Gercykhum, whilft the fun 
is in the figns Taurus and Gemini, is the hot feafon. 
The third, Beekha, whilft the fun is in Cancer and Leo, 
is the rainy feafon. The fourth, Surd, when the fun 
is in Virgo and Libra, which is the end of the rains, 
and the co.nmencement of the winter. The fifth, 
Keymunt, when the fun is in Scorpio and Sagittarius, 
which is the winter. The forth, Shifhrn, when the fun 

is 



266 AYEEN AKBERY. PART lit. 

is in Capricornius and Aquarius, which is the feafon 
between winter and fpring. They alfo divide the year 
into three parts, which they name Kail, beginning with 
the month of Phagun. The four hot months they call 
Dhopkall ; the four rainy months Berkhakall j and the 
four cold months Seetkall ; and throughout Hindoftan 
they do not reckon more than three feafons of the year. 
Thus,Pifces, Aries, Taurus, and Gemini are the fummerj 
Cancer, Leo, Virgo, and Libra, are the rains ; Scorpio, 
Sagittarius, Capricornius, and Aquarius, are the winter. 

They alfo divide the folar year into two parts, the 
firft commencing with Aries and ending with Virgo ; 
and this half they call Ootergole, or the fun's courfe 
to the north of the equinoctial. The other half com- 
mences with Libra and ends with Pifces, and is called 
Decangole, or the fun's courfe to the fouth of the 
equino&ial. — Alfo, from the firft of Capricorn to the 
end of Gemini they call Ooterayin, or the fun's northern 
declination ; and from the commencement of Cancer 
to the end of Sagittarius, Dutchenayin, or the fun's 
fouthern declination. And according to their belief, 
many affairs are particularly dependent on thefe two 
divifions; and to die in the firft is efteemed very 
fortunate. 

They divide the day and night into fixty equal parts, 
each of which they call Ghuttee, or more commonly 
Ghurry. Each ghurry is fubdivided into fixty puis, and 
each pul confifts of fixty narys, which are fometimes 
called bepul. The nary contains fix refpirations of a 
man of a temperate habit, who is in perfect health and 
at reft. They fay that a man of a temperate habit in 
full -health, refpires 360 times in the fpace of a ghurry, 
or 21600 times in the courfe of a day and night, The 
breath which is refpired they call Sowafs, and that which 
is infpired Purfowafs ; and collectively they are called 
Purran. Six purrans make one pul, and fixty puis 

are 



PART ITT. AYEEN AKEERY. 267 

arc an aftronomical ghurry, or fat (hour) which is die 
twenty-fourth part of a day and night. One of theis 
ghurries is equal to two and a half of the ordinary 
ghurries before defcribed. They likewife divide the 
day and night into four equal parts, which they call 
f'hars. 

THE KATHAIN MR A. 

They reckon from the creation of the world, which 
they place at the diftance of 8884 vuns and fixty years, 
A vim conlifts of 10000 years; and they believe that 
the world will drift for the fpace of 300,000 vuns. 
Their year is a natural folar one, and their months 
natural lunar. They begin their year from the fun's 
entering the fifteenth degree of Aquarius ; but Moh- 
yeddeen Meghreby fays, they reckon from the fix- 
teenth degree ; and others make it to be the eighteenth 
degree. 

They divide the day and night into twelve chaghs, 
each of which is fubdivided into eight khos, every one 
of which has a different name. They alio divide the 
day and night into looco feneks. 

They have three cycles for their months and years, 
viz. Shangvun, joongvun, and khavun, each cofbi- 
prifing fixtv years ; and the years that compofe the- 
cycle bear its name, They alio make ufe of cycles of 
ten and twelve. The firlt is applied to years and days, 
and the other to months and the fubdivilion of days ; 
and by compounding thefe cycles after a multiplicity of 
calculations, they form the cycle of fixty years. 

THE TURKISH £RA, CALLED ALSO IGHUR, ;, 

Is like that of khatai, excepting that this has only the 
cycle of twelve. They reckon their years and days 

after 



£68 AYEEN AKBERT. PART III, 

after the fame manner. In fome aftronomical tables 
it is aflerted, that they alfo make ufe of the cycle of 
ten. 

It is not known from what event they commence 
their asra. Abu Rihan fays, that the Turks add nine 
to the common years of the Syromacedonian sera, and 
dividing the amount by twelve, the remainder (hews 
the year of the cycle, commencing with the moufe, and 
reckoning on to the animal of that number. How- 
ever, upon trial, this will be found to be erroneous by 
one year, therefore it feems that the reckoning mould 
-commence with the ox. Although we are ignorant of 
the commencement of this sera, yet we know fufficient 
to determine the cycle and year, compared with the 
Syromacedonian <era ; and if feven be added to the 
common years of the Mulliky sera, and the amount 
■divided by twelve, whatever is the remainder will be 
the number of the year, reckoning from the moufe. 

Names of the tivehe Years that form the Cycle, 

lft, Sitchkan, the moufe. 2d, Oud, the ox, 
3d, Pars, the tiger. 4th, Tewifti Kan, the hare. 
5th, Lowey, the crocodile. 6th, llan, the fnake. 
7th, Yoont, thehorfe. 8th, Ku, the iheep. 9th, Beetch, 
the monkey. 10th, Tekhaka, the cock. 11th, Eyr, 
the dog. 1 2th, Tunkooz, the hog. At the end o£ 
each of thefe names they add the word */, which 
fignifies year. 

THE ASTROLOGICAL ./ERA. 

Aftrologers reckon this from the commencement of 
the world, at which time they fay all the planets were in 
ihe firft fign of Aries. The year is folar ; and by their 
calculation there have elapfed 104,696 years. 

THE 



?ART III, AYEIN AK.BSRY. 2^^ 

THE i£RA OF ADAM 

Commences with his creation. The years are folar, 
jmd the months lunar. According to the Ilkhanian* 
and fome other agronomical tables, there have elapfed 
of this aera 5353 folar years. Some hiftorians fay 6346 
folar years ; others make it 6938 ; and others again lay, 
6920 folar years, and from the learned amongft the 
Chrillians, 1 have heard that it is 6793 years. 

THE JEWISH iERA 

Commenced from the creation of the world. The 
years are natural folar, and the months artificial lunar. 
They reckon their months and days like the Arabians. 
Their year is of two kinds, fimple, in which there is no 
intercalation, and abur, which is intercalary. Like the 
Jrlindoos, they intercalate a month every three years. 

THE JF.RA OF THE FLOOD 

Is computed from that calamity. The years are 
natural folar, and the months natural lunar. The year 
commences when the fun enters the fign Aries. Abul 
Mather of Balkh, having calculated the regreflion of 
the planets, places the commencement of this sera at the 
diitance of 4696 years. 

THE JERA OF EUK HTNASSER, OR NEBUCHAD- 
NEZZAR. 

This prince inltttuted an ffira from the commence- 
ment of his reign. It is an artificial folar year of 365 
days. The twelve months have thirty days each, 
which making only 360 days, five days are added at the 
end of the year. Ptolemy, in his Almageltum, cal- 
culating from the revolutions of the planets, makes this 
ara to have commenced 2341 years fince, 

THE 



270 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III* 



THE iERA OF ALEXANDER 

Begins from the death of that monarch. The year 
4nd month are artificial folar. According to Tawoon 
of Alexandria, and Ptolemy, in his Almageflum, there 
have elapfed of this period 191 7 years. 



THE COPTIC MA. 



It begins from the creation. Nabbatty fays it is an 
artificial folar year of 395 days. In the Zeetch Sul- 



.. intercalary ~ 
£x months before thofe of the Syromacedonians. 



THE SYROMACEDONIAN iERA. 

The years and months are artificial folar, of 365 days 
tod fix hours exactly ; and in fome agronomical tables 
the exccfs is made- to be fomething lefs than fix hours. 
Thus, Ptolemy fays it is lefs by fourteen minutes and 
forty-eight feconds. llkhan makes the minutes the 
fame as Ptolemy, but fays thirty-two feconds and thirty 
thirds. According to the Khathain calculation, the 
minutes are the fame, but thiny-fix feconds and fifty- 
feven thirds. Ulugh Beg agrees in minutes, but fays 
t:urty-three feconds. Mohyeddeen Meghreby calcu- 
lates twelves minutes. Nabatty fays thirteen minutes 
and thirty-fix feconds. Mohyeddeen adds, that by 
feme of the Syromacedonian calculations it is made 
to be fomething more ; and according to others amongfl 
them, fomething lefs than fix hours ; fo that a quarter 
of a day is about the medium. Others affert that the 
Syromacedonian obfervations have determined it to be 
exactly fix hours. Confequently it is a natural folar 
year, although Mulla Aly Kowfhekee makes a folar 

yea? 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 271 

year to be fomething lefs than 365 days fix hours. This 
zera begins from the death of Alexander, although it 
was not brought into ufe till twelve years after that 
event. Others fay that he ettablimed this sera in the 
feventh year of his reign, when he left Macedonia to 
make conquefts. But, according to Mohyeddeen 
Meghreby, this acra commenced with the reign of 
Seleuctis, who founded the city of Antioch. Both the 
Jews and Syrians make ufe of this sera. They fay, 
that when Alexander, the fon of Philip, marched from 
(Greece to fubdue the Perfian empire, he came to 
Jerufalcm j when, affembling together the principal 
Jews of Syria, he commanded them to difcontinue the 
Mofaical sera, and to compute from the commencement 
pf his reign. They anfwering, faid, " Our forefathers 
" never continued any sera for above a thoufand years ; 
" and, behold, this year will complete fuch a period ; 
" lb that from the next year we will do as thou com- 
" minded us :" and they did accordingly. This 
happened in the twenty-ninth year of ^Alexander's age. 
Some lav that the Syromacedonian year was originally 
Hebrew. Gowfheear, in his Aflronomical Tables, fays, 
that the Syromacedonian and the Syrian year are the 
fame, excepting that they differ in the names of the 
months. The Syrian 3 car begins on the firft day of 
the month Tefhreen-ul-ewwel, which at firft happened 
when die fun was in the fourth degree of Libra, but 
now falls on the fixteenth. The Syromacedonian year 
commences on the firlt of Kanoon-ul-Sany, when the 
{on is near the twentieth degree of Capricorn. Nabatty 
iays this atra began under the reign of Philip, but that 
he named it after his fon, to increafe his fame: and, 
calculating from the regreflion of the planets, he 
j; rl.es 1905 years to have elapled. 



THE 



27* AYEEN AKEERY. TART 1 1 T» 



THE JERA OF AUGUSTUS. 

He was the firfr. of the Caefars * ; and the birrh of 
Jefus Chrift happened under his reign. It began from 
his accefHon to the throne. The year is like the Syro- 
macedonian, and the months are the fame as the Coptic. 
The laft month in the common years has thirty-one 
days, and thirty-five days in the leap-year. Of this 
sra there have elapfed 1623 years. 

THE CHRISTIAN JERA 

Commences from the birth of jefas Chrift. The 
year confifls of 365 days and five hours. Like the 
Syromacedonians, they add one day at the end of every 
four years. They begin reckoning their day from 
midnight. Like the Arabians, they have different 
names for the days of the week, and begin with Sunday. 
Their year commences from the fun entering the fign of 
Capricorn, or, according to others, from the feventh 
degree. 

TnE JERA OF ANTONINUS OF ROME. 

It begins from his acceflion to the throne. The 
years are the fame as the Syromacedonian, and the 
months like the Egyptian. According to Ptolemy's 
calculations of the iituations of the fixed ftars, it ap- 
pears that 1457 years have elapfed of this ara. 

THE ^RA OF CONSTANTINE. 

He was the firil Chriflian emperor ; and this sera 
commences with his reign. The years are Syromace- 

* The PerCap hiftorianS always confound together Julius and 
A'.-^uus. 

donian, 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 273 

donian, and the months Egyptian. This is the J4icth 
year of the Conflantine sera. 

THE JERA OF THE HIJERA. 

The Arabians, before the time of Mahommed, had 
various seras;- fuch as from the building of the Caaba, 
and the commencement of the reign of Omar Ben 
Rebeyaa in Hejaz, where he introduced idolatry : . 
and this sera continued in ufe till the year of the 
elephants ; which incident produced a new one. Every 
tribe of Arabs had its £ra from fome particular event 
that had happened to them. In the time of the pro- 
phet, very little attention was paid to dares, till the 
Hijera ; from which period every year had a different 
name. Thus, the year that he fled from Mecca to 
Medina was called Amul Izwi, the year of permiffion 
(to go from Mecca to Medina). The fecond year, 
Amid Emr, the year of command (to combat the in- 
fidels). When Omar afcended the throne of the Kha- 
lifat, Abu Mufa Afheree, governor of Yemen, made 
the following reprefentation : " I have received your 
M mandate, written in the month of Shaban ; but am 
" not able to difcover the date of the year." The 
khalif afiembled together the learned of all nations, to 
confult them upon the fubjecl.. The Jews recom- 
mended their own sera; and the magi explained the 
Perfian method of computation, called Mahroze. But 
as they both had intercalations, the calculations of 
which would have been found difficult, the sera of the 
Hijera was adopted in preference. According to it, 
the month is reckoned from one new moon to another. 
It never confifts of more than thirty, nor lefs than 
twenty-nine days. It fbmetimes happens, that four 
fucceffive months are of thirty days, and three follow- 
ing months of twenty-nine days each. Aftronomers 
reckon the lunar month after three ways : tft, Natural, 
which is the time the moon takes in going from one 
Vol. I. T appointed 



274 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

appointed afpect with the fun, fuch as a conjunction, 
or an oppofition, till her return to the lame point. 2d, 
Artificial. The motion of the moon varying, and the 
calculating; of the difference being attended with dim- 
culty, they reckon by artificial months. According to 
the tables of Ulugh Beg, the artificial lunar month con- 
fifts of twenty-nine days, twelve hours, and forty-four 
minutes, ^d, In the Ephemeris the rule is, that if the 
excefs is more than half a day, they reckon it as one day. 
Thus, in common years, they make the month of Mo- 
herrem thirty days, and the next month twenty-nine 
days, and fo on alternately. The artificial lunar year 
confifts of 354 days, eight hours, and forty-eight mi- 
nutes ; being lefs than an artificial folar year by ten days, 
twenty hours, and twelve minutes. Mirza Ulugh Beg, 
in his new aftronomical tables, makes 1002 years to 
have elapfed of this aera down to the prefent time. 



THE JERA OF YEZDIJURD, THE SON OF SHERIAR, 
THE SON OF HORMUZ, THE SON OF NOORSHIRVAN. 

It began from the acceflion of Gemlheed to the 
throne of Perfia. Every fucceeding monarch gave his 
own name to it, fo that Yezdijurd only followed the 
example of his predeceffors. The years are like the Sy- 
romacedonian, but they intercalate only once in one 
hundred and twenty years, when they make the year to 
confift of thirteen months. The firft intercalation was 
the month Ferverdeen, which was reckoned twice under 
the fame name. The fccond was Ardebeheft, and fo 
on. Scarcely had Yezdijurd given his name to the 
asra than he was dethroned, and the accounts of interca- 
lations were entirely neglected. 



THE. iERA OF MULLIK SHAH 

Is alfo called Jilalee. Before his time they ufed the 
Perfian sera; but by having neglected to make the in- 
tercalations, 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 275 

tercalations, the year began improperly. By the com- 
mand of Sultan Jilaleddeen Mullik Shah Siljukee, the 
efforts of Omar Kheyam, and ieveral other learned men, 
formed this sera, and made the year to begin from the 
fun's entering the fign Aries. At firft the years and 
months were both natural ; now the month is an artifi- 
cial one of thirty days; and at the end of Isfendiar they 
add five or fix days. Of this period there have elapfed 
five hundred and fifteen years. 

THE KHANEEAN /ERA 

Begins with the rei<m of Ghazan Khan, and is found- 
ed upon the agronomical table of II Khan. The years 
and months are natural folar. Before his time they da- 
ted all public deeds from the Flijera ; but the lunar year 
was in common ufe. This method of computation was 
the occ-afion of much oppreflion, becaufe thirty-one lu- 
nar years are only equal to thirty folar ones; and the 
revenues being demanded in lunar years, whilft the har- 
ve(h kept pace with the fun, the hufbandman fuffered a 
grievous lofs^ Ghazan Khan immortalized his reign for 
juftice, by abolilhing that mode, and introducing this 
sera. The names of the months are the fame as the Tur- 
kifh, with the addition of the word Khanee at the end 
of each. Of this period there have elapfed two hundred 
and ninety-three years. 

THE EMPEROR AKBEr's /ERA, CALLED lLAHEE. 

His majefty had long been defirous of eftablifhing a 
new asra in Hindoftan, in order to remove the perplexity* 
that a variety of dates unavoidably occafion. He dif- 
liked the word Hijera f , but was apprehenfive of offend- 
ing ignorant men, who fuperititiouny imagine that this 
sera and the Mahommedan faith are inleparable - altho' 

• Flight. 

Ta it 



2^6 AYEEK AKBERY. PART III. 

it be evident to the fenfible part of mankind, that dates 
are only of ufe in worldly tranfadtions, and can have no 
connection with religion. But as the world abounds 
with ignorant people, whilft the number of the wife and 
difcerning is but fmall, he delayed carrying his intention 
into execution till the 992d year of the Hijera, when his 
light having (hone upon mankind, and enlarged their 
understandings, he embraced that opportunity for ac- 
complifhing this purpofe. The illuftrious Emeer Futtah 
Ullah Sheerazy corrected the calendar from the agrono- 
mical tables of Ulugh Beg, making this a^ra to begin 
with his majefty's reign ; and contemplating the charac- 
ter of the monarch, named it Tarikh Ilahee (Or the 
mighty ^ra). The years and months are both natural 
folar, without any intercalations. The names of the 
months and days correfpond with the ancient Perfian. 
The months are from twenty-nine to thirty days each. 
There is not any week in the Perfian month, thirty days 
being diftinguifhed by different names ; and in thofe 
months which have thirty-two days, the two laft are 
named Rozo' Shub (day and night); and, in order to 
diftinguifh one from the other, are called firft and fecond. 



A TABLE 



A TABLE OF MONTHS. 









u<. 



c£^ 5 U 






<S&t 



)^>. C_S -^s --» 






Maush. 



vch. i n Iy. 

d y I v. 



Pliagun. 



sis 

Baweh. 

Kheweh. 

Shubweh. 

Shyeweh. 

Sirweh. 



llifll 



[Ojcnj Iy. 



4-^VAN-^ 



(j^I - LU£ 






Bcrmakretch Iy. 

Oowetch Iy. Nifan. 

tch h'. liyer. 
(^1 -gA***-***' 



Ul 



Sukfeerch Iy. 
Bitfcetch Iv. 



<£' 7r 



Alfeetch Iy. 
Hokfabat Iy. 



Sivah. 



JJr* 



Temuz. 



\1>. 



Elul. 



L_>| 



Jj^.1 



tian 






^ 



J .15 



. 



Jty>\ 









u 



Lst 



rui 



Famenoos. 
ifee. 
Fakhoon. 
Faveny. 
Epiefee. 
Mefooree. 



refhrcen I. 

; ^JT ^.-^ 
rcilirccn II. 

Kanoon 1. 

1 II. 

Shebat. 



V C^^sU 



l'he Syro-Macedenij 

Modi lis. 



c^UaJ c> U»» U Lff?P(S ^» U 



The Chriliian 
Months. 



c^ly^ 



January. 






,y 



\zar. 



Nifan. 



Iyer. 
Hezeron. 

Temuz. 



\b. 



J>M 



Elul. 



Februarj 
March. 

\pri 



d^f m 



May. 

lime. 
July. 
Aueuft. 






September 
Oelober. 






November. 



The Arabian 
Months. 



;■ 



c^ 



Moherrcm. 

Sefer. 

Reby I. 

Ueby II. 

Jemad I. 

Jemad II. 

Rejeb. 

Shaban. 

lamzan. 

Shewal. 

Zulkaad. 

<l • 



Ferverdeen. 
Ardebehefht. 

Khordad. 
Teer. 



The Per/ian 



Vmerdad. 



^^ 



Sheriyur. 



Mehr. 



a 



UT 



A ban. 



J' 



\zer. 



Diy. 



Ci^ 



December. IZulheej 



Behmen. 

iUcXaJLw* I 
'isfendiar. 



OF 



FART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 27$ 



OF TRIBUTE AND TAXES. 

Seeing that without a fufficiency of food to recruit the 
animal ftrength, no one can exert himfelf fo as to de- 
ferve afubfittence ; and as this is to be merited either by 
corporeal or intellectual labour, it is incumbent on all 
ranks of people to employ themfelves to the fame end. 
But the fuccefs of thefe operations, which tends to the 
cafe and comfort of every condition of life, depends 
upon the juftice of monarchs, and the integrity and 
ability of their minifters; for every country has fome- 
thing peculiar to itfelf. Some foils produce crops 
almoft fpontaneoufly, whilft others require the greateft 
exertions of labour and fkill. Much depends upon the 
vicinity or diftance of water ; and the neighbourhood 
of cities ought alfo to be a matter of confideratiori. So 
that it behoveth the officers of government, in their 
refpecYive diftricts, to attend to every one of thofe cir- 
cumftances, that the demands of the ftate may be fixed 
accordingly. In former times, the monarchs of Hin- 
doftan exadled the fixth of the produce of the lands ; 
in the Turkifh empire, the hufbandman paid the fifth ; 
in Turan, the fixth ; and in Iran, the tenth. But at 
the fame time there was levied a general poll-tax, which 
was called Kheraj. Cobad* difapproved of this arbi- 
trary mode, and intended to have made a meafurement 
of all the arable land in his empire, for the purpofe of 
afcertaining an equitable fixed revenue. He however 
died before he could carry this intention into execution : 
but his fon -{* Noorlheervan adopted his plans, and in- 
flituted a land-meafure of fixty fquare kifiery guz •> and, 
computing the produce of fuch a quantity of land to be 
a kefeez, valued at three dirhems, he determined that a 

* King cf Perfia. 

I Under whofe reign Mahommed was born. 

T 3 third 



??9 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

third part fhould be the proportion of revenue. The 
kefeez is a meafure, which is alio called Saa *, confining, 
fome fay, of eight retels ; vvhiHt others make it to be 
fomething more. The dirhem was equal in weight to 
a mifkal. When the khalifat defcended to Omar, he 
approved of the wifdom of Noorfheenen, but introduced 
a few innovations, which may be learnt by confuking 
ancient books. Latterly in Iran and Turan, govern- 
ment has taken a tenth of the produce of the foil ; but, 
at the fame time, the huibandman is loaded with a num- 
ber of other taxes, which altogether exceed half the pro- 
duce. In Egypr, the proportion of revenue is as fol- 
lows : 

From a kodan of the beft foil, 3 Ibraheemees 
Middling, 2 
Worn:, 1 

The kodan is a meafure of land, containing one hun- 
dred fquare reeds, each of which is equal to one ba 
(or perch). The ibraheemee palles current for forty 
kebeers, fourteen of which are equivalent to a rupee of 
Akber Shah. In many parts of the Turkifh empire 
they exact from the huubandman thirty okchehs for 
every yoke of oxen, befides forty-two okchehs for the 
exchequer, together with twenty-one okchehs for the 
army, and fifteen okchehs for the foobahdar (or viceroy). 
The okcheh is a fmall coin, eighty of which are equi- 
valent to one ibraheemee. In other places of the fame 
empire, for every yoke of oxen, twenty-feven okchehs 
for the troops, and fix for the viceroy. In other parts, 
twenty-feven okchehs for the fengiakbegy, and twelve 
for the foobafhy or cootwal. There are alio other rates 
of collection in that empire, the relation of which would' 
run me into prolixity. The Mahommedans make three 

* A pound of twelve ounces. 

diftinctions 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 280 

dift.in6li.ons in conquered lands; Amerce, Kherajee, 
and Sulhee. The amerce and kherajee are each fub- 
divided into five kinds ; and the fulhee into two. 
Aflieree, ift kind, The lands of Tehama, including 
Mecca, Taif, Yemen, Oman, Bahrein, and Reyeh. 
2d kind, Land whofe proprietor has voluntarily em- 
braced the faith. 3d kind, Land that has been con- 
quered and divided amongft the victors. 4th kind, 
Land on which a modem has built a houfe, or planted a 
garden. 5th kind, Wafle land which has been brought 
into cultivation by order of the ruler. Kherajee, ift 
kind, The lands of Perfia Proper, and of Kerman. 2d 
kind, Land on which a zimmec has built a houfe, or 
planted a garden. 3d kind, Wafle land which a moflcm 
has made arable, by means of water brought thither at 
the public expence. 4th, Land which has furrendered 
upon terms of capitulation. 5th, Land which is culti- 
vated by the means of water that pays revenue. Sul- 
hee, iff. kind, The lands of the tribe of Beny Behran. 
2d kind, The lands of the tribe of Beny Saleb; the ex- 
planations of each of which may be learnt from ancient 
books. Like wife, according to fome authors, land is 
made to be of four kinds : ift, Land cultivated by mo- 
Hems, and which is called Afheree. 2d, The land of a 
perfon who embraces Iilamifm. Some make this to be 
Amerce, and others Kherajee. 3d, Conquered land, 
which fome make Alhcree, and others Kherajee. 4th, 
Land which has iurrendered upon terms of capitulation ; 
and this is accounted Kherajee. Kheraj is made to be 
of three kinds : ill, Kheraj Mokoflimeh (or divided) 
is the fifth or tixth of the produce of the foil. 2d, Khe- 
raj Wezeefeh, which is fettled according to the ability 
of the inhabitants. 3d, according to fome ancient books, 
Kheraj implies the whole produce of the foil; and after 
a (hare has been allowed to .the hufbandman, under cer- 
tain ltipulations, the remainder taken by government is 
called Zekat and Alhe.r: but, regarding everyone of 
the cafes above mentioned, there are many contradictory 

T 4 accounts. 



28 I AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

accounts. The Khalif Omar laid an annual tax upon 
every one who was not of the Mahommedan religion. 
A perfon of high condition paid forty-eight dirhems ; a 
middling perfon twenty-four dirhems ; and one in an 
inferior ftation twelve dirhems : and this tax was called 
Jezeeyeh. In every kingdom, befides the land-tax, go- 
vernment exacts fomething from the property of every 
individual 3 which extraordinary levy is called Tumgha. 
Jn Iran and Turan they collect land-tax from fome ; 
from others jehat ; a number pay fyerjehat ; and others 
voojoohat and feroohat. Summarily, the quit- rent is 
called Mai ; the taxes upon manufactures Jehat ; and 
all other imports are in general named Syerjehat. Of 
the charges of collections, the proportion taken by the 
revenue-officers is called Voojoohat ; and all other ex- 
pences are named Feroohat. 

But this mode of collection is dertructive to the coun- 
try, and vexatious to the people. His majefty abolifhed 
all arbitrary taxes ; he fettled the guz, the tenab, and 
the beegah ; after which he afcertained the value of the 
lands, and fixed the revenue accordingly. 



THE ILAHEE GUZ 

Is a meafure ufed in Hindoftan. Formerly the guz 
was of three kinds, long, middling, and (hort. Each was 
divided into twenty-four equal parts, called Tefuj. A 
tefuj of the long guz was equal to the breadth of eight 
ordinary barley-corns ; and a tefuj of the laft meafured 
fix barley-corns. The long guz was ufed for mealuring 
cultivated lands, roads, forts, refervoirs, and mud-walls. 
Ihe middling guz ferved for meafuring buildings of 
ftone and wood, thatches, religious houfes, wells, and 
gardens; and the inert guz was employed for meafur- 
ing cloth, armour, beds, palkees, chairs, carts, &c. In 
fome other countries the guz confifts of twenty- four 
tefujes; but they divide it after the following manner : — 

12 Weheemahs 



PART III. AYEEN 


AKBERT. 


12 Weheemahs 




" Hebbah; 


8 Hebbahs 




Zerrah; 


12 Zerrahs 


V 


Kitmeer ; 


8 Kitmeers 


==, 


Nekeer ; 


6 Nekeers 


1 


Feteel ; 


6 Fetceis 


B 


Ful; 


6 Muftard-feeds 




Barley-corn ; 


2 Barley-corns 


or, 


Hubbah ; 


4 Tefuj 


I 1 ! 


Dang; 


6 Dangs 


Jit 


Guz. 



282 



Others make the guz confift of twenty-four fingers, 
each meafuring the breadth of fix barley-corns, and each 
O' the latter being equal to the thicknefs of fix hairs 
taken from the mane of a Yabu horfe. In fome anci- 
ent books the guz is faicl to confilt of two Ipans and 
two inches ; and this guz was divided into fixteen equal 
parts, each of which was fubdivided into quarters, called 
P'her; fo that the p'her was the iixty-fourth part of a 
guz. Other ancient authors fay the guz was of feven, 
kinds : iff, The guz fbwdah, confifting of twenty-four 
fingers, and two thirds of a finger, which Haroon Re- 
fheed meafured from the hand of one of his AbyfTinian 
ilaves. The nilomerer of Egypt is made after this mea- 
fure, which is alfo ufed for meafuring cloths and build- 
ings. 2d, T"he Kufbeh guz, called alfo Aameh and 
Dowr, confifts of twenty-four fingers, and was invented 
by Ebn Abyliclah. 3d, The Youfefy guz confifts of 
twenty-five fingers, and is ufed at Baghdad for meafur- 
ing buildings. 4th, The little Hafheemeeah guz, of 
twenty-eight fingers and a third, was invented by Belal, 
the fon of Abeebirdeh - 3 altho* fome attribute it to Abu 
Mufa Afharee. 5th, The long Hafheemeeah guz, of 
twenty-nine lingers and two-thirds, was invented by 
Manfoor Abbafly, Both the Hefheemeeah guzes are 

clled 



283 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III, 

called Guz Mullik andGuz Zeeadeeah, becaufe.Zeead, 
the adopred Ton of Abu Sofian, made ufe of them for 
meafuring the Arabian irak. 6m, The Omareeah guz, 
of thirty-one fingers, was invented by the Khalif Omar. 
Having added together the contents of the long," mid- 
dle, and fhort guz, he took a third of the aggregate 
fum, and added four fingers to it. He clofed both ends 
of the meafure with tin, and fent it to Hezeefeh, and 
Ofman the fon of Hanif, in order that they might 
meafure with it the Babylonian irak. 7th, The Ma- 
mooneeah guz of fixty-nine fingers and a half, Maamon 
AbafTy invented and ufed it in meaiuring rivers, culti- 
vated lands, and roads. 

There was alfo formerly a guz confiding of twenty 
fingers, ufed for meafuring cloths. The guz Mefahet, 
according to fome, was alfo of twenty-eight fingers, 
vyhilit others make it of different lengths. 

Sulran Secunder Loedee invented a guz in Hindodan, 
confiding of the breadth of forty-one iicunderees and a 
half, which was a round filver coin adulterated with copper: 
Hemaioon made it complete forty-two iicunderees. This 
guz is equal to thirty-two fingers ; but, according to 
lome ancient authors, this guz was in ufe before the 
time of Loedee. Sheer Khan and Selim Khan, who 
abolilhed the cuftom of dividing the crops, and made 
a meafurement of the cultivated lands, ufed this guz 
for that purpofe. 

Till the thirty-fird year of the prefent reign, although 
the guz of Akbcr Shah, confiding of forty-fix fingers, 
was ufed as a cloth-meafure, yet the fecunderee guz was 
employed for every other purpofe. His majedy taking 
into confideration the inconveniences arifing from a 
multiplicity of meafures, commanded that for all pur- 
pofes there mould be ufed only one guz, confiding of 
forty-one fingers, and named it the Ilaheeguz. 

THE 



£ART III. AYEEN AKBEP/f. 2$4 

THE TENAB. 

His majefty adopted Noorfheervan's mcafurement of 
fixty fquares, which he made to conlift of that number 
or thellahee guz. The tenab, formerly u fed in Hin- 
doftan, was made of rope, which, being fubject. ro great 
variations from twilling, or from ihe drynefs ormoiiture 
of the air, his majefty, in the nineteenth year of his 
reign, commanded that it lhould be comppied of 
bamboos, joined together by iron rings. 

THE BEEGAH, OR JEREER, 

Are names applied indifferently to the meafure itfelf, 
as well as to fuch a quantity of land. It confifls of 
3600 fquare guz. If a piece of ground be unequal in 
length and breadth, it is brought into fquare meafure. 

20 Unfwanfeh 1 f Pitwanfeh ; 

20 Pitwanfeh Tifwanfeh; 

20 Tifwanfeh )-£-( Bifwanfehj 

20 Bifwanfeh j \ j Bifwah ; 

20 Bifwah J L Beegah. 

All the divifions below the tifwanfeh are imaginary. 

No revenue is required from nine bifwanfeh ; but ten 
bifwanfehs are accounted one bifwah. 

Of the Dkufion of the Lands ; together wit h fame Account 
of the Revenues of linidvflaiu 

When his majefty had fettled the guz, the tenab, and 
the beegah, he next divided the lands into different 
kinds, and fixed a different revenue to be paid by each. 

Poolej is that land which is cultivated for every 
harveit, being never allowed to lie fallow. 

Perowty is that which is kept out of cultivation for a 
fhort time, in order that the foil may recover its 
ftrength. 

Checher 



285 AYEEN AKBERY. PART 111. 

Checher is that which had lain fallow three or four 
years. 

Burner is that which has not been cultivated for five 
years and upwards. 

Both of the two firfl mentioned kinds of land, namely, 
poolej and pero-wty, are of three forts, viz. beft, 
middling, and bad. They add together the produce of 
a beegah of each fort, and a third of that aggregate 
fum is the medium produce of one beegah of poolej- 
iand, one third part of which is the revenue fettled by 
his majefty. What was exacted by Sheer Khan ex- 
ceeded the prefent produce of lands. 

POOLEJ LAND. 

The Spring Harveji, called in Hhidojlan djfadhy. 








"© '£> 





jll 


CJ5 u 

C 3 


S ■* u 




JC 


-c "o 


j: • 


■5 «3 


13 "g 


^* tn u 






§>& 


tn-i 
& 3 




k 2 


.2 31 * 




J2 O 
O 


£ ° 


-Q &■ 


C 
3 u 


L s1 


«"* 




u- 






1.3 

lis 


7j £ 


tf>x 




O LJ 


O W 


c — 




e - 


•5 o'J3 




a 




,4-1 




s 3> 


" -a 
« 









1! 

^0 


bA bfl 


third 
ing tl 
a bee 


"2 '0 B .j 

" • c r 






J= 


- 5 


- -^ 


%Ji"S 


' 3 C v» 


> 


H 


J -1 


H 


H 


6 





Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Wheat, — 


l8 O 


12 O 


8 35 


38 35 


12 38^ 


4 I2| 


Vetches, — 


13 O IO 20 


7 20 


31 


IO 13^ 


3 18 


Adefs, ' — 


8 10 


6 20 


A. 25 


'9 '5 


6 tSJ 


2 6 


Barley, — 


18 


12 20 


8 15 


38 35 


12 38^ 


4 I2| 


Linfeed, — 


6 20 


5 10 


3 3° 


15 20 


5 I 


1 29 


Maasfer, — 


8 30 


6 30 


5 10 


20 30 


b 36 


2 12 


Arzen, — 


10 20 


8 20 


5 5 


l \ 5 


8 ij 


2 27I 


Muftard, — ^ 


10 20 


8 20 


5 5 


2 4 5 


8 i| 


2 27! 


Peas, — 


13 


10 20 


8 25 


3 2 5 


lo 23 


3 2 3 


Fenugreek, — 


14 


1 1 


9 35 


34 35 


11 25 


3 35 


Shalykowr, — 


24 18 


14. 10 


56 10(18 30 6 10 1 



For 



TART III. 



AYEEN AKBEFY. 



2S6 



For mufk-melons, ajwain, onions, and other greens, 
the revenue was ordered to be paid in ready money, 
at the rates fet forth in the lubjoined tables. 



POOLEJ LAND. 



TJie Autumn Harvtft, tailed in Hindoftan Sawoney, 













..^ 





= 


fcjj j 


10, i 

2-5 fi I 




n 
M 




to 


"3 


J2 . 


V 


C 3 






.0 







U 

.0 





n 


|=3 




3 ■- "• 




re 


5a 


CO 





" 'o 


£.° 


u .5 o. 


B-ff-a 




O 


O 




U 


■5 


"1 

— 




w t» 
O ** 

u tn 


O rt 




-O 


« 


-O 


-3 


-? 


Si-° 


— 1 - c " 
2 •" f 


-3 u- •- 




O 

5. 


-O 


c 


i 


S * 


« U ui 


•5 .£ <« 


■- 3 s ii 

- c 




11 

-c 


5 


it 


_c 




J3 ** ^" 


i» W <*- 


, 3 K 1) 




H 




H 




H 


H 
Md. Sr. 


O 





Md. 


Sr. 


Md 


Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Molafles, — 


l 3 





10 


20 


7 20 


31 O 


IO 13'i 


3 18 


Cotton, — 


TO 


O 


7 


20 


5 C 


22 20 


7 20 


2 20 


Shalymuihkeen, 


24 


O 


18 





14 10 


56 10 


18 30 


6 10 1 


Common rice, 


l 7 





12 


20 


9 J 5 


33 35 


.2 3 8f 


4 13 


Maih, — 


10 


20 


7 


20 


5 i° 


23 10 


7 3° 


2 2 3i 


Mowng, — 


6 


20 


5 


IO 


3 3 C 


15 20 


S « 


1 29 


Je.var, — 


l 3 


O 


10 


20 


7 20 


31 


10 13} 


3 18 


Sharnakh, — 


10 


2C 


8 


20 


5 5 


24 5 


8 II 


2 2 7i 


Kodcrem, — 


18 


O 


12 


20 


8 15 


38 35 


12 381 


4 12! 


Sefame, — 


8 


O 


6 


O 


4 


18 


6 


2 


Gail, — — 


6 


20 


5 


10 


3 3° 


15 20 


5 7 


1 29 


Turyeh, — 


6 


20 


5 


10 


3 3 C 


15 20 


5 7 


1 29 


Arzen, — 


16 


10 


13 


20 


10 25 


40 5 


x 3 J i 


4 i8| 


Lehdereh, — 


10 


20 


7 


20 


5 10 


23 10 


7 3° 


2 2 3i 


Mendow, — 


1 1 


20 


9 





6 20 


27 


9 9 


3 ° 


Lubyeh, — 


10 


20 


7 


20 


5 i° 


23 10 


7 30 


2 20| 


Kowdery, — 


6 


20 


S 


10 


3 3° 


15 20 


5 7 


1 29 


Kelet, — 


10 


20 


7 


20 


5 1° 


23 10 


17 30 


2 20| 


Berry, — 


6 


20 


5 


10 


3 3° 


15 20 


S 7 


I 29 



The 



2$7 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III, 

The people who watch the crops, are allowed by- 
government in fome places a quarter of a feer per 
maund, and in others more. 

The revenue arifing from indigo, kuknar, pan, tur- 
meric, fingarhar, hemp, kutchalu, kuddoo, henna, cu- 
cumbers, badinjan, radifhes, carrots, kerela, tyndus, and 
ketcherah, was ordered to be paid in ready money, at the 
rates fet torth in the fubjoined tables. 

Perowty-land when cultivated, pays the fame revenue 
as poolej. 

His majefty, out of his wifdom, having fettled the 
revenues in the above favourable manner, alfo ordered 
that the jehat, or duties on manufactures, which ufed to 
be lenper cent* mould be reduced to five per cent. 

The fuddu-ey putwary * ufed to be equally divided 
between the putwary and the canoongoo. The putwary 
is employed on the part of the hufbandman, to keep an 
account of his receipts and difburfements ; and no 
village is without one of theie. The canoongoo is the 
protector of the hufbandman ; and there is one m every 
pergunnah. Now the canoongoo's fhare of one per. 
cent, is remitted -, and thefe officers are paid by govern- 
ment according to their rank. The firft has fifty 
rupees, the fecond thirty rupees, and the third twenty 
rupees per menfem ; and they have a jageer tun equivalent 
thereto. Formerly it was a rule, that the gomaflitahs 
of the fhekdar of the karkun, and thofe belonging to 
the aumeen, mould receive daily fifty-eight dams zabe- 
taneh, or cuflom, provided that in fpring they did not 
meafure lels than two hundred, nor in autumn lefs than 
two hundred and fifty beegahs. 

* Or two fier cent, for the putwary. 

Hi* 



PART III. AYET-N AKBERY. 2$ 

His majefty, wfrofe bounty is boundlefs as the Tea, 
ordered the above cuftom to be difcon tinned, and that 
in lieu thereof only one dam per beegah iliould be col- 
lected. He alio remitted a variety of vexatious taxes, 
which ufed to equal the quit-rent of Hindoftan. Of 
the number of thefe taxes were the following, viz. 

Jezyeh ( i ) TefTeeldary ( S ) 

Meer Behry (2) Fotedary (8) 

Kereea (3) Wejefc Keryeh (9) 

Gawihemary (4) Kherytyteh (10) 

Sirderukhty ($) Serafy (n) 

Piihcufh (6) * Haffil Bazar (12; 
Feruk Aklam Peeflieh (7) Nekais (13) 
Daroghaneh (8). 

( 1 ) Capitation tax, paid by the Hindoos. 

(2) Port duties. 

(3) When a number of people were gathered together to per- 
form any religious ceremony, they exacted fomething from every 
perlon. 

(4) A tax upon oxen. 

(5) A tax upon every tree. 

(6) Prefents. 

(7 ) A Poll-tax collected from every workman. 

(8) Taxes made for thefe officers of government. 

(9) Lodging-charges for the above officers. 

(10) For moneybags. 

(11) For trying and exchanging moi. 

(12) Market duties. 

(13) A tax on the fale of cattle. 



together 



2.89 AYEEN' AKBERY. PART III. 

together with taxes on the following articles : Hemp, 
blankets, oil, and raw hides. There were likewife taxes 
upon meafuring and weighing, and for killing cattle, 
for drelling hides, for playing at dice, and for fawing 
timbers. — Likewife, 

Rahdary, or paflport ; 

Pug, which was a kind of poll-tax ; 

Hearth-money ; 

A tax both on the buyer and on the feller of a houfe ; 

A tax on fait made from earth -, 

Eilkutty, or permiffion to reap the harveft, for which 
jfomething was exacted ; 

A tax on putty (nemed *} i 

A tax on lime ; 

A tax on (pirituous liquors j 

A tax on brokerage ; 

A tax on fiihermen ; 

A tax on florax. 

In fhort, all thofe articles which the natives of Hin- 
doftan comprehend under the defcription of Syerjehat. 

OF CHECHER LAND. 

When land, either from exceffive rain or by reafon 
of inundation, has fuffered fo much that the hufband- 

* Felt. 

man 



PART III. AYEEN AKEERY. 20O 

man finds difficulty in cultivating it, he is allowed to 
pay the revenue in the following proportions : — 

The firft year two fifths of the produce ; the fecond 
year three-fifths ; the third and fourth years four-fifths 
each ; and the fifth year as poolej ; and according to 
circumftances, the revenue is received either in money 
or in kind. In the third year the charges of five per 
cent, and the duty of one dam per beegali are collected. 

OF BUNJER LAND. 

When the land has be.n greatly injured by inunda- 
tion, the revenues are collected in the following pro- 
portions : — 



SrRIXG HARVEST. 



f Ihe Proportions in which the Revenues are ColU&ed 
from a Beegah of Bunjer Land for Four Years j after 
which it becomes Poolej. 







\i\\ 


"ear. 


2d Y 


car. 


>d Y 


car. 


khl 


"ear. 






Md. 


Sr. 


Md. 


Sr. 


Md 


Sr. 


Md. 


Sr. 


Wheat, 







20 


1 


O 


2 


O 


1 
3 


O 


Multard, 


R. 


O 


5 





2 5 





35 


1 


10 


Nakhud, 


T. 





10 





3° 


I 


10 


2 


IO 


Ditto, 


R. 


O 


5 





3° 


I 


10 


2 


20 


Barley, 


I. 





20 


1 





2 





5 


O 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





3° 


I 


20 


2 


20 


Adefs, 


I. 





10 





3° 


I 


10 


i 


3° 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





3° 


I 


10 


1 


3° 


Arzen, 


I. 





10 





2 5 


O 


35 


1 





Ditto, 


R. 





5 





H 


O 


35 


1 





Linfeed, 


I. 





5 





20 


O 


3° 


i 


10 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





5 


O 


30 


1 


>4 



I. Hands for inundated land, and R. for that which 
has fuffered from rain. 

Vol. I. U AUTUMN" 



291 



AYEEN AKBERY. 



FART III. 



AUTUMN HARVEST. 



The Proportions in which the Revenues are collecled from 
a Beegah of Bunjer Land for Four Years ; after which 
it becomes Poolej. 







1 ft Year. 


2d Year. 


kl Y 


ear. 


14 h ^ 


'ear, 






Md. 


Sr. 


Md. 


Sr. 


Md. 


Sr. 


Md. 


Sr. 


Mafh, 


I. 


O 


20 


I 


O 


I 


20 


2 


IO 


Ditto, 


R. 


O 


5 


O 


20 


I 


O 


I 


20 


Jewar, 


I. 





20 


I 





2 


O 


^ 
J 


O 


Ditto, 


R. 


O 


5 


O 


20 


I 


O 


2 


O 


Mowth, 


R. 


O 


5 


O 


20 


O 


3° 


I 


IO 


Lehdereh, 


R. 


O 


5 


O 


2G 


I 


10 


2 


O 


Koderem, 


I. 


O 


20 


1 


O 


2 





3 


O 


Ditto, 


R. 


O 


5 


O 


20 


I 


20 


2 


20 


IVIendeweh, 


I 


O 


20 


I 


O 


2 





3 





Ditto, 


R. 


O 


5 





3° 


I 


20 


2 


20 


KLodery, 


I. 





10 


O 


2 5 


O 


3D 




IO 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 


O 


2 5 





35 




10 


Gall, 


I. 





10 


O 


2 5 


O 


35 




IO 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





2 5 


O 


35 




IO 


Turyeh, 


I. 





20 


I 





I 


10 




20 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





2 5 


O 


35 




IO 


Shamakh, 


I. 





10 





2 5 


O 


35 




10 


Ditto, 


R. 





5 





2 5 


O 


35 




IO 


Afzen, 


I. 





10 





3° 


I 







IO 


itto, 


R. 





5 





3° 


I 







IO 


Selame, 


R. 





5 





2C 





3° 




10 



Now it is ordered, that in Bunjer there fhall be 
taken from each beegah the firft year only one or two 
f eers — the iecond year five leers — the third year the 
Hxth of the produce, together with one dam — the fourth 
year a fourth of the produce, and after that period as 
poolej. But this indulgence differs according to cir- 
cumflances. The hufbandman may always pay hrs 

revenue 



PART III. AYF.EN AKBERY. 2Q2 

rev nue in money or in kind, as he may find moil con* 



veni< nt. 



The bnnjer land at the foot of mountains, and that 
in the pcrgunnaiis or* Sembeleh and Beratch, do not 
continue in that (hue ; for fuch a quantity of new earth 
is brought with the inundation, that when the water 
fublides, the foil is better than moitpoolej. However, his 
majefty, out of the abundance of his beneficence, reckons 
it only as common bunjer. 

The hufbandman has his choice to pay the revenue 
either in ready money, or by kunkoot, or by bchawely. 

Of l lie Nineteen Tears Collegians *'. 

Careful and intelligent people have been continually 
employed in learning the current prices of every pro- 
vince of the empire; and, agreeably thereto, grain has 
been received by government. 

The rates at which the revenue ofabecgah ofpoolej- 
land was fixed, commencing at the fixth year, or A. H. 
968, and concluding with die twenty-fourth year of the 
reign, are particularized in the annexed tables, Which 
were made after the moil diligent investigation -j-. 

Of the Ten Years Settlement. 

From the commencement of the immortal reign, 
perfons of integrity and experience have been annually 
employed in preparing the current prices for his majefty's 
information, and by which the rates of collection were 

* Nineteen vears is a cycle of the moon, during which period 
the feafons are fuppofed to undcrgqa complete revolution. 

f Vide Appendix. 

U % determined 9 



293 AYEHN AKBERY. PART III. 

determined ; but this mode was attended with great 
difficulties. 

When Khajeh Abdul Majeed Afof Khan was raifed 
to the vizarct *, the jumma of the lands was only com- 
puted, and he increafed the tunkhas juft as he thought 
fit. As at that time the empire was but of fmall extent, 
the exigencies of the fervants of the crown were accu- 
mulating daily ; and the tunkhas were levied partially, 
according to the particular views of corrupt and felf- 
interefted people. 

Bnt when this great office was intruded to the joint 
management of Rajah Tudermull and Mozeffer Khan, 
in the fifteenth year of the reign, they appointed ten 
canoongoos to collect the accounts of the provincial 
canoongoos, and which were brought to the royal ex- 
chequer. Then having taken from the canoongoos the 
tukfeem mulk, or divifions of the empire, they efti mated 
the produce of the lands, and formed a new jumma -f-. 

This fettlement is fomewhat lefs than the former one ; 
however, there had hitherto been a wide difference be- 
tween the fettlement and the receipts. 

When, through his majeuVs prudent management, 
the bounds of the empire were greatly enlarged, it was 
found very difficult to procure the current prices every 
year from all parts of the kingdom ; and the delays that 
this occafioned in making the fettlement. were pro- 
ductive of many inconveniences. Sometimes the huf- 
bandmen would cry out againlt the exorbitancy of the 
demands that were made upon them ; and, on the other 

* In the fourth year of the reign. 

f This Tukfeem jumma, or aiTeflment of the lands, is particu- 
larized in the fecond volume, which contains the hiftory of the 
twelve loob* lis, or vicerovalties of H«:doftan. 

fide, 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 294 

fide, thofe who had tunkhas to collect would complain 
of balances. His majefty, in order to remedy thefe evils 
effectually, directed that a fettlement mould be con- 
cluded for ten years ; by which relblution, giving eafe 
to the people, he procured for himfelf their daily 
bleffings. 

For the above purpofe, having formed .an aggregate 
of the rates of collection from the commencement of 
the fifieenth year of the reign to the twenty-fourth, 
inclusive, they took a tenth part of that total as the 
annual rate for ten years to come. 

From the twentieth to the twenty-fourth Year, the 
collections were made upon grounds of certainty ; but 
the five former ones were taken from the reprefentations 
of perfons of integrity ; and, moreover, during that 
period the harvells were uncommonly plentiful, as may 
be feen in the tables of the nineteenth year's rates. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE OFFICERS. 
The Sepahfillar, or Jlceroy. 

He is his majefty's vicegerent. The troops and fub- 
jects of the foobah are under his orders ; and the profperity 
thereof depends upon his impartial diftribution of juftice. 
In all his actions he muft ftrive to pleafe the Deity, to 
whole throne it is his duty to be incelfantly offering up 
fupplication and praife. He muft constantly keep in 
view the happinefs of the people, and never fuffer him- 
ielf to be negligent in buhnefs. He muft not talk idly, 
nor (hew an unpleafant countenance. He muft be cir- 
cumfped in his conduct, and pay due regard to the 
rank of every one, (Viewing particular complacency 
towards them who are neareft him in office, nor neglect- 
ing thofe whole duty engages them at a diftance from 
his perfon. Whatever can be tranfacted by his fervants 

U 3 he 



295 AYEE3 AKBERY. PART III. 

he fhall not commit to the care of his Tons ; neither (hall 
he employ himfelf upon a bufinefs which can be per- 
formed by his children. On all occahons he lhall con- 
sult with a perfon wifer than himfelf; or if fuch an one 
is not to be found, he fhall aftbciate together feveral of 
approved wifdom, and deliberate with them, liftening 
with attention to the opinion of each, and determining 
with caution. 

VERSE. 

*' Sometimes an old wife man may counfel foolifhly ; 
1* and an ignorant boy may, through miftake, drive 
" the arrow into the butt." 

He muft not admit every one to his counfel, nor 
low people in particular, fince few advife from mo- 
tives of friend ihip and difintereftednefs. Confider- 
ing his office to be that of a guardian, let him a6L 
with the utmoft caution. He muft regard the know- 
ledge of the difpofitions of men as the firmed bafis 
of his power, and, having obtained that, he will live in 
perfect fecurity. Let him keep under the command 
of reafon, both his favour and his difpleafure. The 
difobedient he fhall ft rive to reclaim by good advice. 
If that fail, let him punifh with reprimands, threats, 
imprifonment, flripes, or even amputation of limbs ; 
but he (hall not take away life till after the moil mature 
deliberation. He muft not ftain his tongue with abufe, 
for foul language belongeth to low and inconfiderate 
people. Let him not make a practice of affirming his 
words with an oath, for he will thereby make himfelf 
fufpeited for a liar, and fill his hearers with diftruft. 
Injudicial inveiVtgations, let him not be fatisfied with 
witnefTes and oaths, but make repeated and various in- 
quiries, and pay due attention to phyfiognomy. He 
muft not intruft thefe inveftigations (o entirely to an- 
other as to confider himfelf freed from all reiponfibility 
therein. 

verse. 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 296 

VERSE. 

" Refer not his caufe to the inveftigation of the 
" dewan, for poflibly his complaint is againft the 
c * dewan." 

Thofe who apply for juftice, let them not be afflicted 
with delay and expectation. Let him ihut his eyes 
againll offences, and accept the excufe of the penitent. 
Let him behave himlelf with befitting; flatc and muni- 
ncence. Let him objed to no one on account of his 
religion or fed. Let him intruft each divifion of the 
country to the care ot an honeft upright man. Let the 
roads be made fafe by Rationing proper guards for the 
protection of the traveller, and let him continually 
receive information thereof. Let him appoint to offices 
men of worth, forefight, and integrity, and not fuch as 
are avaricious ; and if a lufficient number of fuch people 
are not to be found, he (hall join in office feveral who 
are not acquainted or connected together; and writing 
down the reprefentation of each, he muft endeavour to 
difcover the truth. Let his expenccs always be lefs 
than his income ; and of what remains he fhould give 
fome part to the needy, particularly thofe who do not 
let forth their wants. Let him be always attentive to 
the difcipline of the troops, and fee that their arms be 
kept in good order. And he ihall conftantly exerciie 
himfelf and his men in riding, and in (hooting with the 
bow and the matchlock. Let him be circumfped and 
deliberate in placing confidence, for many who are evil- 
minded carry a fair outlide, and ufe the language of 
iriendfhip; but as their profeflions are void of fincerity, 
they conclude with ading a vicious part. Let him 
itrive to increafe cultivation and population, and gain 
the hearts of all our fubjeds by a faithfui performance 
of his engagements ; and let him confider it is his duty 
to befriend the induftrious hufbandman. Let him be 
careful to appoint impartial collcdors of the revenues, 

U 4 and 



2y7 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

and be always watchful over their conduct. He muft 
give attention to the digging of reiervoirs, wells, and 
waier-couries ; to the planting of gardens j to the erect- 
ing ferais, and other pious and ufeiul foundations ; and 
fee that fuch as have fallen into decay be repaired. 
He muft not be fond of retirement, nor indulge him- 
f.lf in melancholy; neither ought he to be familiar 
with the populace, nor always in a crowd, 



V E R S F . 



< c Neither aiTociate wkh every one ; nor feparato 
* c yourfelf from everyone. Go in the road of wifdom, 
" and be neither a fiy nor a phccnix." 

Let him venerate thofe who devote their lives to the 
fervice of God, arid refpect the dervifhes and truly pious 
mendicants. Let him not confider imploring blemngs 
from the fun and venerating lamps as ignicoly. Let 
him accuftom himfelf to watching, and fleep and eat 
with moderation. Let him employ himfelf in prayer 
at funrife, noon, evening, and midnight. When he 
is at leifure from religious and worldly duties, he mould 
perufe books of philoiopby, and guide his actions by 
their precepts- ti he is not in a temper of mind to relifti 
this fludy, he may read the Mufneevy, regardlefs of 
the letter, but confidering the fpirit of the author. He 
ought alio to cultivate his mind with the approved tales 
of the Keleilah Dumnah, thus making the experience 
of ancient times his own. Let him liften to true 
theology, and not give attention to idle tales. Let 
him allbciate with the wife, and thofe of good and 
friendly difpofuion, and having {"elected from amongft 
them a man of truth and integrity, direct him to give due 
attention to all his actions, in order that whatever ap- 
pears improper to him may be reprefented by him in 
private. If at any time he mifconceives a motive or 
action, he fhail not therefore be difpleafed at him, for 

it 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 298 

it has long been matter of complaint that people are 
backward in ipeaking any thing that may be difagree- 
able to their fuperiors, and that it is difficult to find one 
who will benefit another to his own injury. Let him not 
be hurried away by the reprefentations of flanderers, but 
exert his own circumfpecVion on all occaiions, becaufe 
men of bad character forge flories, and paffing them- 
ielves off for men of integrity and difintereltedncfs, 
labour to injure others. Let him not be revengeful, 
but behave with modefty and kindnefs to every one. 
He mud not flight the defendants of ancient families, 
but confider the glorious actions of their ancestors as the 
recommendation of their lefs dclerving pofterity. Let 
him obferve that at meals every perfon fays Allah 
Akbcr, and that the principal man amongft them an- 
fwers JcUe-jdalehoo. Let him lee that neither a goat 
nor a iheep be killed that is not a twelve-month old. 
For a month following the anniverfary of his birth-day, 
he (hall abftain from eating flelh ; neither fhall he eat 
of any thing that himfelf hath ilain. Let him not addicl 
himfelf to fenfual gratifications ; nor have commerce 
with a pregnant woman. The food which is ufually 
given away after the death of a perfon, he fhall prepare 
every year on his own birth-day, and beftow upon the 
needy. 

Upon the fun's entering a fign of the zodiac, let 
him employ himfelf in prayer, and discharge cannon 
and mufketry, to apprize the populace thereof. And 
let him order the kettle-drum to be beat at funrife and 
midnight. Let him not confider himfelf as ftationary, 
but hold himfelf and family in readinefs to repair to the 
preience at the ihortcft fummons. 



THE FOUJDAR. 

For the further profperity of the empire, his majefty, 
in the fame manner as he has appointed a Sepahiillar 

for 



2Q9 AYEEN AKRERY. PART III. 

for every foobah, has nominated one of his intelligent 
and diiinterctled fervants to the charge of feveral per- 
gunnahs, who is (tiled Foujdar; he is under the orders 
of the Sepahfillar, to whom he is to give every aiTiftance 
ID his power. 

Whenever a zemeendar, or a collector of the royal or 
Jageer land? is difobedient, he fhall endeavour to bring 
him back to his duty by fair words ; and if they fail of 
producing the cefired effect, he {hall take down in writ- 
ing an account of his proceedings, in the preience of the 
principal officers of government, and then inflict a pro- 
per punimment. If a number confederate together, let 
him fix his quarters near to their abode, and poffefs him- 
felf of their men and property by degrees, without haz- 
arding a general engagement. For a fervice which can 
he effected by infantry, he fhall not employ cavalry. 
He muit not be precipitate in attacking a fort, but en- 
camp his troops beyond the reach of its guns, and block 
up all the avenues thereto. He muff be guarded againft 
r nightly (allies ; and he ought to provide a fafe re- 
treat for himfelf. Let him be careful that the troops are 
ved regularly. When he has poffeffed himfelf of 
J he ftrong hold of the rebels, he mud act with fidelity 
in the divifion of the plunder, a fifth part of which he 
(halt tend to the royal exchequer; and if after making 
the divifion there be any remainder, that (ball alfo be 
the property of the (late. Let him pay conftant atten- 
tion to the horfes and accoutrements of the troops, if 
a trooper be without a horfe, his comrades fhall provide 
him with one at their joint expence. . If a horfe is killed 
in battle, the trooper is to be mounted again at the ex- 
pence of government. He muff fend regularly to the 
pretence a roll of the troops who are prefent, and of thofe 
who are abfent. In all instances he mud exert himfelf 
in carrying into execution the royal regulations. 



THE 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY, 3OO 



THE MEER ADUL AND THE CAZY. 

Although it be the immediate duty of a monarch to 
receive complaints and adminiltcr jufticc, yet, feeing 
that it is not poffible for one perfon to do every thing, it 
necerlarilv follows that he mull delegate his power to 
another. This delegate muft not be fatisfied with wit- 
neffcs and oaths, but make diligent investigation ; be- 
caufe it is very difficult to come at the truth without 
painful fenrch and minute enquiry. Confidering the 
depravity of human nature, he ought not to place much 
reliance on depolitions and folemn afleverations. Di- 
verting himfelf of partiality and avarice, let him diftin- 
guifh the oppreilcd from the opprefibr; and when he 
has difcovered the truth, aft accordingly. He mail be- 
gin with afking the circumftances of the cafe, and then 
try it in all its parts. He mult examine each witnefs 
feparately upon the fame point, and write down their 
refpeftive evidences. Since thefe objects can only be 
effectually obtained by deliberatenefs, intelligence, and 
deep reflection, they will fometimes require that the 
caufe (hould be tried again from the beginning; and, 
from the fimilarity or difagreement, he may be enabled 
to arrive at the truth. The Cazy tries the caufe j and 
the perfon who pafies fentence and orders punifhment, 
is called the Meer Adul. 



THE COOTYVAL. 

This office requires one who is courageous, experi- 
enced, active, and of quick comprehenfion. He mufl 
be particularly attentive to the nightly patroles, that, 
from a confidence in his vigilance, the inhabitants of 
the city may Heep at eafe, and every attempt of the 
wicked be prevented or fruftrated. It is his duty to 
keep a regifier of all the houfes and frequented roads. 

And 



'30! AVEEN AKBEEV. PART llf. 

And he fliall caufe the inhabitants to enter into engage- 
ments to aid and aflift, and to be partakers in the joy or 
ibrrow of each other. And he fliall divide the city into 
mehals (or quarters) and nominate a proper peribn to 
the fuperintendenee thereof, under whole leal he fliall 
receive a journal of whatever comes in or goes out of 
that quarter, together with every other information re- 
garding it. He fliall alfo appoint for fpies over the con- 
duct of the Meer Mehal, a perfon of that quarter, 
another who is unknown to him ; and keeping tj 
ports in writing, be guided therebv. T* - :;o£e 

perfons are not known, he (hall caufe t; 
parate ferai ; and he fliall employ intelligent [ - ' pk K> 
difeover who they are. He mult carefully attend to the 
income and expences of every man. His own conduct 
muft be upright and flrictly honeft ; and he mull make 
himfelf acquainted with every tranfaction. Out of each 
elftfs of artificers he fliall felect one to be at their head, 
z.ivA appoint another their broker for buyaiarfl arid felling, 
and regulate the bufinefs of the clafs by their reports : 
and they fliall regularly fnniifh him with journals at- 
tefted by their refpectivc feafe. He fliall endeavour to 
keep free from obiiru&ions the fmall avenues and lanes, 
fix barriers at the entrances, and fee that the ftreeis are 
fcept clean. When night is a little advanced, he fliall 
hinder people from coming in and going out of the city. 
The idle he fliall oblige to learn ibme art. He fliall not 
permit any one forcibly to enter the houfe of another. 
He fliall difcover the thief and the ftolen goods, or be 
himfelf anfwerable for the lofs. He (hall not fuifer any 
cue to levy baj or tumgha, excepting upon arms, ele- 
phants, horfes, goats, and manufactures ; upon each of 
which fomething is taken, in every foobah, at one ap- 
pointed place. He fliall caufe old coins to be melted 
at the mint, or pay them into the treafury as bullion. 
I ie fliall be careful that the gold' and filver coins of the 
preicnt reign do not pafs current at different rates ; and 
upon coins fliort of weight, he fliall take exactly the de- 
ficiency* 



PART III. - AYEEN AKBF.RY, 302 

ficiency. He fhall fee that the market-prices are mo- 
derate ; and not luffer any one to go out of the city to 
purchale grain ; neither fhall he allow the rich to buy- 
more than is neceffary for their own conlumption. He 
fti all examine the weights, and fee that the leer be exactly 
thirty dams ; and ill all not fufFer any other meafure than 
the Ilahee guz to be uied. He fhall prohibit the mak- 
ing, drinking, felling, and buying of fpirituous liquors ; 
but need not take pains to difcover what men do in fe- 
crer. If any one die or difappear and leave no heir, he 
mall make an inventory of his effects, and take care of 
them. He mall fee that particular ferries and wells are 
kept feparate for the ufe of women only. He (hall take 
care to employ truily people in drawing water for i up- 
plying the public water-courfes. He (hall not permit: 
women to ride on horle-back. He (hall take care that 
neither an ox, a horfe, a buffaloe, or a camel be Slaugh- 
tered. He mud not allow private people toconfme the 
perfon of any one, nor admit of people being fold for 
(laves. He fhall not allow a woman to be burnt con- 
trary to her inclination. He mall not fuffcr any one to 
be empaled. He mail not permit any one to be cir- 
cumcifed under the age of twelve years ; but after that 
period, they may be left to their own difcrction. Let 
him expel from the city all hypocritical malkmgecs and 
calendars, or make them quit that conrfe of life ; but 
he mult be careful not to moleft reclufe worfliippers of 
the Deiry, nor to offer violence to thole who refign them- 
felves to poverty through religious principles. Let him 
fee that butchers, thofe who walh dead bodies, and 
others who perform unclean offices, have their dwelling 
feparate from other men, who (hould avoid the fociety 
of inch (tony-hearted dark-minded wretches. Whofo- 
ever drinketh out of the fame cup with an executioner, 
let one of his hands be cut off; or if he eateth of hisr 
kettle, deprive him of one ot his ringers. Let him fee 
that the cemetry be withoutfide die city, in the weftern 

quarter. 



303 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

quarter. Let him prohibit the difciples from mourn- 
ing in blue veftments, ordering them to wear red cloths 
upon fuch occafions. From the firft till the nineteenth 
of the month Ferverdeen, during the whole of Aban, 
on the firft day of every folar month, on feftivals, on 
days of eclipfes of the fun and moon, and on Sundays, 
let him prohibit men from flaying beafts, except it be 
for feeding animals ufed in hunting, or for fick people, 
as neceffity may require. Let him have the place of 
execution withoutfide the city. Let him fee that the 
ilahee feftivals are duly obferved ; and on the night of 
the new year, and the 1 9th night of the month Ferver- 
deen be celebrated with illuminations. On the eve of 
a feftival, as well as on the feftival itfelf, let him order a 
kettle-drum to be beat every three hours. He (hall 
caufe the Uahee tarikh to be ufed in the Perfian and 
Hindovee almanacs, obferving that in the latter the 
month be made to begin from Kifhenputch. 



THE AMILGUZXAR (OR COLLECTOR 
OF THE REVENUES.) 

He muft confider himfelf the immediate friend of the 
huibandman, be diligent in bufinefs, and a drift obfer- 
ver of truth, being the reprefentative of the chief magif- 
rrate. He muft tranfact his bufinefs in a place where 
everv one may find eafy accels, without requiring any 
mediator. The crafty and difobedient he (hall ftrive to 
reform by reprehenfion ; and if that produce not the 
defired effect, he (hall inflict other punifhment. Let 
him not be difcouraged at the lands having fallen wafte, 
but exert himfelf to bring them back again into culti- 
vation. He fhall not be fatisfied with receiving pecuni- 
ary fines in exculpation for murders and other capital 
offences : his conduct muft be fuch as to give no caufe 
for complaint. He muft ailift the needy hufbandman 

with 



PART III. AYEEN AKEETvYi 304 

with loans of money, and receive payment at diflant and 
convenient periods. When any village is cultivated to 
the higheft degree of perfection by the fkilful manage- 
ment of the chief thereof, there (hall be bellowed upon 
him half a bifwah out of every beegah of land, or fome 
other reward proportionate to his merit. Let him en- 
deavour to afeenain the quantity of land in cultivation, 
and make trial of different portions, in order to gain a 
competent knowledge of its various properties, for there 
is a great difference in the value of land ; and fome foils 
arc only capable of being cultivated for particular pur- 
poles. Let him learn the character of every hufband- 
man, and be the immediate protector of that clafs of our 
iubjects. He (hall acquaint himfelf with and maturely 
confider the conduct of former Aumils ; and if they ap- 
pear to have been guilty of inconlideratenefs or dilho- 
nefty towards the hufbandman, he muft ftrive to remedv 
the evils they may have occafioned. Let him endeavour 
to bring the wafte lands into cultivation, and be careful 
that the arable lands are not neglected. Let him pro- 
mote the cultivation of fuch articles as will produce ge- 
neral profit and utility, with a view to which he may 
allow fome remiflion from the general rate of collection. 
If an hufbandman cultivates a lefs quantity of land than 
he engaged for, but produces a good excufe for fo do- 
ing, let it be accepted. If an hufbandman is able to 
cultivate more bunjer land than may happen to be in 
his own particular village, he lhall be allowed land in 
fome other place. Let him ufe the utmofl circumfp. 
tion and impartiality in meafuring the lands. He (hall 
annually affifl; the hufbandman with loans of money. 
Let him fee that his demands do not exceed his agree- 
ments. If in the fame place fome want to engage by 
meafurement, and others deiire to pay their proportion 
of the revenues from an eftimate of the crops, fuch con- 
trary propofals lhall not be accepted. As foon as the 
agreements are concluded and executed, let them be 
lent to the pretence. Let him not be covetous of receiv- 
ing 



305 AYEF.N AKBERY. PART III. 

ing money only, but likewife take grain. The manner 
of receiving grain is after four ways : — Firit, Kuukoot. 
Kun, in the Hindovee language, fignifies grain ; and 
the meaning of Koct is conjecture or eftimate. The 
way is this : The land is meafured with the crops ftand- 
ing, and which are eflimated by infpection. Thofe 
who are converfant in the bufinefs fay that the calcula- 
tion can be made with the greatefi: exact nefs. If any 
doubt arife, they weigh the produce of a given quantity 
of land, confuting of equal proportions of good, mid- 
dling, and bad, and form a comparative eftimate there- 
from. Second, Bui key, and which is alio called Bha- 
weley, is after the following manner : They reap the 
harvell:,and, collecting the grain into barns, there divide 
it accord i no- to agreement. But both theie methods are 
liable to impolition, if the crops are not carefully watch- 
ed. Third, Khext Butt icy, when they divide the field 
as foon as it is fown. Fourth, Lang Buttiey. They form 
the grain into heaps, of which they make a diviiion. 
Whenever it will not be oppreffive to the fubject, let the 
value of the grain be taken in ready money at the mar- 
ket-price. 

If an hufbandman fows his land with the beft kinds 
of grain, let there be remitted the firft year a fourth 
part of the rate for poolej land. If upon making the 
meafurement the kinds of grain appear to be better, al- 
though the quantity of land be Ids than was agreed for, 
io that the difference caufes no deficiency in the reve- 
nues, the aumil (hall not exprels any ditpleafure there- 
at ; and in every inflance he mtift endeavour to act to 
the fatisfaction of the huibandman. Let him not entruft 
the principal men of the village with making the efti- 
rnates of kunkoot ; for fucfa a meafure, by giving room 
for oppreffion, would create difguft, and confequently 
occafion indolence and negleil. But, on the contrary, 
let him tranfact his bulinefs with each hufbandman fe- 
parately ; and fee that the revenues are demanded and 

received 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 306 

received wirh affability and complacency. He muft 
take fecunti- s for the conduct of the land-meafurers, 
weighmen, and other officers in this department. 

Extra Daily Allowance ivhiljl employed in making the 
Measurements. 

Flour. Oil Rice. For Pot-herbs. 
Officers. Seer. Seer. Seer. Dams. 

Tepukchy, — 5^7 4 

Meafurer of land, 4 \ \ 4 

Four tannahdars, 81 — 5 

And befides the above, he (hall pay them their 
monthly falaiies. They fhall fix a mark upon the land 
they have meafured. 

The anmil fhall take a written obligation from the 
principal inhabitants, to difcover any difference that may 
happen in the crops. If at the time of making the 
meafurement he meets with a parcel of bad land, he 
fhall immediately make an eftimate of the quantity and 
quality, and give the paper to the ;. jf^mdman, by way 
of certificate. If fuch difcovery be made after gather- 
ing the harveft, he fhall collecl: information from the 
neighbours of that place, as well is from the putwaree's 
accounts, and allow what may appear to be the medium. 

The mohurur and the putwary fhall keep their re- 
fpective accounts of the produce of the foil, in the fame 
manner as the karkun. When the aumil has compared 
thefe accounts together, he fhall put his feal to them, 
and give the karkun, mohurur, and putwary, copies of 
their refpe&ive papers. When the accounts of the 
crops of a village are completed, they fhall be fubjoined 
to the montijee (or account of afiets) and again au- 
thenticated by the karkun and putwary. This paper 

Vol. I. X ought 



307 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

ought to be fent to the prefence weekly, and mud on no 
account be delayed beyond a fortnight. If after fending 
the nefukh (eftimate of aflets of revenue) any calamity 
befals the crops, the aumil fhall immediately inveftigate 
the circumftances, make an exact calculation of the 
lofs, and tranfmit the fame to the prefence, in order 
that it may either be approved of, or an aumeen fent 
to make further inquiry. Let him collect the revenues 
with kindnefs, and never make any demands before 
they become due. He fhall commence the collections 
of the fpring harvefl from the Hooly. This is an 
Hindoo feftival which falls out differently between the 
time of the fun's arriving at the end of Aquarius to the 
fifteenth of Pifces. The autumn harveft he fhall begin 
to collect from the Desfhereh, which is another Hindoo 
feftival that alio happens differently, from the beginning 
of Virgo to the commencement of Libra. Let him be 
careful that the treafurers do not require any particular 
fpecies of coin, but that whenever there be any defi- 
ciency in finenefs or weight, the exact deficiency be 
taken, and an account thereof given in writing. Lee 
him agree with the hufbandman to bring his rents him- 
felf at ftated periods, that there may be no plea for 
employing intermediate mercenaries. Whenever there 
is a plentiful harveft let him collect the full amount of 
revenue, and not leave any balances to be realized from 
future crops. If any one does not cultivate kherajee- 
land, but keeps it for pafturage, let there be taken 
yearly from a buffaloe fix dams, and from an ox three 
dams ; but calves fhall be permitted to graze without 
paying any duty. For every plough there fhall be 
allowed four oxen, two cows, and one buffaloe ; from 
whom likewife no duty lhall be taken for pafturage. 

He fhall himfelf keep an exact account of whatever 
is paid into the treafury ; and having compared it with 
the journal of the karkun, caufe it to be authenticated 

by 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 30S 

by the treafurer. Having fattened and fealed up the 
money-bags, let them be depofited in a fafe place, on 
the door of which there (hall be feveral locks of dif- 
ferent conftructions ; he fhall keep one of the keys 
himfclf, and the others are to be in the charge of the 
officers of the treafury. At the end of every mohth he 
fhall take from the tepukchy an account of receipts and 
difburfements, and fend it to the prefence. Whenever 
two lacks of dams are collected together, they are to be 
fent to the principal treafury, under charge of a trufty 
perfon. Let him give directions to the putwary of 
every village, that whenever there be any balance irt 
favour of the fubjeet, he be furnimed with a me- 
morandum fpecifying the particulars thereof; and he 
fhall alio be directed to draw out an exact account of 
the balances due to government, with the names of the 
perfons indebted, which mall be figned by the prin- 
cipal part of them. Let the balances be collected 
without oppreffion from the next harveft. He fhall 
attentively examine the grants of feyurghal, and, taking 
copies thereof, fend them to the regiftry to be com- 
pared. Let him carefully fcrutinize the chucknameh, 
and refume the (hare of the defunct, the abfentee, and 
thofe who are removed from offices. Let him be 
cautious that refumed lands are not fufFered to remain 
uncultivated. He fhall mind to take proper care of the 
effects of abfentees, and of thofe who die without heirs, 
and reprefent the circumftances to the prefence. Let 
him fee that no jezeyeh be collected, and that whatever 
taxes former monarchs thought proper to remit, do 
continue to be excufed. The charges attending tra- 
velling, feafting, or mourning, fhall not furnifh pre- 
tences for exactions; neither is he permitted to receive 
falamecs of any kind. The mokuddem and putwary, 
whenever they came with rreaiurc or to the courts of 
juftice, ufed to prefent a falamy of a dam each ; which 
cuftom is ordered to De difcontinued. Alio bilkutty, 

X 2 mecr 



309 AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

meer behry, rahdary, duties upon blankets, wool, 
leather, and ghee, and various other vexatious taxes, 
which the avarice of men who feared not God had in- 
troduced, to the oppreflion of mankind, he (hall by no 
means fuffer to be exacted. He (hall appoint one who 
is perfectly acquainted with the districts under his 
charge to refide at the prefence, for giving the mod 
minute information that may be required. He fhall 
make a monthly report to the prefence of the condition 
of the fubjefts, jageerdars, neighbours, and rebels, to- 
gether with the market-prices of goods, the rent of 
houfes and fhops, the ftate of dervilnes and artificers, 
and every other remarkable occurrence. 

If there be not any cootvval within his diftridt, the 
aumil fhall execute that office in the manner prefcribed 
by the regulations for that department. 

THE TEPUKCHY 

Mull be of an upright difpofition, a good writer, 
fkilful in accounts, and induftrious, as the aumil de- 
pends folely upon him for juft information. His duty 
is this : He (hall take from the canoongoo an account 
of the medium ftate of the revenues for ten years in 
money and in kind, and having thereby made himfelf 
acquainted with the nature and capacity of the country, 
fatisfy the aumil in every particular. He fhall write 
down whatever engagements are made with the huf- 
bandman. He fhall keep a feparate account of the 
boundaries of the villages. He fhall draw out a uate- 
ment of the wafle and arable lands, to which he fliall 
fubjoin the names of the munfif, the meafurer, and 
tanahdar, together with thofe of the hufbandmen and 
niyaks (or chiefs of the village) the articles of cultiva- 
tion, villages pergunnah and harveft ; and f 11 bt rafting 
the deficiency, leave the amount of aflets. When the 

mealurement 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 3IO 

meafurement of a village is completed, let him draw 
out the proportion of aifeflment of each huibandman, 
and fpecify the revenue to be paid by that place, to 
ferve as a rule for the aumil's collections. The account 
of meafurement, which in the Hindovee language is 
called khejfereh, fhali be fent to the prefence. At the 
time of drawing out the towjee (or account of demands) 
if former ftatements thereof are not procurable, let him 
obtain information, by taking from the putwary an 
account of the land cultivated by each huibandman. 
The towjee, together with the accounts of receipts and 
difburfements, (hall be font to the prefence regularly. 
The name of the collector fhall be written in the 
journal at the bottom of the account of each place. 
When an huibandman brings his revenue, let him have 
a receipt for it, figned by the treafurer. He lhall 
receive from the putwary and mokeddem copies of 
their towjee accounts, as a guidance for making the 
collections, together with copies of the lirkhut, or re- 
ceipts, which are given to the huibandmen. Thefe he 
fhall carefully compare together, and if he difcovers any 
fraud or collufion, inflict a fine upon the offenders. 
He lhall daily report to the aumil the receipts and 
balances of every village, and ftimulate him to the per- 
formance of his duty. Whenever a huibandman comes 
to fettle his account, let it be done immediately. At 
the end of every harveft, he (hall prepare accounts of 
receipts and balances, and compare them with the 
putwaree's books. He (hall keep a journal of receipts 
and difburfements under every name and form, and 
which lhall be every day authenticated by the feals and 
fignatures of the aumil and treafurer. At the end of 
the month he (hall inclofe the above account in a 
khereeteh (or filken bag) under the feal of the aumil, 
and fend it to the prefence ; whither he (hall alfo daily 
tranlinit, under the feals of the principal officers, the 
rates of exchange of mohurs and rupees, together with 

X 3 the 



3H AYEEN AKBERY. PART III. 

the market-prices of every article. At the end of every 
harveft, he fhall draw out a particular account of the 
treafurer's receipts and difburfements, and fend it to 
him for his fignature : and at the end of the year let 
there be lent to the prefence, under the feal of the 
aumil,the mujemmel (or abftract) and the jummabundy 
(or particular account of afleffment). If any place has 
been attacked and plundered, let a calculation be made 
of the lofs luftained in cattle and effects, which is to be 
entered in the journal, and the circumftances repre- 
fented to the prefence. When the feafon for making 
the collections is concluded, he fhall draw out an ac- 
count of what remains due from the country, which he 
fhall deliver to the aumil, and fend a copy to the pre- 
fence. In cafe of difmiflion from office, he fhall de- 
liver over to the new aumil an account of the balances 
of revenue and tekavy, and, after having fatisfied him 
regarding thofe particulars, take an abftract thereof, and 
repair to the prefence. 

THE TREASURER. 

The treafury (hall be fituated near the rendence of 
the principal officer of government. The treafurer fhall 
not demand from the hufbandman any particular kind 
of coin, but receive mohurs, rupees, and copper of 
every ipecies. No ferf fhall be taken upon the coins 
of the prefcnt reign that are of full weight; and if any 
of them are fhort in weight, the deficiency only is to 
be made up. The coins of former reigns frail be re- 
ceived as bullion. The money (hall be carefully kept, 
with the knowledge of the fhekdar and karkun; it fhall 
be counted every evening, and a memorandum thereof 
figned by the aumil. His accounts are to conefpond 
with thofe of the karkun, who is to countersign them. 
'He is to have one of the keys of the treafury ; and 
whenever it is to be opened, he (hall apprize the aumil 

and 



PART III. AYEEN AKBERY. 312 

and karkun thereof. He mall not receive any money 
without the knowledge of the aumil and karkun ; and 
he (hall give the hufbandman receipts for his payments. 
To the book, which in the Hindovee language is called 
Bihee, the putvvary mall affix his fignature, in order that 
there may not be any difagreement in their accounts. 
No difburfements mail be made without the approba- 
tion of the dewan, excepting in cafes of abloluie necef- 
fity which will not admit of delay, when he may act, 
from the orders of the thekdar and karkun, but mult 
afterwards reprefent the cafe to his fuperiors. 



END OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



X 4 TABLES 



TABLES 



OF 



Nineteen Years Rates of Revenue, 

COLLECTED FROM 

A BEEGAH OF POOLEJ LAND, 

CALCULATED IN DAMS. 



qi6 



AVEEN AKBERY. 



PART III. 



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PART III, 



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Vol. II. 



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37* 



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AN 



INDEX, 



DEFERRING TO THE PART WHERE THE FOLLOW- 
ING ARABIC, PERSIAN, AND HINDOVEE 
WORDS ARE EXPLAINED. 



ABYR Maych, - 


//. 8 1 


Aka, which is frequent- 




Abjcd, 


192 


ly, but improperly, 




Abwabulmal, 


215 


written Aga, fignifies 




Abur, 


269 


Lord cr Mafter, ft. 


210 


Abyrakyfir, 


82 


Akafdeah,- 


52 


Adel Gootkah, 


27 


Akhir, 


238 


Adefs, a lentil, 


290 


AkhlakNaffery, aTrea- 




Adheleh, 


3° 


tife of Ethics, 


102 


Adhick Mafs, 


265 


Akhfhechy, 


'3 8 


Aftabgeer, 


53 


Alefy, 


148 


Aftaby, 


26 


Alum, 


53 


Ahdy, 


204 


Alyfheery, 


74 


Ahoo Khaneh, 


»7S 


Allah Akber, 


166 


Agungeer, 


5' 


Alony, 


*9 


Ajayby, 


54 


Amaree, an umbrella 




Ajarek, 


244 


over the Howdeh, or 




Ajcedeh Char Kalen 


m 93 


feat placed on the 




Ajwain, an inferior 


dnd 


back of an elephant, 


128 


of anifeed, 


286 


Amavus, * 


264 


Akachundely, 


205 


Am-ul Izvtfi, 


273 



Vol. I. 



Bb 3 



Am-ul 



INDEX. 



Am-ul Emr, - Ji< 


273 


Badinjan,the egg-plant,^. 64 


Andow, 


123 


Balspoafh, 


- 


147 


Aneen, 


'73 


Baluchee, a kind of cot- 


Ankus, 


126 


ton carpet, 


- 


59 


Arab, 


188 


Barwary, 


- 


8 


.Arabah, 


l SS 


Bar, 


- 


161 


Arabchy Carter, 


#. 


Barah Bany, 


- 


7 


Argejeh, 


97 


Bargah Aum, 




4 


Arzen, a kind of millet, 


285 


Barferah, 


- 


237 


Artek, • 


J 34 


Bargeer, 


- 


140 


Arwaneh, 


144 


Barghu, 


- 


112 


Afhet, 


6 


Banayit, 


- 


208 


Afhky, 


252 


Barjat, 


- 


82 


Afhtomeen, 


264 


Baz, hawk, 


- 


245 


Afhweput, 


255 


Bekhur, 


- 


81 


Affurput, 


256 


Beegab, 


- 


284 


Afterban, Muleteer, 


158 


Beekha, 


- 


265 


Atbeghy, 


137 


Beetch, 


- 


268 


Atemeh, 


25 


Beefhifhteh Sedhant, 


261 


Atkembeh, 


58 


Begum, princefs, is 


a 


Atkul, 


173 


title affumed by 


all 


Aumilj collector of the re- 


the Mojrul 



women 


of 


venues, 


3°4 


rank, 


- 


47 


Aumilguzzar 


ib. 


Behderj 


m 


i»5 


Aumeen, 


9 


Behlooly, 


- 


3° 


Aumeen Caravanfera, 


W 


Behul, 


- 


*S5 


Aurung, 


S3 


Beitar, 


- 


J 38 


AyarDanifh, the touch- 




Bekhur, 


- 


Si 


ftone of vvifdom, 


104 


Berty, an inferior kind 






of millet 






Banneefs 


7 


Belend, 


- 


123 


Ba, 


279 


Bencery, 


- 


126 


Baj, duty, impofl, 


301 


Benderkeeah, 


- 


118 


Babafheikhy, 


74 


Bepul, 


- 


266 
Be rat, 



B'rat, royal mandate, ft 


INI 

216 


J HA. 

BufTunt, - ft. 265 


Berduft, 


266 




Berifput Sedhant, 


261 


C lender, a wandering 


Berkhakall, 


266 


Mahomedan monk, 302 


Berenj, 


41 


Can ngoOj - 287 


Bcryan drooft Gofpcnd, 


67 


Cazy, - 300 


Beyry, 


123 


Cabooly, - 65 


Beyih Rej, 


116 


Cabufnameh, a meta- 


Bhoos, 


17 


physical work 


Bhuyn Chempah, 


88 


Chowdry, petty zemindar 


Bhuy, 


121 


ChucknaJnch. Chuck is 


Bhawely, 


3°5 


the bank of earth that 


Biniet, 


2 5 


fepavates the fields 


Birchen, 


106 


from each other, and 


Biftopunjee, 


149 


the Chucknameh is 


Bifvvah, 


13 


the rcgifter of thofe 


Biycer, 


H4 


boundaries, - 308 


Boghdy, 


ib. 


Chargefhee, - 252 


Boghra, 


66 


Chargofheh, - 28 


Bodcneh, 


248 


Chabuckfewar, - 138 


Bookrowty, 


18 


Cheetel, - 10 


Boftan, a moral work 




Chern, - 6 


by Sady 




Chempeh, - 85 


Bowkareh, 


243 


Chelteh, - ib. 


Butidook*, 


112 


Chempelah, - 89 


Buhngar, 


4 1 


Cherkhy, - 123 


Bramha Sedhant, 


261 


Cheelah, - 208 


Euttiey, 


3°5 


Chickhee, - 64 


Bundaree, 


2 S3 


Chowbeen Rowty, - 56 


Bunder, 


ib. 


Chafhnegeer, - 15 


Bundookcheecan, 


206 


Chacheea, - 18 


Bungolee,- 


208 


Chal, - 249 


Bunjer, 


285 


Choowah, - 208 


Bunput, 


256 


Chowdowl, a kind of 


Burgnei, 


74 


palkee, - 2C9 
B b 4 Chowrafly, 



INDEX. 



Ghowrafly, - Jt. 125 
Chowry, a fan for driv- 
ing away flics, com- 
monly made of the 
tail of the mountain- 
cow, - 135 
Ghoorkedeh, - 236 
Chowdufs, - 264 
Chowper, - 253 
Chowgan, - 249 
Chowth, - 264 
Chuttermundel, - 241 
Chundelmundel, - 255 
Chunderkerant, - 51 
Chundermafs, - 264 
Chutter, - 63 
Chuttertowk, - ib. 
Chuckmun, - 94 
Chuwa, - 83 
Chuth, - 264 
Co we! putter, - 41 
Cootwal, - 300 



Dehee, 

Dehhezary, 

Dehl, 

Dehn, 

Demanik, 

Defa, 



Dagh, 


140 


Dam, 


3 


Dang, 


35 


Darpgha, 


3 


Daroghanah, 


288 


Dctfah, 


6 


^cangole, 


266 


Deddawan, 


243 



Dedahwar, infpe&or, 13S 
Dehbafhy, — 191 

Deheneh, - 123 



A 7 
191 

54 

28 

in 

30 



Devvan Anveri. A De- 
wan is a collection of 
poems, wherein every 
line of each ends with 
a particular letter of 
the alphabet, - 102 

Dewan Khaneh Aum, 
the public hall of the 
palace, - 49 

Dewan Vizaret,a coun- 
cil of ft ate, affembled 
for the transaction of 
affairs relative to the 
revenues, - 172 

Dewan Nazir, - 210 
Dewan Saadet, - 223 
Dewtah, - 256 

Defshereh, - 307 

Dewjdberyan, - 65 

Dhoopkall, - 266 

Dhenwantor, - 89 

Dinar, - 34 

Dinar Khoflru Allaiy, J 
Dirhem, - 34 

Doodcheragh, finoke of 

the lamp, * 74 

Dooj, - 264, 

Dooreah, - 241 

D oolee^ 





INDEX. 






Doolee, a kind of cover- 




Ferafh, 


A 50 


ed palkee, moftly ufed 




Feroohat, 




281 


for carrying women,/;. 209 


Feteel, 




35 


Dowlet Khanch Khafs, 




Fetyleh, 




81 


tkc private apartments 




Feel, 




117 


of the palace, 


49 


Feel Khanch, 




130 


Dowr, 


124 


Firjy, 




93 


Dowzerah, 


61 


Firgool, 




ib. 


Dumery, 


12 


Firman, grant, mandate 




DuadofTy, 


264 


Firman Subtee, 




215 


Duafhanah Munzil, the 




Firman Byazee, 




219 


two ftory houfe, 


57 


Fotedary, 




288 


Dubah, 


179 


Foujdar, 




122 


Dulthy, 


124 


Fulch, 




251 


Dumpokht, 


68 


Fuls, 




35 


Dumbeleh, 


'5 1 








Dumdar, 


H5 


Gall, a fmall grain 


re- 




Dumdeft, 


ib. 


fembling muftard 






Dumrce, 


3i 


Galeem, woollen cai 


pet, 


68 


Dupahreya, 


88 


Gawfhomary, 




288 


Dupeeazeh, 


e>7 


Gaynec, 




153 


Durb, 


29 


Gedd, 




126 


Durfun, 


261 


Gedh Beyry, 




123 


Dufmeen, 


264 


Gedyleh, 




124 


Dutaiy, double, 


92 


Geerd, 




28 


Dutchenayin, 


266 


Gejjhemp, • 
Gcreykhum, 




125 

265 


Ekhateh, 


208 


Gheful, 




82 


Elcheh, 


74 


Ghee, 




222 


Etaleeky, 


215 


Ghobar, 




ICO 


Eyt, 


268 


Ghowghiey, a fmaU bird 








of a dove colour. \ 


ry 




Fenek, 


267 


common in V if 


lof- 




Ferak-akfam Peefhah, 


288 


tan, — 




2j8. 



Ghoord, 



INDEX. 



Ghoord, - /• 

Ghunta, 
Ghurry, 
Goher Bchul, 
Gomafhtah, agent, 
Gowlah, 
Gowt, 
Goomtee, 
Gorhel, 
Goolalbar, 
Guikameh, 
Gulahban, 
Gujput, 
Gurg Sedhant, 
Gurhput, 
Guder, 

Guliftan, a celebrated 
moral work by Sady, 
Gung, 



Gujnal, 
Guj, 

Gujmanik, - - 

Gunny, a very coarfe 

. kind of hempen fluff 

tried for lacks, 
Guz, 

Hawtee, 
Hada, 

Haram, or more pro- 
perly Herem, facred, 
Hebbeh, 
Hereefah, 
Henna, 



144 

243 

55 

I5S 

287 

259 

1 3 1 

232 

87 

47 
80 

151 

255 
261 

255 
93 

IC2 
IO7 
) IO 

"7 
115 



I48 
28l 

117 
138 

45 

35 
66 



Hijerah, - p. 275 

H^dykeh, a moral work, 102 
Hoon, commonly called 
Pagoda 



Horeebongs, 

Hovufnakan, 

Hooly, 

Huftjoafh, 

Hulwa, 

Huleem, 

Hufty, 

Hullkah, 



103 

*73 

3°7 
41 

f>5 
66 

117 

122 



Jamma, garment, veft, 95 

Jaludar, foot-melTenger, 139 

Jajum, a kind of cotton 
carpet, 

Jafeiy, 

Jait, 

Jageer Sir,an alignment 
of land for the fupport 
of an eftablifhment, 

Jageer Tun, an aflign- 
ment, for perfonal fup- 
port, 

Ibrahemee, 

jerokhah, 

Jehat, 

Jewar, a kind of pea 

Jcreeb, 



59 
87 
89 



215 



279 

57 
281 



Jezeeyeh, 
Jilaly, 
Jewhy, 
Jemdher, 



284 

281 

10 

86 

106 

Jegawet, 







I-NDEX. 




Jegawet, 


/'• 


126 


Karkun, an officer em- 




Jemazeh, 




I44 


ployed under the'au- 




Jendeh, 




54 


mil, - p. 


287 


Input, 




256 


Kutchereh, or Kutcheree 


} 


Jillejclalehoo, 




167 


a fpecies of badinjan 




jilalihahy, 


. 


55 


Kelct or Koo!tcc, is a 




n, - jt 


275 


fpecies of vetch 




Ilahee, 




26 


Kcreylch, bitter cucum- 




Ilan, 




268 


ber 




Joongvun, 




267 


Kebeer, 


279 


Jowg, 




263 


Kefeez, 


ft, 


Irakee, 




189 


Kelideh, 


236 


Jumma, 




2 93 


Kemankeroheh, 


107 


Jummahundy, 




3 11 


Kerheh, 


n3 


jumkote, 




261 


Kerak, 


'34 


Jvil, houfing or cover- 




Kerna, 


54 


ing* 




162 


Kerah Aheny, 


136 


Jugul, 




25 


Keranee, 


232 


Jungeleh, 




190 


Kellaweh, 


124 


Juz, particular part, 




225 


Kenar, 
Kenneh, 


ft 


Kalkee Otar is that 


in- 




Kenauts, 


49 


carnation of the Dc 


•ity 




Kenvval, 


87 


which is to appear at 




Kenayr, 


ib. 


the end of the prefent 




Kehrel, 


«4 


jowg 






Kehrnee, 


253 


Kabeen, 




229 


Keerat (vul. carat) 


35 


Kaher, 




209 


Kereea, 


288 


Kalcilah Dumnah, 




io 3 


Kcfhek, 


66 


Kail, 




260 


Kelhnah, 


81 


Kared, 




106 


Krrarnafheh, 


218 


Kaly, 




130 


Kebab, 


67 


Kala, 




29 


Kcba, 


93 


Katafs, mountain cow, 


125 


Kelambek, 


84 








Keytr 


iunt, 



INDEX. 



Keyrtvunt, 


J*. 265 


Keytkey, 


86 


Key few, 


87 


KeyroyI, 


89 


Kewrah, 


86 


Kerundeh, 


89 


Keemah Shoorba, 


- 66 


Kepurbeyl, 


86 



Kemia Saadet, a meta- 

phyfical work, - 102 

Kelbeh, - 1 16 

ketar, - 150 

Khulkeh, - 63 

Khakfhu, - 21 

Khafeh, - 106 

Khanehzad, - 141 

Khavun, - 267 

Khak Khelafs, - 1 1 

Khakfhu, - 21 

Khalfch, - 188 

Kheemah Palovv, - 65 

Kheraj, - 278 

Kherajee, - 280 

, Khergah, a kind of tent, 58 

Khenjen, - 61 

Khefs Buy eh, * - 179 

Khelafly, - 232 

Kherwah, - ib* 

Khitchcry, - 64 

Khidmutteedh, - 207 

Khurch Behlah, - 4 

Khutkeh, - 63 

Khufhroz, - 228 

Kheryteh,_ - 2S8 



Khumfch Sheikh, five 
poems by Ferveded- 
deen Atar, - p. 102 
Khereeteh, - 301 

Khefiereh, - 310 

Kheyt Buttiey, 305 

Khos, - 267 

Kifhenputch, - 265 

Kitmeer, - 35 

Kizeh, a fnaffle bit, 135 

Kodan, - 279 

Kodery, a fpecies of 

fhamakh 
Kookerah, - 16 

Koorfkoob, - 15 

Koozeh, - 86 

Kowkebah, - 53 

Kowrekh, - ib, 

KowrKhaneh, - 105 
Kovvrah, - 83 

Kowkeh, - 179 

Kowkhj - 252 

Kowtel, fupernumerary, 106 
Kowfh, - 232 

Ku, - 268 

Kutchaloo, a kind of a 

fweet potatoe 
Kuknar, poppy heads 
Kunkoot, - 305 

Kumber, - 256 

Kuddem, - 87 

Kufy, - 100 

Kummeky, - 188 

Kubz, - 205 

Kukb, 





INDEX. 




Kuleb, 


Ji. 263 


Malty, 


p. 83 


Kufhck, 


212 


Mayan, 


96 


K-uliat, the works, 


I02 


May eh, 


15a 


Kuleeah,a ftew, vulgarly 


Mayeh Ghoorc 


, - ib. 


called Curry, 


68 


Mehal, 


301 


KulJ, all, univerfal, 


225 


Mendow, an 


inferior 


Kunglay, 


89 


fpecies of mi 


llet 


KundcJan, 


137 


Meer Adul, 


300 


Kupwah, 


106 


Mecr Mehal, 


301 


Kyel, 


J 9 


Mehawct, 


102 






Mehafeh, 


146 


Laaljilaly, 


26 


Mehraby, 


27 


Lary, 


15 


Meheneh, 


250 


Lahy, 


89 


Meharee, 


240 


Lakrayet, 


208 


Mechdember, 


125 


Laudun, 


82 


MeerBekawel, 


61 


Leelawoteej 


103 


Mefemmen, 


67 


Lehdereh refembles gall 


Meclk, 


223 


Look, 


179 


Meer Behry, 


288 


Lound, 


265 


Meer Toozek, 


a military 


Lowey, 


268 


officer, whofe 


particu- 


Loweh Lunger, 


■ 123 


lar duty is 1 


jn known. 


Lowten, 


252 


to the tranflator 


Lubeyeh, a kind of bean 


Meer Aruz, a 


minifter 


Lucker, 


248 


of the milit 


ary de- 






partment, 


212 


Maakely, 


100 


Mewrah, 


IO7 


Mahroz, 


273 


Mirh, 


"5 


Mai, 


28: 


Miflel, 


142 


Mavy, 


207 


Mifkaly, 


15 


Mahmoodee, 


'5 


M'fkal, 


35 


Mahameerkurgut, 


55 


Mirdaheh and Mirdeh, 


Maullirn, 


232 


the chief of ten, 35 



Monjholeh, 





INDEX. 




Monjholeh, - Jt. 


117 


Myd, . - 


/;. 83 


Mojennefs,. 


189 






Mokaffi, 


2l8 


Nngehfir, 


88 


MoktQ.obnt Sherf Mu- 




Nakhod l Kefheb, 


- 2 33 


neery, letters on mo- 




\akhoda, 


ib. 


ral and religious Cub- 




Nalbund, farrier, 


- !39 


jeas, 


102 


%rcheel, . * - 


»5 


Mohur, 


*7 


Naru'-l Sedhant, 


261 


Mohekek, 


100 


Nary, 


266 


Mohohbarat, 


10 ■>. 


Nafhpntty, 


74 


Moicenv, 


28 


Neeareeah, 


16 


Mozuffery,. 


*5 


Neeheweevvalah, 


21 


Motenjeneh GofpuncI, 


67 


Nefeer, 


54 


Mookheen, 


244 


Nekafs, 


288 


Moonj, 


179 


Nekeer, 


35 


Moajem ul Boldan, 


103 


Nekar Khaneh, 


-49 


"Moungra, 


87 


Nekeeb, 


102 


Mukel, 


iiB 


Nekareh, 


54 


Mun, 


28 


Nemlahzurd, a fp< 


;cies 


Mund, 


"5 


of rice, 


61 


Mundor, 


263 


Ner, 


144 


Munfubdar, 


122 


Nefhwaree, 


*S3 


Mulghobah, 


68 


Nevvary, 


85 


Mullageer, 


84 


.Newaput, 


256 


Mul, 


208 


Nichutter Mafs, 


265 


Murg, 


"5 


Nisfy Seleemy, 


28 


Mua, 


117 


Neyah, 


106 


Mufa-adet, 


220 


Nbwroz, 


227 


Musjid, place of wo* 


- 


Nowineen, 


264 


(hip; mofque is 


a 


Nowrozy, 


55 


corruption of thi 


s 


Nuldomoyontee, 


104 


word 




Numgeerah, 


- . 48 


Mufhreff, 


10 


N"urnal, 


no 
Nurput, 



INDEX. 



Nurput, - p- 

Nufleh, 

Nuftaleek, 
Nutab, 



255 
100 

101 

66 



Okchch, - 279 

Omrah is the plural of 
emeer, which fignifies 
prince, and is a title 
given to all the no- 
bility of the firft rank 
in the Mogul empire 
and Tartary, 

Oopurghattee, 

Oootergale, 

Ordee, 

O'thorbo, 

Ouplah, 

Oupcheky, 

Oupcheean, 

Ourdabcgeean, 

Ovvng, 

Owpteneh, 

Ouzek, 

Padel, 
Pahet, 
Paker, 
Palkee, vulgarly called 

Palanquin, 
Pandovv, 
Paralu Sedhant, 
Pars, 



Peetel, 

Pcfhkufh, 

Peel, 

Pchroyit, - 

Pehluvvan, 

Peifinvaz, 

Pcifhcuih,aprefentfrom 

an inferior to a fu- 

pcr.or, 
Peon, a foot-foldier 
Peyarygup'y, 
Pero'iy, 



3 

117 

208 
lb. 
9a 



47 


Pdhwareh, 


240 


Peteng, 


266 


P'har, 


238 


Picheweh, 


103 


Pinjer, 


11 


Pinjahee, 


48 


Pitwanieh, 


ib. 


Poolcj, 


ib. 


Pooluft Sedhant, 


*55 


Poonhcr, 


80 


Pooran Maffee, 


56 


Povv Golht, 




Powlah, 


86 


Povvt, 


64 


Phulfery, 


125 


Purkut, 


I 


Pug, 


209 


Pul, 


28 


Punjfuddy, 


261 


Punj, 


268 


Puniwar, 



288 

107 
284 

H5 
ib. 

267 

fas 

»9 
150 

284 
ib. 

261 
16 

264 

172 

3° 
116 

86 

246 

289 

264 

150* 

28 

20 

Punchemee, 





INDEX. 




Punchemee, 


p. 264 


Roybeyl, - J:. 85 


Punjeree, 


2 33 


Ruhafza, 


80 


Purran, 


266 


Ruhteh, 


253 


Purfowafs, 


ib. 


Rungeen, 


112 


Purwa, 


264 


Rupeeah, vulgarly called 




Puuereh, 


261 


Rupee, 


29 


Puttel, 


178 


Ruty, 


8 


Putteiband, 


182 






Putgetcheh, 


i-5 


Saa, 


279 


Putwary, 


287 


Sad eh", 


112 


Pyadch Dakheley, 


- 209 


Sad, 


81 


Pykar, broker, 


21 


Sagendehkukla, 


85 


Pyke, mefTenger, 


- "39 


Saketnameh, 


205 


Pyfeh, 


3° 


Sandal, 


83 






Sandely, 


107 


Rajpoots, tribes of war- 


Saraperdah, a tent with 




like Hindoos, 


47 


curtains, 


58 


Reby, 


28 


Sarban, 


"5° 


Reghnee, 


240 


Satrinj, a kind offtriped 




Rehefs, 


24 


cotton carpet 




Rej Turn, 


""5 


Sawon Mafs, 


265 


Remayon, 


102 


Sawg, 


64 


Rempeel, 


126 


Sayiban, 


53 


Reffey, 


16 


Sedhant, 


261 


Retenmungen, 


- 87 


Serafy, 


288 


Reybary, 


150 


Seetkall, 


266 


Rittoo, 


265 


Seetihy, 


ii 


Roohtooteeah, 


39 


Sengarhar, 


85 


Rokaa, 


101 


Serrykhundy, 


8S 


Roomak, 


261 


Sehfeh, 


4 


Rotonmala, 


88 


Serifs, 


89 


Rowee, 


4i 


Seifed Alcheh, 


95 


Rowl, 


249 


Seraf, 


7 






Setelm 


iffy, 






INDEX. 



Setelrtiifiy, - Ji. 136 
Sendely, - 256 
Sereifh Kahy, - 179 
Serais, inns for the ac- 
commodation of tra- 
vellers, - 176 
Seerkee, - 179 
Sclony, - 1 1 
Seepah, - 220 
Sehenfah, - 25 
Seleemy, - 28 
Sentowk, - 79 
Senj, - 54 
Sembufeh, - 66 
Seemfucktch, - 41 
Seyurghal, - 223 
Sewty, - 85 
Shahcen, - 244 
Shahy, - 14 
Shahajeedeh, - 93 
Shangvun, - 267 
Shecibering, - 64 
Sheergeer, - 117 
Shifhra, - 265 
Shunkar, a fpecies of 

kawk 

Showlah, - 65 

Shokulputch, - 265 

ShooKvar, - 94 

ShuteTkhanch, - 144 
Shuil is a piece of ivory 
worn upon the thumb 
to prevent the bow- 

VOL. I. 



ftring from hurting 
it. Shuft alfo lignifies 
aim, direction, - //. 166 

Shumfheerboaz, - 207 
Sijdah, proftration, with 
the forehead touching 

the ground - 163 

Sirheng, - 232 

Serna, - 54 

Sirkhut, memorandum, 216 

Sirdar, - 208 

Sickchy, - 13 

Sing, - 54 

Sirderukhty, - 288 

Sirrapa, - 94 

Sitchkan, - 268 

Soobalhy, - 279 

Sooky, - 30 

Sooderfun, - 88 

Soorpun, - ib. 

Soon, - lb. 

Soofee, fophift, - 161 

Soorejkcrant, - 5r 

Soorej Sedhant, - 161 

Soormafs, - 264 

Soam Sedhant, - 261 

Sozer.y, quilting, - 93 

Sudder, - 223 

Soddy, - 208 

Suddapoor, - 261 

SudJney Putwary, 287 
Sukhafen, a kind of pal- 

kee, ~ 209 



Cc 



Sufyansh; 





INDEX. 




Sufyaneh, 


/. 68 


Teej, • - 


p. 264 


Sukangecr, 


232 


Tepuckchy, 


4 


Suls, 


100 


Tekhaku, <i 


268 


Sumny, 


28 


Tementowk, 


54 


Sungram, 


li 3 


Teradufly, 


264 


Sunnud, 


214 


Te-lTuj, 


35 


Surd, 


265 


Teyeh, 


125 


Surput, 


256 


Teerkufhbund, 


192 


Sut Jowg, 


264 


TewKhkan, 


268 


Sutmeen, 


ib. 


Tilwah, 


208 


Subbak, 


13 


Tilwanfeh, 


284 


Sukdofs, 


61 


Tith, 


264 


Sugendekulkla, 


85 


Towjee, 


215 


Suky 


6 


Towee Beghy, 


229 


Syce, groom, 


J 39 


Toos AflTel, 


94 


Sycrjehat, 


281 


Towkya, 


100 






Tubberzaghnowl, 


106 


Tabantrafb, 


181 


Tunkha, alignment, 


215 


Taghnee, 


243 


Tundeil, 


233 


Tahry, 


176 


Tunkooz, 


268 


Tajok, 


103 


Tourky, 


189 


Takeh, 


147 


Tufbeh Gulal, 


86 


Takowcheych, 


92 


Tuilecm, 


54 


Taleckoon, 


4i 


Typut, 


254 


Taleek, 


IOI 






Taleekcl*, 


216 


Vakiat Babery, 


103 


Taleekehnavees, 


214 






Tanghen, - 


l 3 l 


Uniwanfeh, 


284 


Taffeeldary, 


288 


Ufhdaht, 


4* 


Tattoo, 


190 






Tazee, 


ib. 


Wakyahnavces, 


213 


Teber Tchmak, an iron 


"W'eighman, 


10 


mallet, 


*37 

\ 


Wezecfeh, 


223 
Yam, 



INDEX. 



Yabu, 

Youzbeghy, 

Yuz, 

Yckhny, 

Yulmeh, 

Yalpoft, 



p. 206 
192 
238 

67 
ib. 

!3S 



Zemeendar, landholder, 299 
Zemeendary, any thing 
belonging to the ze- 
meendar, 187 



Zemcendoze, a kind of 

tent, - p. 57 

Zeendar, the perfon who 
has charge of the 
horfe furniture, 139 

Zerdberinj a fpecies of 

rice, - 63 

Zerdozy, • 95 

Zen ah, - 12 

Zeirah, - 35 



Printed by G. Aujld, Greville-Street, London. 




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